Tuberculosislungsis caused by a tubercle bacillus and is characterized by the formation of tuberculous granules in the lung tissue - tubercles. The tuberculous process can affect other organs - bones, joints, kidneys, lymph nodes. The disease has recently been common in children and adults, so the prevention of tuberculosis is a priority.
We will consider the symptoms, signs and treatment of patients with tuberculosis in an adult and a child.
Causative agent of tuberculosis: Koch's stick
The causative agent of tuberculosis is the stick (bacillus) of Koch, discovered by the above-named author in 1882. Koch identified several types of rods:
- the bird.
Infection of a person in 95% of cases occurs with a stick of the first type. When the patient is infected, Koch's wand can be found in all organs and tissues of the patient, but more often it settles in the lungs and lymph nodes (which are barriers to any infection). In laboratory testing, the rod can be detected in all the patient's discharges: sputum, urine, feces, pleural exudate and pus of tubercle-affected joints.
Cattle sticks most often affect people working in agriculture, as well as those who constantly consume raw milk and insufficiently boiled meat of sick animals with tuberculosis.
The rod of tuberculosis is very stable in the external environment, especially it likes raw and dark rooms. But direct sunlight, heat and disinfectant solutions kill it for a few minutes.
Thus, at a temperature of 80 degrees, the rod dies within 5 minutes, a 5% chloramine solution kills it in 4 hours, a 10% solution of lysol in 12 hours.
The source of infection is a sick person - a bacill carrier. Infection occurs by airborne droplets (saliva, dust), as well as through personal items (underwear, blankets, handkerchiefs), upholstered furniture and dishes of the patient. A very important role is played by contact with the patient with tuberculosis or joint living with him. Infection of the gastrointestinal tract occurs, mainly through the milk of patients with tuberculosis of cows.
At patients at conversation, a cough, a sneezing splashes and droplets which get to lungs of the healthy person with inhaled air disperse.
When the sputum dries up and turns into dust, dust particles containing Koch sticks can get into the respiratory tract and lungs of a healthy person and cause infection.
When infected with mycobacteria tuberculosis develops an allergy with the development of a certain degree of immunity. Therefore, the entire population can be divided into three main groups: tuberculosis patients, infected and uninfected. Studies have shown that people who are not infected (as well as not vaccinated) are at greater risk of becoming infected with tuberculosis than they are already infected, but who are still healthy.
Primary and re-infectious tuberculosis
The development of allergy in tuberculosis infection is also the reason that the disease manifests itself in two epidemiologically different types:
- primary tuberculosis(mainly observed inchildren),
- reinfection, developing as a result of an exacerbation of a dormant infection in the body (almost exclusively inof adults).
Resistance to tuberculosis varies with age: it is lowered in early childhood and adolescence, increased in adulthood. But preventive measures and vaccinations can radically change these relationships.
Men'ssuffer from tuberculosis much more often thanwomen, especially at the age of 30-40 years. The difference in mortality in men and women is even more pronounced due to prevalence of more severe forms of tuberculosis in men.
What determines the incidence of tuberculosis
The incidence of tuberculosis is directly dependent on social factors, the level of medical science and health. The lower the standard of living of the population and the poorer health care, the higher the incidence of tuberculosis. The different epidemiological situation with regard to tuberculosis in different countries depends first of all on the economic structure and the level of material and sanitary culture.
The incidence of people who are in contact with TB patients depends not only on the intensity of bacilli in patients, but also on sanitary and hygienic conditions.
In economically developed countries of the West, the incidence of tuberculosis is constantly decreasing. Mortality from him began to decline at the end of the last century after the introduction of chemotherapy. The highest mortality was recorded in Portugal in 1964 (32 per 100,000 population). In a number of Latin American countries, mortality rates reach very high figures, for example, in Peru in 1962 it was 72 people per 100,000 population, in Chile 58.6.
In Russia, the number of tuberculosis patients and the death rate from tuberculosis has increased dramatically over the past decade, and in some areas the tuberculosis disease has become an epidemic. It came to the point that recently the question was raised that the problem of tuberculosis threatens the country's national security. This high rate of morbidity is associated with a significantworsening of financial situationmajority of population groups.
How do they become infected with tuberculosis
The anatomical basis of tuberculosis is a tubercle or granuloma, the size of which is rather small (up to 0.3 mm in diameter). The tubercle is encapsulated, which separates it from healthy tissues. Gradually, with the intensification of the process, the tubercle undergoes a curdled regeneration. If the body has managed to overcome the infection, then the scar remains in place of the tubercle, if the disease progresses, then the tubercle decomposes and further infection of the surrounding tissues occurs.
In the development of the tuberculosis processdistinguish two main phases:
- phase of primary lesion,
- Secondary infection phase.
Primary lesion in 95% of cases occurs in childhood by airborne droplets. It is a tuberculous focus located under the pleura -primary focus. An inflammation of the lung tissue develops around it. From the primary focus, tubercle bacilli penetrate the lymphatic system and cause local inflammation there (lymphadenitis, lymphangitis). Primary foci in the lung and foci in the lymphatic system together constituteprimary complex, which undergoes various changes.
