Neurosis in adolescents is a shallow, completely reversible psychogenic disease, the basis of which are disorders of the higher nervous activities that are manifested by affective disorders (mood changes, fears, anxiety, depression, etc.).
The prevalence of neuroses among adolescents is difficult to determine, since not all parents turn to specialists for help. Out of the number of adolescents being monitored in psychoneurological dispensaries, 15% suffer from neuroses. The number of children with neurotic disorders grows annually.
- 1The causes and characteristics of teenage neuroses
- 2Teenage crisis
- 3Types of teenage neuroses and their symptoms
- 4Treatment or rehabilitation of teenage neuroses
- 6Resume for parents
The causes and characteristics of teenage neuroses
The formation of neuroses in adolescents occurs in the presence of certain psychological and physiological factors (type of nervous system). In many children, neuroses arise even in early childhood in the form of behavioral disorders (whims, aggression, hyperactivity, stubbornness, fears, etc.).
For the emergence of neuroses in the modern era, there are all conditions. The number of single-parent families has increased, and teenagers are experiencing stress from parents' divorce, living with a stepfather or stepmother. The workload has increased significantly, which also aggravates psychoemotional burdens, the excess of which can not carry every teenager's body.
Neurosis of adolescence (12-16 years) is provoked and supported by a hormonal storm in the body: depression and mood changes are constant companions of this age.
Neuroses of teenagers are divided into general and systemic.
To the general carry:
- obsessive-compulsive disorder;
- anxiety neurosis;
- hysterical, etc. neuroses.
And the main systemic, or monosymptomatic, neuroses are neurotic stuttering, habitual actions, neurotic tics, etc.
Factors that trigger the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in children include:
- genetic: personality characteristics of the adolescent and character traits (hysteria, emotional lability);
- cerebral-organic: minimal brain dysfunction caused by the pathology of pregnancy and childbirth;
- psychosocial: tense relationships in the family, improper education, stress, incomplete family, alcoholism of parents, etc.
- an incorrect system of education: for ambitious reasons, parents often load children with excessive additional activities.
Mutual relations of parents with a teenager are of great importance. It is necessary to be attentive to the child, to love him, but not to "tie" to himself: he should have his own circle of friends, friends. There should always be time to listen to the child and, if necessary, support him.
Constant criticism and comparison with other children (not in favor of the child) will cause negativity and protest from the adolescent. Such a tactic of education is doomed to failure. Each child has his own temperament and personality characteristics, the task of parents is to help them adapt to life's requirements.
The psychological crisis in adolescence is the most acute. It is not for nothing called the "negative phase of puberty." He is characterized by a decline in academic performance, disharmony in the inner world of the individual, change of interests, criticism. The teenager is actively engaged in self-analysis, knowledge of his own experiences. Many people start to keep a diary.
The symptom of the adolescent crisis is also negativism: there is hostility, a tendency to violate discipline and quarrels, a desire for solitude. The harmony between rights and responsibilities is very painful. Especially clearly manifested negativism in young men.
They strive for permissiveness, calling it freedom. But the directive style in dealing with a teenager is unacceptable. It is necessary to patiently communicate, agree on the rules of behavior. A teenager must be understood, respected as a person, and not humiliated and "read morality."
More important for adolescents are relationships with peers than with adults. A teenager is detached from his family. Often adolescents form groups, companies with common interests, whose values differ from those of adults, oppose them. In this way they create a sense of independence.
Different values lead to inevitable disagreements with adults: about hairstyles, style of clothes, school successes, free pastime. And yet, the main values and aspects of social life, the relation to them, are inherited from the parents. And with peers solving momentary questions.
Their "adulthood" teenagers are trying to show romantic relationships with representatives of the opposite sex: sympathy, dating. In fantasy they try to create a love ideal, write poetry. It is necessary to show interest in the child's sympathies without humiliation and excessive criticism.
Authoritarian control, bans and manipulation of the child will lead to a paradoxical effect: either to low self-esteem, or to a socially unacceptable form of behavior. But also parents' non-interference, and the weakening of control are fraught with dangers, when a teenager is left to himself, making decisions and choosing companies.
Adolescence is characterized by emotional explosions, violent emotions; almost every one of them comes to thoughts of suicide. The prevailing are social phobias. Great importance is attached to evaluating one's appearance, its shortcomings. Anxiety sometimes leads to self-isolation, fear of closed and open spaces.
