Uric acid is one of the substances naturally produced by the body.It occurs as a result of the breakdown of purine molecules contained in many products, under the action of an enzyme called xanthine oxidase.
After use, purines are degraded to uric acid and processed. Some of them remain in the blood, and the remainder is eliminated by the kidneys.
Deviations in the level of uric acid in the blood can be due to relatively harmless factors, and even daily fluctuations (in the evenings its concentration increases).
Therefore, it is necessary to find out the cause, if there is an increased uric acid in the blood - what is this: the result of intense physical activity, the consequence of a diet or a sign of serious organic pathology. What pathologies cause a deviation in the level of uric acid? Let's talk about this in more detail.
How to prepare for the analysis
To pass a biochemical blood test, which determines the level of uric acid, the day beforeit is necessary to adhere to such rules:
- No juices, tea, coffee.
- Chewing gum is also not recommended.
- Do not consume alcohol one day before blood donation.
- Do not smoke an hour before biochemical analysis.
- It is advisable that 12 hours pass from the moment of taking food.
- Blood should be taken in the morning.
- To exclude psychoemotional stresses and stresses.
Decoding of the analysis and further appointments should be made only by the attending physician.
Norm of uric acid in the blood
Normal content differs depending on sex and age - younger in young people than in elderly, but in men more than in women:
- children under 12 years: 120-330;
- women under 60 years of age: 200-300;
- men under 60 years: 250-400;
- women from 60 years: 210-430;
- men from 60 years: 250-480;
- the norm in women from 90 years: 130-460;
- the norm in men from 90 years: 210-490.
The main functions of uric acid:
- Activates and enhances the action of norepinephrine and epinephrine- this stimulates the work of the brain and the nervous system as a whole;
- Is an antioxidant- protects the body from free radicals and prevents the cancerous degeneration of cells.
The level of uric acid, determined by the biochemical analysis of blood, indicates the state of health. The shifts in the content of this metabolic product in the blood, both upward and downward, depend on two processes: the formation of acid in the liver and the time of excretion by the kidneys, which can change due to various pathologies.
Causes of increased uric acid in the blood
Why do adults have uric acid in their blood, and what does it mean? Exceeding the upper limit is called hyperuricemia. According to medical statistics, it is more common in men than in women. Hyperuricemia is possible in the form of a non-constant jump in physiological conditions:
- excess protein food;
- physical loads;
- prolonged starvation;
- abuse of alcoholic beverages.
Other causes of increased uric acid above normal are observed with the following pathological conditions:
- Arterial hypertension. Even with stage 2 of hypertension, there is an increase in uric acid. Hyperuricemia leads to kidney damage, contributing to the progression of the underlying disease. Against the background of antihypertensive therapy, the level of uric acid can come to normal without specific therapy. If such dynamics are not observed, the observance of a special diet is recommended (see. below) and increased physical activity, with further therapy of hyperuricemia.
- Reduced excretion of uric acid by kidneys with renal failure, polycystic kidney disease, lead poisoning with the development of nephropathy, acidosis and toxicosis of pregnant women.
- One of the reasons for the increase in uric acid in the blood medicine calls wrong nutrition, namely, the consumption of unreasonable amounts of products accumulating purine substances. This - smoked meat (fish and meat), canned food (especially - sprats), liver beef and pork, kidneys, fried meat dishes, mushrooms and all sorts of goodies. A great love for these products leads to the fact that the purine bases necessary for the body are absorbed, and the final product, uric acid, is superfluous.
- Elevated cholesterol and lipoprotein levels. Quite often, the development of obvious clinical signs of gout and hypertension is preceded by a prolonged asymptomatic increase in various components of the lipodigram.
- Another reason for the elevated state of acid is gout. In this case, we can already say that an excess amount of uric acid causes the disease itself, that is, there is a causal relationship.
- Admission of medications: diuretics, drugs from tuberculosis, aspirin, chemotherapy of cancers.
- Diseases of endocrine organs, including: hypoparathyroidism, acromegaly, diabetes mellitus.
In the event that a woman or man has uric acid in the blood, you should give blood for analysis several times to see the indicators in the dynamics.
As a rule, the initial increase in the level of uric acid in the blood itself does not have any noticeable symptoms, and it turns out accidentally, according to the results of tests submitted during a preventive examination or as a result of treatment of another disease.
When the level of uric acid rises high enough,such symptoms may appear:
- acute pains in joints of extremities due to crystallization of salts in them;
- the appearance on the skin of suspicious stains, small ulcers;
- decrease in the volume of urine output;
- redness of the elbows and knees;
- sharp pressure jumps, disturbances of a warm rhythm.
Treatment of hyperuricemia is prescribed only if a disease with such a symptom is detected. Other causes are eliminated by adjusting nutrition and lifestyle. A special diet will be needed in any case.
One of the most common complications due to high levels of uric acid in the blood is gout. It is an inflammation of the joints, or arthritis, which causes considerable pain in the person who suffers from it, and can make it incapacitated.
Hyperuricemia increases the risk of developing gout, as uric acid, accumulating in the blood, causes the formation of microscopic crystals in the joint. These crystals can penetrate into the synovial joint and cause pain when friction occurs during movement in the joint.
How to treat elevated urea in the blood
In the case of increasing the level of urea in the blood, the complex treatment scheme consists of such activities:
- Drug administrationwith a diuretic effect and the means to reduce the production of uric acid (Allopurinol, Koltsikhin).
- Correction of dietwith the predominance of lean, vegetable dishes, the exclusion of alcoholic beverages.
- Increase in quantityconsumed liquid, including - juices, compotes.
The key to recovering from hyperuricemia is a special diet, in which products with a high concentration of purines should be absent.
In the treatment of hyperuricemia, folk remedies are also used. For this purpose, broths and tinctures from cowberry, birch leaves, nettle are taken inside. For foot baths, infusions of calendula, chamomile and sage are used.
What should be the diet?
Nutrition with increased uric acid should be balanced and dietary. The diet assumescategorical prohibition:
- on alcoholic beverages;
- rich broths;
- most fish and meat dishes;
- spicy seasonings and snacks.
In addition, it is strongly recommendedreduce the following foods in the diet:
- beans, mushrooms;
- chocolate, coffee, cocoa;
- tomatoes, spinach.
Highlyuseful for eating:
- green apples of different varieties;
- garlic and onions;
- lemons and other citrus fruits;
- white and black bread;
- greens of dill;
- eggs, but not more than 3 pcs. in Week;
- tea green or herbal;
- pumpkin and carrots;
- cucumbers and cabbage;
- cottage cheese, kefir, sour cream;
- peeled potatoes, cooked in any way;
- lean boiled meat and fish;
- boiled, and then baked in the oven, rabbit, chicken and turkey meat;
- various vegetable oils, especially olive oil.
To adhere to a diet with increased uric acid will have throughout life, as the disease can recur. A therapist or urologist can make up the menu and pick up the products, but before this the patient needs to pass a set of tests that will help to make a correct and effective diet for therapeutic purposes.
If the diet does not help reduce symptoms and reduce the level of uric acid, then medications are prescribed. Allopurinol, Sulfinpyrazone, Benzobromarone, Colchicine - a means to block the synthesis in the liver.
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