Tuberculosis bacilli in the human body can last very long. Under adverse living conditions or with a significant weakening of the body's resistance, a second infection with tuberculosis (reinfection) develops. In some cases, it occurs as a result of the introduction of the rod into the lungs through the respiratory tract, in others it results from self-infection, ie, the source of tubercle bacillus stuck in the primary complex becomes the source. This source of infection is called endogenous ("endo" - inside), and the cause of the disease in such cases is the activation of old tuberculosis foci. In this case, the capsule of the old calcified foci loosens, fresh tubercles form around them, the lung tissue softens and undergoes caseous decay. When the products of decomposition get into the bronchi, the process proceeds bronchogenic. In other cases, the decay products can break into the lymphatic and blood vessels and cause the seeding of all organs and tissues -miliary tuberculosis.
The form of the disease and the degree of its severity depends, first of all, on the endurance of the organism and the degree of its protection (its immunity).
Suspicion of tuberculosis
The moments that are worth paying attention to before you suspect tuberculosis, you must consider:
- dry and wet pleurisy,
- previously suffered, frequent febrile conditions,
- increase in body temperature to 37-37.2 degrees (subfebrile temperature) for no apparent reason, and so on.
Tuberculosis is a disease that is gradually taken up. His earliest precursors can be tachycardia and dyspeptic phenomena, which seem to arise for no reason.
Symptoms, symptoms of tuberculosis
In the early stages of the disease, the symptomatology of the disease is usually extremely meager, and the diagnosis can be made only on the basis of an x-ray examination (fluorography). Patients usually complain of weakness, rapid fatigue, malaise, irritability, decreased appetite, emaciation. All these, seemingly unaddressed complaints, indicate that there is intoxication (poisoning) of the body. With further development of the process, complaints become more specific:
- night sweats,
- general weakness,
- weight loss.
May be dry or accompanied by sputum discharge. Its intensity and character are determined by the location of the source of infection in the lungs. Cough intensifies at night and in the morning and is often very painful for the patient. If there are caverns in the lungs, a large amount of sputum is separated. Cough with hoarseness of voice and pain when swallowing occurs with tuberculosis of the larynx.
When tuberculosis usually has a mucopurulent nature. It stands out throughout the day, but most of it falls on the night and morning hours. If a Koch's rods are found in the sputum, the diagnosis of tuberculosis is no longer in doubt.
Hemoplegia and hemorrhage
Very often hemoptysis is the first sign on which the patient pays attention. If the tuberculosis process affects a large vessel, then bleeding occurs. Cases of death as a result of bleeding are extremely rare, but the patient feels the fear of death, he is pale, excited. Bleeding can be a single or multiple, which again depends on the anatomical location of the tuberculosis focus. However, most often the blood is found in sputum in the form of veins or thin threads.
The rise in temperature is one of the most constant companions of tuberculosis, although at the first stages of the disease it may be absent. The fever appears due to irritation of the center of heat regulation by the products of the decay of tubercle bacilli that release endotoxin and tissues affected by the process. Daily temperature measurement allows the doctor and patient to follow the stages and the course of the process and is of great practical importance. If tuberculosis is more or less benign, the temperature rises to 37-37.2 ° C or even normal. If tuberculosis comes into active form, it can reach 38-39 ° C or acquire a hectic character (constant fluctuations from normal to very high).
Night sweating is one of the permanent symptoms of tuberculosis. The appearance of cold night profuse (the patient gets wet, as they say, "before the thread") sweats always speaks about the severity of the process.
It is more common in the final stages of the disease. The appearance of it can be explained by cardiovascular insufficiency, which develops as a result of significant changes in the lung tissue. Dyspnoea also occurs with miliary pulmonary tuberculosis.
He is also one of the constant companions of the tuberculosis process. It is caused by tuberculous intoxication, a sharp increase in metabolism and a lack of appetite in the patient. More often, thinning indicates the progression of the tuberculosis process in the patient.
Changes in the gastrointestinal tract
They are noted in the final stages of the disease or in the case of rapid progression of the process. Patients complain of diarrhea and constipation, the acidity of gastric juice in them is usually sharply lowered.
External signs of the disease can be considered the pallor of the skin, feverish shine of the eyes, feverish flush on the cheeks, asthenic physique. Often in tubercular patients, the chest becomes twisted, which is explained by pleural fusion and changes in the lungs.
Axillary, cervical, ulnar lymph nodes in a tuberculous patient are often enlarged and dense to the touch.
Tuberculosis of the lung can have a severe or mild course, localize in both the lungs or in one (it can even be located only in one lobe of one lung), can be accompanied by a constant or periodic release of the rods. The form of tuberculosis is very large and even there is a special direction in medicine that deals with tuberculosis - phthisiology.
Infection of children with tuberculosis
Infection of children with tuberculosis can occur even in utero, through the placenta of a mother with tuberculosis. Fortunately, this happens rarely.
Much more often the child becomes infected with tuberculosis at the age of 5-12 years.
The path of infection is airborne. When coughing, sneezing and just talking, a person with pulmonary tuberculosis secretes a large number of mycobacteria of tuberculosis, together with sputum and droplets of saliva, that can enter the child's respiratory tract if he is near the patient. This is the so-called drop infection. Sometimes it is enough for the child to stay for a short time before a coughing patient, so that he gets tuberculosis.
Very important is the dust infection. Especially this danger is great where adults do not observe hygiene rules, spit on the floor. The sputum dries up, but mycobacterium tuberculosis and in dried phlegm remain viable for many months, especially in dark, poorly ventilated rooms. Together with indoor and outdoor dust, mycobacterium tuberculosis enters the respiratory tract of the child, causing infection.