Fear of ridicule, increased sensitivity, sudden changes in mood - emotional disorders, more characteristic of girls.
Types of teenage neuroses and their symptoms
The nature of manifestations of neuroses in adolescents can be physiological and psychological.
- headaches and dizziness (on the basis of spasms of cerebral vessels);
- sleep disorders (insomnia, nightmares, intermittent sleep);
- changes in appetite (up to neurotic anorexia or, on the contrary, bulimia);
- muscle weakness, increased fatigue;
- convulsions and nervous tics;
- a neurotic cough;
- pain in the heart and in the stomach.
Psychological symptoms of neuroses:
- frequent mood changes, irritability;
- easy vulnerability, increased vulnerability, pronounced sensitivity;
- hysterical reactions;
- propensity to depression;
- various phobias (fears).
Depending on the clinical manifestations, a combination of symptoms, adolescents distinguish such types of neuroses:
- Hysterical neurosis, the manifestation of which are frequent hysterics with sobbing. There may be hysterical paralysis of the limbs, loss of voice, vomiting, fainting, pseudo-algic manifestations (complaints of pain in the absence of organic damage), and others.
- Asthenic neurosis, the symptoms of which are general weakness, fatigue, sleep disturbances, manifestations of AVI in adolescents.
- Depressive neurosis with a desire for solitude, a depressed mood. Often its development is associated with a stressful situation: the divorce of parents, the death of a loved one, orphanhood and the role of "Cinderella". Such a neurosis can also arise if the adolescent has a physical defect. Poor facial expressions, sad expression, quiet speech, tearfulness, poor appetite and sleep, low self-esteem, low school performance - a portrait of a teenager with a depressive neurosis.
- The neurosis of obsessive states, manifested by tics, spasm of muscles, convulsions. In some adolescents, neurosis may manifest as an obsessive desire to pronounce indecent words. A neurotic obsession can be dangerous (for example, a child may want to jump from a balcony).
- Phobic neurosis, which is characterized by various fears (loneliness, death, darkness and others). Fear can occur as an attack, especially at night, accompanied by a sense of anxiety, obsessive thoughts and ideas. It can also be a fear of an oral response in a lesson or a fear of speaking in front of an audience.
- Hypochondriacal neurosis is manifested by excessive fears and unreasonable fears of infection or the occurrence of all sorts of diseases.
Treatment or rehabilitation of teenage neuroses
Treatment of neuroses in adolescents engaged in:
- children's neurologist: conducts a survey of a teenager to clarify the diagnosis, if necessary appoint calming or other medications;
- child psychologist: helps a teenager cope with complexes, and parents find the right tactics and approach to a teenager, create the necessary psychological benevolent family climate;
- psychotherapist: with obsessive-compulsive disorder, she holds hypnotherapy sessions.
To treatment can be involved also psychiatrists, reflexotherapists, endocrinologists. Correctly and individually selected, timely comprehensive treatment provides an opportunity to completely rid the teenager of neurosis.
The main role in providing psychological health and preventing the development of neurosis in adolescents belongs to parents.
It is important to follow such rules:
- Accurate observance of the regimen of the day will help to normalize the functions of an unstable nervous system.
- It is necessary to monitor the load of the child and reduce the symptoms of overload symptoms.
- Exercise can help reduce psychological stress.
- In the case of psychological problems in the family should resort to the help of a psychologist.
- In stressful situations, it is necessary to provide the child with a consultation of a child psychologist.
- When a teenager develops psychological stress, it is necessary to use the means of relaxation available at home (aroma lamp with soothing essential oils on the advice of a neurologist, coniferous baths, respiratory gymnastics, reception of decoctions of soothing herbs, etc.).
Resume for parents
Teenage neuroses are easier to prevent than to get rid of them. Treatment of a neurosis to full recovery is possible with timely access for help to specialists and patient implementation of all recommendations.
Prevention of adolescent neuroses largely depends on proper upbringing, intra-family relationships. It is important to teach children to overcome life difficulties, engage in the mental conditioning of a child with an alarming and suspicious character, and be interested in his problems and interests.
State TV and Radio Company "Crimea", the program "The ABC of Health", the issue on "Neuroses in adolescents":
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