VSD, or vegetative-vascular dystonia, in adolescence is a symptom complex, which is very common among this age group of children. The attitude to the VSD is ambiguous even among doctors: many of them consider dystonia not a disease, but only a transient condition associated with hormonal perestroika in the body during the puberty period.
Manifestations of VSD are more often observed in 13-15 years and are observed now in almost 50% of adolescents. After a period of puberty, many of them have symptoms disappearing. The course of the VSD can be acute and chronic. At an acute course the pathology is shown in the form of attacks, more often as reaction to a stressful situation.
- 1The main causes of IRR
- 5Resume for parents
The main causes of IRR
Problems in the body of modern adolescents are not accidental, given their way of life: significant loads in receiving education, sedentary pastime (mainly at the computer), non-observance of the regime of the day, etc.
The main factors contributing to the development of the IRR are:
- Changes in the hormonal background in the puberty period.
- The intensive growth of the skeleton and organs, behind which the blood vessels "do not keep up," as a result of which the blood supply of vital organs and systems suffers; insufficient supply of oxygen. Hypoxia in these organs causes the emergence of many manifestations of the VSD.
- Postponed diseases, especially infections.
- Traumatic injuries.
- Bad habits: many teenagers start smoking at this age, drinking alcohol. The immature organism reacts to toxic influence by the development of the VSD.
- A common cause of VSD is the imbalance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, neuroses.
- Stressful situations of different levels: test control of knowledge, admission to university, relationships with parents, conflicts with peers, psychological complexes, etc.
- Congenital malformations.
- Hereditary predisposition: if the parents suffer from cardiovascular diseases, then the probability of development of IRR in the child is higher.
The negative influence of any of these factors (or several simultaneously) can lead to the emergence of IRR.
Until the end of the VSD has not been studied. It is believed that the primary is a violation of the nervous system, and cardiovascular changes are already secondary. Since the nervous system regulates the function of all organs, including body temperature, pulse and pressure, secretion of sweat glands, etc., then the manifestations of IRD in adolescents can be very diverse.
The most common symptoms are:
- changes in blood pressure;
- increased frequency and instability of the pulse;
- pain in the heart;
- emotional lability;
- shortness of breath, feeling of lack of air;
- increased sweating;
- cold extremities;
- recurring headaches;
- pallor or redness of the face;
- dizziness and darkening in the eyes;
- fainting is possible;
- sudden temperature rises;
- digestive disorders (diarrhea or constipation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain);
- changes in appetite (increase or decrease);
- feeling of weakness, increased fatigue;
- violation of urination (frequent urge).
In young men, painful manifestations are more frequent. For girls psycho-emotional reactions are more characteristic.
Psychic at this age is unstable, so any difficulties and problems become stress for the body. More often VSD susceptible excitable, emotional adolescents, in whom any occasion causes deep feelings.
With VSD often a bad mood is noted until depression, many phobias develop (fears). Characteristic suspiciousness, tearfulness, tantrums are not excluded. In addition to sweating, secretion of the sebaceous glands increases, swelling may appear, poor tolerance of heat and cold.
For the acute form of the VSD are characterized by seizures:
- Hypertensive crisis: high blood pressure, headache, pain in the heart, increased heart rate, numbness of limbs, trembling in the body, a sense of fear.
- Hypotonic crisis, manifested by reduced arterial pressure, loss of pulse, a sense of fear, a sense of heart sinking.
- Crisis of mixed type, which combines the manifestations of hypotonic and hypertensive crises.
For adolescents, lower BP is more characteristic.
Quite often the VSD of adolescence does not lead to serious consequences, only the well-being of children suffers. But in some cases all the same in the future develops persistent hypertension by the age of 30.
To confirm the diagnosis of VSD, sometimes a consultation of different specialists is needed: pediatrician, cardiologist, neurologist, endocrinologist, oculist, gastroenterologist.
In addition, additional studies can be used:
- Ultrasound of the thyroid gland;
- MRI angiography of cerebral vessels;
- blood test for hormones;
- ECHOEG and others.
Treatment VSD in the pubertal period depends on the individual symptoms, the severity of the flow. Usually the doctor begins treatment with non-drug methods.
- Compliance with the regime of the day. The teenager should sleep 8-9 hours. In the daytime it is necessary to organize alternation of work (study) and rest. Mental overwork has a negative effect on the state of the nervous system.
Computer games and watching TV programs also relate to psycho-emotional stress, and not to rest. Parents should monitor and limit the time spent by a teenager at the TV and computer.
- Well-influenced by the general condition of physical activity, exercise. They should be regular, but moderate, not causing fatigue. Suitable for swimming, cycling, ball games, running, table tennis, walking outdoors in the forest or park.
- Rational, balanced in carbohydrates, fat, protein nutrition. Preference is given to vegetable, and not animal fats. Sharp dishes, smoked foods, pickles should be reduced to a minimum. The use of carbonated drinks, coffee, strong tea should also be limited.
It is desirable to ensure the consumption of foods rich in trace elements. Potassium contains dried fruits, beets, potatoes, carrots, tomatoes, beans, raisins. Magnesium is rich in nuts, carrots, oatmeal and buckwheat porridge.
- Physiotherapeutic procedures have a positive effect:
- therapeutic baths (pearl, with sea salt, coniferous);
- cold and hot shower;
- massage of head, collar zone;
- Phytotherapy: broths of wild rose, motherwort, lemon balm. With lowered blood pressure, it is useful to apply ginseng, lemongrass, aralia.
- Very important psychological climate in the family, the nature of communication with parents. In some cases it may be advisable to consult a psychologist.
In the absence of the effect of non-pharmacological treatment and physiotherapy, a doctor selects a course of medications individually.
The following drugs are used:
- soothing agents: valerian, glycine, glutamic acid, etc .;
- vitamin and mineral complexes;
- To normalize the function of the nervous system, nootropics are assigned: Piracetam, Pantogam, and others.
- drugs for normalizing blood pressure;
- in severe cases, antidepressants are prescribed.
Attention! Only a doctor can choose drugs and determine the duration of drug treatment!
Resume for parents
Vegeto-vascular dystonia in adolescents should not be ignored. Such conditions do not always require medical treatment, but the doctor must be treated. Symptoms VSD nonspecific, so the appointment of a doctor should be examined by a teenager to make sure that there is no organic pathology of the organs.
Prevention of the VSD in the child must be dealt with at an early age: to instill a love for sport, to form a desire for a healthy lifestyle, aversion to bad habits. It is also important to create friendly relations in the family.
The doctor's recommendations for non-drug treatment of the VSD should be carried out in order to avoid the future formation of cardiovascular pathology, hypertension, neuroses, etc. diseases. Only with the implementation of medical recommendations can you expect a favorable prognosis, the disappearance without consequences of all manifestations of the VSD.
The doctor-pediatrist Chernega N. F. tells about vegetative-vascular dystonia in children:
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