Tuberculosis in children: symptoms, signs
Tuberculous mycobacteria also fall on bed linens, clothes, a towel, a handkerchief and other objects surrounding the child. Infection can occur through the hands of the patient with untidy contents.
Tuberculosis in children occurs mainly in the form of:
- non-localized forms;
- local forms - diseases of individual organs;
- generalized forms - the defeat of several or even many organs.
Of these three species,non-localized forms.
Non-localized forms of tuberculosis: symptoms, signs
Early tuberculous intoxication
It has no characteristic signs and its diagnosis is very difficult. The main symptoms of this form are:
- a rise in temperature first to high digits, then a long subfebrile condition without any distinct symptoms;
- deterioration of appetite;
- sometimes diarrheal phenomena in children under the age of one year;
- sleep disturbance;
- increased sweating;
- an increase in cervical lymph nodes, sometimes up to the size of a bean;
- positive tuberculosis test.
About early tuberculosis intoxication should be considered first of all, if the child had contact with a tuberculous patient or there is a frequent "causeless" increase in temperature.
Sometimes the body of the child is cured of the infection, but more often it becomes chronic tuberculous intoxication.
Chronic tuberculous intoxication
Develops as a result of a slowly ongoing tuberculosis process. It is expressed mainly by symptoms of a general nature. The child begins to lose weight quickly, grow pale, his appetite disappears, headaches appear, coughs, fever in the evenings to 37-37.3 degrees. Subfebrile temperature can last for weeks and months.
The degree of chronic tuberculous intoxication can be different - from mild to severe.
If chronic TB intoxication is not detected and treated in time, it can pass into local forms of tuberculosis (primary tuberculosis complex, tuberculous bronchoadenitis, tuberculous pleurisy, infiltrative form of tuberculosis, extrapulmonary forms) or to generalized forms (tuberculous meningitis, miliary tuberculosis).
Treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: general recommendations
Treatment of tuberculosis patients should be directed both at reducing the vital activity of the pathogen, and at increasing the resistance of the patient's body.
Tuberculosis is a chronic disease and always requires long-term treatment. With prolonged use of the same drugs for patients with tuberculous mycobacteria develop resistance to them, so drugs must be changed every two to three months. This applies both to plant-derived preparations and to specific dosage forms.
The basis of hygiene-dietary treatment includes such factors as good nutrition, sun, peace, hardening, fresh clean air, climatotherapy. Here you can also include kumisolechenie, treatment of grapes, vitaminization of food, etc.
Treatment of tuberculosis: drugs, medicines - means of official medicine
Three-component treatment regimen
At the dawn of anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy, a three-component therapy scheme for the first line was developed and proposed:
- Paraaminosalicylic acid (PASK).
This scheme became classical. She reigned in phthisiology for many decades and allowed to save the lives of a huge number of tuberculosis patients, but has almost exhausted itself to date. Modern schemes are still based on it.
Four-part treatment regimen
At the same time, in connection with the increase in the resistance of mycobacterial strains isolated from patients, there was a need to strengthen regimes of antituberculous chemotherapy.
As a result, a four-component first-line chemotherapy regimen was developed (DOTS - strategy used for infection with sensitive strains):
- rifampicin or rifabutin,
- streptomycin or kanamycin,
- isoniazid or phtivazide,
- pyrazinamide or ethionamide.
This scheme was developed in the 1980s. To date, the system of treatment so-called. First-line drugs (including isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) are common in 120 countries, including developed countries.
In some post-Soviet countries (Russia, Ukraine), a number of specialists consider the DOTS scheme to be ineffective and substantially inferior to the level of a comprehensive anti-tuberculosis strategy developed and implemented in the USSR based on a developed network of antituberculous dispensaries.
Five-part scheme of treatment
In many centers specializing in the treatment of tuberculosis, today they prefer to use an even more powerful five-component regimen, adding to the four-component scheme mentioned abovefluoroquinolone derivative, eg,Ciprofloxacin. Inclusion of second, third and higher generation drugs is the main one in the treatment of drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis. Treatment regimen with drugs of the second and higher generation implies at least 20 months of daily intake of drugs. This regime is much more expensive than treatment with first-line drugs, and is equivalent to approximately 25,000 US dollars for the entire course.
A significant limiting factor is also the presence of a huge number of various side effects from the use of drugs of the second and higher generation.
If, in spite of the 4-5-component chemotherapy regimen, mycobacteria nevertheless develop resistance to one or more applied chemotherapy drugs, then they use: Capreomycin and other drugs belonging to the second (reserve) series because of its toxicity to the human body.
Due to the fact that the majority of anti-tuberculosis drugs have bacteriostatic and not bactericidal effect, phthisiology additionally uses immunostimulants:
Patients with tuberculosis who receive immunosuppressive drugs for any indication tend to lower their doses or completely abolish them, reducing the degree of immunosuppression if the clinical situation allows for a disease requiring immunosuppressive therapy. Patients with HIV infection and tuberculosis are shown to have specific anti-HIV therapy in parallel with anti-tuberculosis, and rifampicin is contraindicated.
