Biochemical blood analysis is a method of laboratory diagnostics of the human body, which helps to evaluate the function of various internal organs. Such a study is desirable to be conducted once a year as a preventive check.
Biochemistry is obligatory for infectious, inflammatory and somatic diseases of internal organs. Also allows you to assess the level of hormones, indicators of the inflammatory process and other parameters relating to somatic diseases.
What is included in a detailed biochemical analysis of blood, some indicators point to a health problem, what do I need to biochemistry, how to properly prepare it, take on an empty stomach or not? The answers to all your questions are in this article.
- 1 Preparation for delivery: how to pass from
- 2 veins What shows that the characteristic of Biochemistry points
- 3 Normal levels in children, men and women
- 4 Possible indicators of rejection: what they indicate
- 5 results in the diagnosis of cardiovascular
system Preparation for delivery: how correctly to pass from a vein
There are rules of delivery of a researched material. This provides the reliability of the results obtained.
- Blood for biochemical analysis is passed on an empty stomach .The last meal can be 8, or better - 12 hours ago. Only drinking clean water is allowed.
- just a few days before delivery of the analysis is necessary to exclude from your diet fats, fried foods and alcohol .If, for some reason, there is no possibility to remove the above products, the laboratory diagnosis should be postponed.
- At least an hour before taking the material, should refrain from smoking .
- Diagnosis is carried out in the morning, no later than 10 am .
- Directly before taking the material, the should sit and relax .Physical and emotional stress can affect laboratory performance.
- Taking medications can affect the reliability of the results. The doctor should be notified of taking medication. In some cases, the study is postponed to a period when at least two weeks have elapsed after the use of the medication.
- Biochemistry is not appointed in the event that on the eve of the patient any fizprotsedury were held, rectal, or X-ray examination.
Procedure is performed by the nurse of the laboratory. She conducts blood collection for biochemistry from the ulnar vein, in cases where this is not possible, the fence is drawn from other accessible peripheral veins.
sampling algorithm( taking) on blood biochemical analysis of the following:
- above the injection site applied a tourniquet.
- Treatment of puncture site with antiseptic solution.
- After filling the vein with blood( the patient clenches and unclenches the fist), a needle is inserted into the vessel.
- After removing the strand and removing the needle, the patient should hold his hand for a while in a bent position.
It is compulsory for to monitor the hygiene regulations of by medical personnel. This work relates to disposable gloves, the use of disposable syringes and tubes, and in the application of antiseptic solutions or alcohol wipes.
What shows: characteristics of biochemistry points
Laboratory indicators, of which the biochemical analysis consists:
- glucose - allows you to assess the liver and endocrine system, a marker of diabetes mellitus;
- bilirubin :
- generic - formed during the breakdown of hemoglobin, characterizes the liver, gallbladder and blood system;
- direct - appears in the blood if the outflow of bile is disturbed;
- indirect - the difference in values between the previous two types;
- transferase :
- aspartate-AT is a hepatic enzyme that is diagnosed in diseases of the liver and heart;
- alanine-AT - a hepatic enzyme, which is produced with increased death of cells of the liver, heart, circulatory system;
- gamma-GT - hepatic and pancreatic enzyme;
- alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme from various tissues, especially important in bones and liver;
- lipids :
- cholesterol is a component of food, able to be synthesized by the body;
- low-density lipoproteins - are rich in cholesterol, have an atherogenic effect;
- triglycerides - neutral lipids;
- proteins :
- total - the amount of protein;
- albumin is the most important protein;
- electrolyte exchange :
- potassium - intracellular electrolyte;
- sodium is predominantly an extracellular electrolyte;
- chlorine - the main electrolyte, participates in the water-electrolyte balance, determines the acidity;
- creatinine - responsible for energy metabolism in muscles and some other tissues;
- urea is the final substance in the protein decay chain;
- uric acid is one of the final substances of protein breakdown;
- C-reactive protein - produced with damage to body tissues;
- ferritin - participates in the hematogenesis, a constituent of hemoglobin.
Normal levels in toddlers, males and females
With these tables, you can decipher the results of a detailed biochemical blood test in adults or children and find deviations from the norm, the data are given by age and sex.
Possible deviations of the indicators: what they indicate
- Glucose increases in diabetic patients. Values decrease with endocrine and hepatic pathologies.
- Bilirubin grows in severe liver diseases, anemia, cholelithiasis. Direct - with jaundice. Indirect - with malaria, severe hemorrhages, hemolytic anemia, which is accompanied by the breakdown of red blood cells.
- AST and ALT increase with pathologies of the heart and liver.
- The increase of gamma-GT indicates a hepatic pathology, or a violation in the pancreas. Indicators grow with the intake of alcohol.
- Alkaline phosphatase grows in diseases of the liver and gallbladder along with transferases. The amount can decrease with thyroid diseases, anemia, placental insufficiency in pregnancy.
- The increase in the level of cholesterol occurs with stress, fatty foods, pregnancy, the presence of bad habits, metabolic disorders.
Decreased indicators with significant burns, starvation, anemia, tuberculosis, severe disease liver and thyroid gland, infectious diseases.
- Increase LDL threatens with atherosclerosis, heart attack, stroke.
- The increase in the amount of triglycerides promotes the occurrence of cardiovascular pathologies.
- The total protein decreases in case of its enhanced excretion from the body. This can lead to kidney and liver diseases. Increases in infection.
- Albumin decreases for the same reasons as the total protein. Increases when dehydrated.
- Violation of electrolyte balance indicates possible pathologies and requires additional diagnostics.
- C-reactive protein increases with infectious diseases and neoplasms.
The results of the study in the diagnosis of the cardiovascular system
Biochemical analysis in the diagnosis of cardiovascular pathologies is used by to confirm the data of the physical and instrumental diagnosis of .It allows you to determine the severity of the disease, as well as the current state of the heart and blood vessels.
Lipid spectrum disorders is not a definition of any cardiovascular disease, but increases the risk of its occurrence. Therefore, if there is a change in the analyzes, you need to start taking medications and enter a diet that will correct these values.
Transferases are markers of such a serious pathology as infarction. Their number allows you to determine the stage and severity of the disease. This helps to choose the tactics of further therapy.
Also these indicators can be above the norm in case of severe cardiac insufficiency. A change in the quantitative composition of electrolytes, in particular potassium and sodium, can affect the heart rhythm.
Timely laboratory analysis allows the to clarify the diagnosis and determine the treatment regimen for .If necessary, often monitor the indicators, it should be borne in mind that the amount of blood taken does not exceed the permissible annual value.