In the treatment of tuberculosis, these drugs are used very limited in connection with their strong immunosuppressive effect. The main indications for the appointment of glucocorticoids are strong, acute inflammation, severe intoxication, etc. In this case, glucocorticoids are prescribed for a short period of time, in minimal doses and only against a background of powerful (5-component) chemotherapy.
Due to the high toxicity of anti-TB drugs, phthisiology actively useshepatoprotectors.
In order to prevent peripheral neuropathy and other side effects from the nervous system, applyvitamins of group B, glutamic acid and ATP in the form of sodium salt.
To accelerate the healing process, drugs such as:glue, fibs, vitreous, preparations of aloeand etc. We recommend that you do not mix drugs yourself.
Treatment of tuberculosis at home with folk remedies
Treatment with medicinal plants
- honey - 1 pound (400 g),
- 4 large onions,
- 6 pods of red bitter pepper.
Pepper and onions through a meat grinder. Mix with honey, put in the oven in an "easy spirit" and simmer until brown. Take 30 minutes before meals three times a day for one teaspoon. After an hour, drink a glass of fresh cow's milk. Composition take within a month. After three weeks, repeat treatment. Recovering usually comes after the second-third course of treatment. This composition also helps in all kinds ofpleurisy.
- aloe (juice) - 0.5 l,
- bifungin (drugstore) - 200 g,
- honey bee - 500 g,
- tincture of wormwood - 25 ml,
- propolis - 25 g,
- pine buds - 200 g,
- alcohol 96% - 500 ml,
- grass celandine (dry) - 2 tablespoons.
Propolis finely grate on a grater and pour alcohol. Put in a cold place for three days (shaking daily), then strain, wring out and add the remaining ingredients. Mix well with a wooden spoon and store in the refrigerator. Shake before use. Take the formula for 1 tablespoon three times a day for half an hour before meals. You can drink milk or fruit juices.
Forstrengthening of the general forces of the bodywith such serious diseases as:
- mental disorders,
- chronic gynecological diseases,
this recipe is changed somewhat: take 1 kg of aloe vera 3-5 years of age (before sprinkling the leaves, do not water for 5 days!). Add in it 2.5 kg of honey, 2.5 liters of grape home wine. All mix, seal and place in a cool place (but not in the refrigerator!) For five days. The first week, take 1 teaspoon three times a day for 40 minutes before meals, the second week and all subsequent time - 1 tablespoon three times a day. The duration of treatment is from 2 weeks to one and a half months. After 2-3 months, repeat the course.
- non-salted butter - 100 g,
- cocoa powder 50 g,
- lard pork interior - 100 grams,
- juice of agave or aloe - 150 ml.
Aloe before sprinkling the leaves do not water for 7-10 days. Melt in glass or enameled dishes honey, butter, lard. When everything melts, add the remaining components. Stir well and keep in the refrigerator in a glass jar. Take 1 tablespoon in the morning and evening, dissolving in a glass of hot milk. The course of treatment is up to 2 months, then break for 20 days and repeat the course.
- cognac - 150-170 ml,
- lemon of medium size - 10 pcs.,
- lime honey - 300 grams,
- eggs - 6 pcs. (with a white shell).
Preparation: put eggs (whole) in a glass jar, pour lemon juice and put in a cool and dark place until the eggshell dissolves (usually it takes 5-6 days). After the eggshell is dissolved, heat the honey (before fluidity) and add to the mixture. Then pour in cognac. Mix everything well and keep in a dark place in a glass bowl. Take 1 tablespoon three times a day after meals. The mixture should be replaced in 2-3 weeks.
Icelandic moss. The sodium salt found in the Icelandic moss is already diluted1:2000000suppresses the growth of mycobacteria tuberculosis. Preparations from moss have softening cough and expectorant action and have a good effect with a prolonged painful cough accompanying all diseases of the respiratory system.
Flower headsclover meadowand crushedburdock root(take 12 tablespoons each) pour a liter of steep boiling water and press for 6 hours. Strain. Take 1 glass three to four times a day for half an hour before meals.
To alleviate and better escape sputum, take20ganise seedspour in500ml of boiling water and leave for 1 hour. Strain. Take every hour for 3 tablespoons.
- leaves of birch - 30 g,
- nettle leaves are dioecious - 30 grams,
- Grasshopper herb grass - 10 grams,
- grass Veronica - 30 grams,
- herbage - 30 g,
- herb yarrow - 20 grams,
- grass thyme creeping - 20 grams,
- grass horsetail field - 20 grams,
- the herb of the prince of Siberia - 10 grams,
- grass cuffs ordinary - 40 grams,
- rhizomes with roots of patrimonial Siberian (rocky) - 10 g,
- crushed rose hips - 40 g.
Mix everything, grind it. One tablespoon of the mixture pour a glass of water and boil in a sealed container for 10 minutes. Cool for 1 hour, strain. Accept during the day.
- wine Cahors or port wine - 100 ml,
- Oak bark - 1 tablespoon (grind),
- grass shepherd's bags - 2 tablespoons.
Stir everything, pour two glasses of water and boil in a closed bowl for 10 minutes on low heat. Cool down. Decoction drink in one day.
- mountaineer bird,
- liquorice root,
- leaves of mother-and-stepmother,
- herb infestation,
- the herb of the wildfowl,
Total take three tablespoons, chop. Three tablespoons of the collection pour 500 ml of boiling water and insist for an hour. Drink three times a day for one third of a glass.
Half a glasscrushed dry cane leavespour 100 ml of boiling water, boil for 10 minutes on low heat, insist for two hours, strain. Drink two tablespoons three times a day.
- root of primrose,
- grass mountaineer bird,
- the herb of the wildfowl,
- grass horsetail field.
Total take 4 tablespoons, mix, chop. Three tablespoons of the collection pour 500 ml of boiling water, boil for 15 minutes in a water bath, insist 1 hour, strain. Infusion to take during the day sips.
One of the best recipes for the treatment of tuberculosis is that the healers consider the following: take leaves and stemsmotherwortand as much (by weight)chicory roots(chop). All chop, mix. Brew and drink like tea 100 ml three times a day for 9-10 weeks.
- two glasses of white honey,
- linseed oil - 1 glass.
Cook over low heat until the mass turns into brownish jelly. Two times a day, take a piece of composition (the size of a peanut). Keep in your mouth until it melts. After taking the medicine for an hour, do not drink or eat.
Take 400 g unsaltedinterior pork lardand 6 pieceslarge green apples with peel.Salo and apples cut into pieces, simmer all together on a slow fire, so as not to burn. Then 12yolksmash with one glassSaharaand add 400 ggrated chocolate.A mixture of lard and apples strain through a sieve and mix with a mixture of sugar, yolks and chocolate. Cool down. Smear on bread and eat with each meal 3-4 times a day, washed down with warm milk.
Take 1 glass eachhoney, dried apricots, grated lemon,5 raweggs,500 mlcognac,300 gbutter. Mix everything and take 1 tablespoon per night.
- honey bees - 2 cups,
- alcohol 96% - 200 ml,
- dry birch buds - 1 glass.
Mix everything in a glass jar and insist for nine days in a dark, cool place. Take 1 tablespoon three times daily before meals.
Resin-gum of any coniferous speciesfill with alcohol in a glass container so that alcohol covers the resin by 1 cm. After 4-5 days, the resin will dissolve. Take one part of the resin and add two partsinterior lard,drown him. In the still hot composition, add 1 part of linden honey (by weight) and 1/10 part (by weight)white burnt animal bone. All stir well and insist in a cool place for 2-3 days. Take 1 teaspoonful three times a day. The course of treatment is 5-6 months.
Infusioncelandine(1 teaspoon dried herbs for 200 ml of boiling water). Insist 1 hour, strain. Drink 1 tablespoon three times a day for a month. Break 20 days and repeat the course of treatment.
Linden. Coal from wood (take the inner layer), lime blend with goat's milk and drink 1 teaspoon three to four times a day.
A large purification: "hare cabbage".1 tablespoon fresh leaves pour a glass of boiling water and leave for 1 hour. Strain. Take two tablespoons three to four times a day for a month.
- birch buds - 5 tablespoons,
- water - 500 ml,
- linden color - 10 g,
- sheet of aloe - 1 cup (chop)
- honey lime - 200 g,
- olive oil - 100 g.
Melt the honey and add the aloe. The mixture is boiled for 5 minutes on low heat. In a separate bowl, boil birch buds and lime blossom for 3 minutes. Insist 1 hour, strain, wring out. Mix both mixtures and pour into bottles. Add an equal amount of olive oil to each bottle. Drink 1 tablespoon three times a day for 1.5-2 months. Break 20 days, and repeat the course of treatment.
The Chinese method. They catch the bears, dry them and crush them into powder. Mix the powder with honey or sweet syrup 1: 4. Take three tablespoons at the reception twice a day for three days. Appetite in the patient dramatically improves, after two or three weeks he is on the mend.
Brothkidneysandyoung cones of sprucehas a good effect in the treatment of tuberculosis. Kidneys and cones take 1: 1 in the amount of 150 g. Fill with water (1 liter) and boil for 10 minutes. Insist the night in a warm place, strain and drink half the glass three times a day.
The ancient Greeks treated pulmonary tuberculosis poundedwalnut,mixed withhoney(1:3). Take 1 tablespoon in the morning and at night for a month.
Shells of twowhite eggsmix with powderherbs daisiesin equal doses. Take 1-2 g three times a day in a mixture with milk.
- elephant high (root) - 20 g,
- Icelandic moss - 20 g,
- herb St. John's wort - 10 grams,
- grass sporisha - 10 grams,
- Yarrow (inflorescence) - 10 g,
- sage medicinal - 15 g.
Two tablespoons of the collection pour 500 ml of boiling water, insist on a water bath for 15 minutes, cool for 1 hour, strain. Take two thirds of the glass three times a day.
- the root of the althaea is 2 tbsp. spoons,
- fruits of anise - 4 tbsp. spoons,
- flowers of poppy-samoseyka,
- flowers Mullein,
- flowers marshmallow 4 tbsp. spoons.
All chop, mix. Two tablespoons of the mixture pour 500 ml of water, boil for 5 minutes on low heat. Strain. Drink 1 tablespoon three times a day before meals.
Take two tablespoons of choppedlicorice rootandpine buds,and four tablespoons choppedthe rootviolets fragrant. Preparation as in the previous recipe. Take 1 glass a day (a glass in four divided doses).
- Icelandic moss - 4 tbsp. spoons,
- root elecampane - 4 tbsp. spoons,
- Razvitka erect (rhizome) - 2 tbsp. spoons,
- wormwood - 3 tbsp. spoons,
- pine buds - 4 tbsp. spoons,
- inflorescence of the yarrow - 2 tbsp. spoons.
Two tablespoons of the collection pour 500 ml of boiling water, insist on a water bath for 15 minutes, cool for an hour, strain through gauze. Take 150 ml three times a day.
- grass mountaineer bird,
- grass sundew,
- grass thyme,
- grass horsetail field.
In total, take three tablespoons, mix, chop. Three tablespoons of the collection pour a glass of boiling water, boil in a water bath for 15 minutes, insist 1 hour, strain. Take 150 ml three times a day.
When treating tuberculosis, you should always takecarrot juicehalf the glass 2-3 times a day,berries viburnum with honey, currant preparations, hipsetc. (vitamin preparations).
With pulmonary hemorrhage and the appearance of blood in sputum, folk medicine recommends taking decoctions and infusions from the following herbs:
- a drop of medicinal,
- watch three-leaved,
- mountaineer snakeskin,
- Oak bark,
- the bloodthirsty erect,
- a shepherd's purse,
- wheat grass,
- sorrel horse.
With pulmonary hemorrhage, patients can be recommended the following collection:
- Oak bark - 2 parts,
- bark of willow white - 2 parts,
- rhizome with the roots of the hemorrhage - 2 parts,
- herb medicinal herb - 2 parts,
- herb pepper herb - 3 parts,
- grass peppermint - 3 parts,
- flowers immortelle sandy - 2 parts.
Mix everything, grind it. 3 tablespoons of the collection pour 500 ml of boiling water in a thermos bottle, insist night, strain. Drink 150 ml three times a day until hemoptysis stops.
Note. Since most of the herbs of this collection act as fixing agents, at the same time prepare a collection of senna, buckthorn bark, sea kale, or any other collection for the relaxation of the intestine.
One of the principles of tuberculosis treatment isincrease immunological activity of the body.Immunostimulating agents include such drugs as rhodiola rosea, levzia safflower, ginseng, eleutherococcus spiny, magnolia vinegar Chinese. Tinctures from these preparations usually take 30-40 drops twice a day (morning, lunch).
With tuberculosisplants withantibacterial activity:
- sage medicinal.
Effective in the treatment of all types of tuberculosis is the following collection of herbs:
- leaves of nettle,
- leaves of sage,
- Labrador grass,
- grass swotty marsh,
- grass horsetail,
- grass thyme.
In total, take three tablespoons, chop, mix. One tablespoon of the collection brew a glass of boiling water, insist 2 hours, strain. Drink instead of tea 1 glass three times a day for 2-3 months.
Check if the listed herbs are your allergens.
Treatmentlong and requires versatile and continuous treatment. In addition to modern means used in the treatment of tuberculosis in general, various medicinal products of plant origin are used.
A good effect in the treatment of skin tuberculosis patientskidney pine, black poplar, eucalyptus leaves, Japanese Sophora fruits. All the above ingredients, take 1 tablespoon and cook the infusion. Application and preparation as in the previous recipe.
For local treatment, ointments from drugscalendula, arnica mountain, immortelle.Ointments are prepared on unsalted butter or petroleum jelly in a ratio of 1: 4.
In the treatment of skin tuberculosis, vitamin-containing plants, such asrose hips, mountain ash, currants, apples.
Tuberculosis of bone
Yellow water lily. Take the root of the water lily, cut slices and pour boiling water. When the water cools down, lower the affected limb there and hold until the water cools. Gradually, the pain passes, the wound is tightened, and lameness goes through.
Treatment of tuberculosis by means of mineral and animal origin
The required amount of mummy for a single use is 0.2-0.5 g, depending on the body weight. Dosages are usually taken: up to 70 kg - 0.2 g, up to 80 kg - 0.25 g, up to 90 kg - 0.3 g, more than 90 kg - 0.5 g.
Children aged from 3 months to 1 year - 0.01-0.02 g, up to 9 years - 0.05 g, up to 14 years - 0.1 g per day.
When treating a mummy patient needs to provide a full-fledged diet, rich in proteins and vitamins. They wash down the mummy with milk, honey, fruit juices.
Preparation of mummies for oral administration: 5 g of mummy dissolved in 20 tablespoons of water; 2.5 grams - in 10 tablespoons of boiled chilled water.
Then we will have the following concentration: in one tablespoon - 0.25 g of mummy, in one dessert spoon - 0.2 g, in one teaspoon of 0.1 g.
The solution of the mummy is stored in the refrigerator for no more than 10 days.
The body of tuberculosis patients needs a lot of iron. Our ancestors guessed this and came up with an ingenious way of introducing iron into the body. It consists in the following: wash with a dozen nails and stick them into an apple. Under the influence of acids, apple-sour iron is formed. Nails are taken out, and apples are eaten. One day it is enough to eat one apple. The course of treatment is 14 days.
There is another way of introducing iron into the body. A few cleanly washed nails are dropped into the glass with water. In a day, drinking water. The course of treatment is two weeks. A day is enough to drink one glass of water (after taking water, rinse your mouth).
In the treatment of tuberculosis, chronic respiratory diseases and many other chronic diseases, it is recommended thatcopper applications. They accelerate the resolution of infiltrates, subcutaneous hemorrhages. They resolve even benign tumors.
The essence of the procedure is as follows: thin copper plates are burned and attached with adhesive plaster to the affected area of the body for a period of 6 hours to 2 days. After removing the plates, the skin is washed with water. The plates "stick" to that part of the body where there is inflammation (which is noticeable when they are removed), and the skin under them turns greenish. The more this "green", the more effective the treatment. Treatment should continue as long as the adhesion of the copper plate to the skin and greening of the skin are observed. Usually the treatment with copper plates is 30 days.
Since the plates eventually lose their healing properties, they must be cleaned every 4-5 days with tooth powder or with special detergent pastes. As copper plates can be used copper coins (release until 1961).
If the patient has incorrectly calculated the course of treatment, then symptoms of over-saturation of the body with copper may appear: a copper taste in the mouth, dizziness, weakness, headache. In this case, treatment with copper must be stopped urgently.
Copper applications are used in the treatment of many diseases: bruises, fractures, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, sore throats, tonsillitis. So, for the treatment of angina, the copper plates are attached behind the ear (on the mastoid process) and in the region of the lateral part of the neck and swollen lymph nodes. Every day 3-4 times a day, the plate should be pressed with your finger to the body for 2-3 minutes.
Belemnites are the remains of shells of long extinct marine molluscs. Belemnites have a somewhat elongated shape and resemble an index finger (in the people the belemnites are called "fucking fingers"). The petrified belemnite is washed, chopped, bred in hot water (1 tablespoon of powder per 500 ml) and drink with pulmonary tuberculosis in a third of the glass three times a day.
It includes substances such as creosote, naphthalene, benzene, carbolic acid, paraffin and other substances. Tar is a very good disinfectant and helps the body get rid of tubercle bacilli. You can take tar in a pure form, or in the form of tar water.
For reception in the pure state, 1 drop of tar is divided into three parts and taken three times a day with carrot juice or with "coffee", made from ground wheat, oats, barley.
To preparetar water, 400 g of birch tar, stir in 1 liter of hot water for 5 minutes. Then cover and let stand for three days. After three days, remove the resulting mixture of film and pour the yellowish-brown liquid into the bottles (tightly clogged).
Take tar water from three glasses to two glasses a day, depending on the severity of the disease (with the "open" form of tuberculosis, the dose should be up to two glasses per day). The daily dose is divided three times and drink 2 hours after eating.
Tar water and tar have a very strong healing effect. In ancient handbooks, many methods of treatment with these drugs are described.
Tuberculosis can be treatedsprouting sprouts(preparation see. in the section "Treatment of atherosclerosis and other diseases by grain sprouts").
Koumiss and Kumisotherapy
Kumysolechenie gives good results not only at treatment of initial and slow forms of a tuberculosis. Koumiss is a foaming beverage of a pleasant sour smell and taste, prepared by fermenting from mare's milk. More details can be found on the page: Koumiss: mare's milk, properties, kumysotherapy of tuberculosis patients.
Climatic and sanatorium-and-spa treatment
Sanatorium treatment is one of the types of therapeutic and preventive care, in which treatment is carried out mainly by natural curative and physical factors in combination with physiotherapy, physiotherapy exercises and therapeutic nutrition, while observing a certain regime that provides full treatment and rest for the sick. Sanatorium-and-spa treatment is directed mainly at rehabilitation of the damaged functions of the body, restoration of normal reactivity of the organism, strengthening of the functional activity of all organs and systems. The peculiarity of sanatorium treatment is its complex character. Along with treatment, rationally organized rest, maximum stay in the open air, climatotherapy play a big role in recovery.
The beneficial effect of sanatorium conditions on patients with tuberculosis is explained by the fact that, being in a sanatorium, they follow a reasonable hygiene-diet regime, spend almost all the time in the fresh air, receive enhanced and full-value nutrition.
In addition, staying in nature in a calm environment strengthens the nervous system. Patients receive metered solar, lunar and air baths, improving blood circulation and respiratory system. In the sanatorium patients are engaged in respiratory gymnastics and easy, calming work.
Sanatorium treatment is effective for moderate and mild tuberculosis, but is strictly forbidden for miliary tuberculosis and open forms of pulmonary tuberculosis. It can not be directed to sanatorium treatment of patients with tuberculosis of the intestine, larynx and other organs.
Features of care for tuberculosis patients
Tuberculosis is a chronic disease that can last for years and decades. Therefore, tuberculosis patients can stay in the hospital for up to a year or more. A nurse working in a tuberculosis dispensary should have special patience and tact, and be more sensitive to patients, since their nervous system is usually very shaken by illness.
Tuberculosis is a disease of the whole organism, and tubercular bacilli can be allocated in various ways (with phlegm, faeces, urine). Therefore, when caring for tuberculosis patients, special attention should be paid to interrupting the transmission routes of infection, to decontamination of sputum.
Do not ignore even the elementary means of protection.
Disinfection of spittoons, sputum and secretions of patients with tuberculosis and other sanitary and hygienic measures
In tubercular departments each patient has a personal spittoon. A specially trained person collects every day the spittoons with the phlegm of the sick and places them in a metal box, which is then sent for sterilization. Patients, in return for used, are given clean spittoons.
Usually pocket or table spittoons before dispensing to patients are filled with water by one third and disinfected at least once a day. Decontamination is carried out as follows:
- from the moment of boiling, the spittoon, together with phlegm, boil in 2% solution of potassium bicarbonate for at least 15 minutes;
- in a specially designed vessel with a lid, fill them with a 2.5% activated chlorine solution for two hours.
- at the end of disinfection, everyone is poured into the toilet, spittoons are washed in the usual way.
Sputumpoured into an enameled vessel with a lid, filling it with no more than half. Then one of the following disinfectants in dry form (grams per liter of sputum) is added to the sputum: chlorine lime - 200 g or Chloramine 50 g, followed by the addition of the same amount of 10% ammonia or ammonium chloride. The mixture is well mixed, covered with a lid and left (with chlorine lime for 1 hour, with Chloramine for 30 minutes).
There is another method of sputum disinfection: sputum is filled with a 2.5% activated chlorine solution (1 part sputum - 2 parts solution) and, after mixing well, leave for two hours at a temperature of 15-18 ° C. When using an unactivated 5% solution of Chloramine, the duration of disinfection is 6 hours.
After spitting, spittoons are boiled for 15 minutes in a 2% solution of soda, for 30 minutes in water, 1 hour in 1% solution of Chloramine.
Allocating the patientwhen the intestine or urogenital system is affected, they are covered with dry chlorine lime (200 g per 1 kg of secretions). Allocations together with chloramine are well mixed and left in a bowl for 2 hours. After that, the contents of the dishes (receiver) are poured into the toilet, the receiver is rinsed with hot water and immersed in a disinfectant solution.
Food remnantsdisinfected by boiling in sealed vessels (30 minutes from the boiling point). After that, they can be thrown away or fed to animals.
Underclothesbefore washing, store in a special room. Methods of disinfection:
- underwear soaked in a 2% solution of soda, followed by boiling in a closed vessel for 15 minutes;
- the laundry is soaked in a 1% activated chloramine solution at a temperature of at least 15 ° C for 2 hours (5 liters of solution per 1 kg of laundry).
- in 5% non-activated chlorine solution, the laundry is soaked for 4-6 hours.
Wet cleaning of premisesproduce daily. For washing use hot 2% soap and soda solutions. Spots of tuberculous sputum are disinfected with a cloth soaked in a 5% solution of Chloramine or in a 2% solution of clarified bleach. Rags, brushes and other items of cleaning are disinfected by soaking for 2 hours in 1% activated chlorine solution or in 2% solution of bleach for 2 hours.
Disinfection of dishesis made after each meal. It is boiled in a 2% solution of soda for 15 minutes or in water - 30 minutes.
Other methods of disinfection of dishes:
- immersion in a vertical position in a 0.5% activated solution of Chloramine;
- immersion for 2 hours in a 2% non-activated solution of bleach;
- immersion for 4 hours in a 5% non-activated solution of Chloramine;
- boiling for 15 minutes in a 2% solution of soda.
Dishes after disinfection are rinsed with clean water and dried, but do not wipe with a towel.
Prevention of tuberculosis
Tuberculosis is very common on the globe, with 90% - pulmonary forms. People of all ages are ill with tuberculosis, but it often affects adult men.
Significant spread of tuberculosis takes place in years of unemployment, economic crises, devastating wars. Poor nutrition, lack of light and air, crowding, dampness, contamination of the home create favorable conditions for tuberculosis.
In the prevention of tuberculosis, anti-tuberculosis measures that are carried out by tuberculosis dispensaries created immediately after the Great Patriotic War are of great importance. Dispensaries deal with the account of patients, their treatment, examination and employment.
Among the public preventive measures is the preventive anti-tuberculosis vaccination. Immunity, acquired through vaccination, lasts from one to two years, after which the vaccination is repeated.
Bacilli carriers should be isolated to the extent possible, providing them with a separate room or fencing them off with a separate screen from the rest of the tenants. A patient with tuberculosis should use his utensils, which must be boiled and washed every time after eating. The room in which a tuberculosis patient lives should be located on the sunny side. It should be cleaned with a damp method using disinfectants.
Patients with tuberculosis must comply with the rules of personal hygiene and in relation to nutrition, sleep, rest, water procedures.
A child born from a mother who is sick with tuberculosis, it is desirable to isolate from it and to feed it artificially.
Elena Malysheva: the first signs of tuberculosis
In this issue of the telecast "Live healthy!" With Elena Malysheva you will learn about the first signs of tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis is a potentially fatal infectious disease that is caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis (tubercle bacillus). Tuberculosis is transmitted by airborne droplets.
Symptoms of tuberculosis:
- A slight increase in temperature.
- Increased sweating.
Mantoux test: an immunological test that shows whether there is a tuberculosis mycobacterium in the body. If the reaction is positive, an in-depth examination should be carried out to find out whether a person has tuberculosis or not.
Diagnosis of tuberculosis: to put an accurate diagnosis will help radiography of the lungs.
Treatment of tuberculosis: tuberculosis is treated with antibiotics. The duration of treatment depends on the form and severity of tuberculosis.
Prevention of tuberculosis:
- Get vaccinated against tuberculosis.
- Be bypassed by the party of the coughing person - at a cough of a sputum flies away on one and a half-two meters.
Than to treat a tuberculosis?
Sergey Borisov talks about the new SQ preparation.
How to cure tuberculosis? Aloe Vera LR
Source: O.G.G.G. N. Official and traditional medicine. The most detailed encyclopedia. - Moscow: Publishing house Eksmo, 2012.