Inflammation of the maxillary sinuses is a serious disease, but it is often found only in the late stages. This is due to the fact that the primary signs of the disease are not pronounced and resemble ARVI or rhinitis. Symptoms and treatment of sinusitis in adults differ depending on the stage at which it is detected. Timely diagnostics and competent medical help will help to avoid complications and the transition of the disease to a chronic form.
- Symptoms in adults
- Types of sinusitis and their symptoms
- Than dangerous
- Home Treatment
- Treatment with antibiotics
- Treatment with folk remedies
Symptoms of sinusitis in children and how to treat it Dangerous for sinusitis The most effective antibiotics for sinusitis How to use Azithromycin for sinusitis - Instruction What are the signs of sinusitis in adults
Symptoms in adults
Sinusitis is a kind of sinusitis, in which the inflammatory process affects the maxillary sinuous sinus. As a rule, it becomes a complication of a number of infectious diseases (acute respiratory disease, influenza, measles, rhinitis and others).
Diseases are affected by people of any age. Most often it occurs in the cold season. Genyantritis can be noticed already in the first days, but it is often confused with other diseases.
- permanent headache in the frontal region, eyes or jaw;
- strong rhinitis;
- pain in the bridge of the nose, which becomes stronger when the head is tilted;
- plentiful mucous or purulent discharge from the nose;
The acute form of the disease in adults is characterized by a sharp manifestation of symptoms. From other infections, sinusitis is characterized by pain in the nose, forehead and under the eyes. It does not last longer than seven days and intensifies by evening. In addition, the acute form of the disease is characterized by:
- nasal congestion;
- severe nasal congestion;
- yellow-green discharge from the nose;
- sleep disturbance;
- decreased appetite.
Due to intoxication, there may be drowsiness and nausea, which does not lead to vomiting.
Important! If you suspect a sinusitis, consult a doctor immediately to avoid the transition of the disease to a chronic form.
Chronic sinusitis in adults manifests itself following symptoms:
- the sense of smell weakens or is completely absent;
- the nose is permanently embedded;
- sore throat when swallowing;
- swelling in the eye area;
- dry cough;
- increased tear;
- memory impairment;
- bad breath;
- dull pain under the eyes;
The increase in body temperature is characteristic of the initial stage of the disease. It is a protective reaction of the body to infection. In acute form, temperature fluctuations can reach critical values. But in the chronic phase, the disease often occurs without heat or with a slight increase in temperature.
The genyantritis seldom dispenses without plentiful vydeleny from a nose. By their color, you can determine the stage of the disease. At the initial stage, the secretions are white, while the more dense and whitish ones indicate the beginning of the cure.
Green - the first sign of severe inflammation, the transition of excretions into a yellowish color (which adds pus) indicates an acute form of sinusitis.
In severe cases, nasal mucus may contain small amounts of blood. If you do not consult a doctor, the situation will be aggravated by nosebleeds due to vascular disruption.
Attention! With sinusitis, bleeding from the nose can cause an overdose of drops from the cold.
Types of sinusitis and their symptoms
Doctors distinguish several types of disease. The symptoms of acute and chronic forms of the disease have already been described above. Sinusitis can also be one-sided, when one sinus is affected, and bilateral. The latter is a complication of inflammation. It flows in an acute form, and without the necessary treatment quickly turns into a chronic one.
Bilateral sinusitis is characterized by the following symptoms:
- edema of the nose;
- abundant mucous discharge;
- nasal congestion;
- intermittent sleep;
This type of disease is very rare, has a marked symptomatology. Well recognized by painful sensations when pressing on the maxillary sinuses. Subject to medical treatment in conjunction with physiotherapy.
Differs asymptomatic form of the disease, is a complication of acute respiratory infections. Diagnosed by X-ray examination, which shows the swelling and stagnation of mucus in the nasal sinuses.
It arises after a prolonged (more than seven days) severe rhinitis, due to the formation of a favorable environment for the reproduction of bacteria. At the initial stages, the disease manifests itself poorly. In the absence of proper medical care, it is fraught with persistent discharge from the nostrils in small quantities, the nose in the mornings is strongly embedded (towards evening the sensations are weakened). In the upper jaw area, a heaviness is felt.
This type of maxillary sinusitis can occur with a high degree of probability in people with immunity weakened against the background of other diseases - for example, in diabetes mellitus.
For fungal sinusitis are characterized by:
- feeling of "bursting" of the nose;
- copious mucus secretion;
- formation of polyps;
- nasal congestion.
In some patients there is a decrease in the sense of smell, until its complete loss.
The most dangerous in this case is a fracture of the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus. It accumulates blood, the inflammatory process leads to the development of infection. In the clinical picture, the following symptoms are noted:
- lack of breathing through the nose;
- discharge purulent;
- heaviness in the upper jaw (especially during head inclinations);
- swelling in the eyes and cheekbones.
Fistula can also form in the mouth. It is worth noting that traumatic sinusitis is rare.
Occurs under the action of any allergen on the sinuses of the nose, it becomes a side effect of the defensive reaction of the body.
More often it is accompanied:
- difficulty breathing through the nose;
- pain in the eyes and cheekbones;
The first stage of treatment is the determination of the allergen and the cessation of its effect on the body. When polyps prolapse, surgical intervention may be required.
Such a sinusitis is affected by people exposed to sudden pressure drops. For example, scuba divers, or those who often makes air travel. Determine the disease can be due to an aching in the maxillary sinuses and the inability to breathe through the nose.
This type of disease occurs more often in children. For catarrhal sinusitis characterized by a feeling of sluggishness, general deterioration in health, intoxication, fever.
It is common among people of different ages. Occurs as a consequence of severe allergies, complicated inflammation and abnormal nasal structure. Distinctive features are:
- breathing with the mouth;
- abundant whitish or yellowish-green nasal discharge;
- refusal of taste receptors;
- decreased appetite.
Polypase maxillary sinusitis is treated only in a hospital surgically. Drug exposure very rarely gives positive results.
The cause of this type of sinusitis is the long-term presence of harmful microbes in the nasopharynx and upper respiratory tract. Pathology is characterized by:
- alternating obstruction of one or another nostril;
- pain in the region of the nose, temple, jaw, or eyebrows;
- easy coughing;
- increased fatigue.
By itself, the parietal sinusitis is not too dangerous, but in a chronic form it passes into a purulent one.
It develops after poorly healed infectious and catarrhal diseases. Purulent antritis is provoked by bacteria. Symptoms of complications:
- pain in the frontal region;
- pain with palpation of the sinuses;
- breathing through the mouth;
- pressing pains in the bridge of the nose during inclinations and compression of teeth;
- purulent discharge from the nose.
External signs are the swollen eyelids and the bridge of the nose.
This form of the disease is caused by E. coli, staphylococcus, streptococcus and other microorganisms. Odontogenic sinusitis is diagnosed on the following grounds:
- aching pain in the cheek, under the eyes, in the teeth and gums;
- copious discharge from the nose;
- painful sensations when chewing;
- inflammation of the gums;
- the appearance of sores in the mouth.
For the treatment of sinusitis in any form it is important to determine the cause of the disease and to prescribe the correct treatment.
Sinusitis causes a violation of outflow from the sinuses of mucus, which is most often caused by infection of the nose with viruses or bacteria. To do this, the body should have favorable conditions for the active life of microorganisms. Let's name the main causes of inflammation of the maxillary sinuses:
- frequent or untreated ARI and ARVI;
- traumatic lesions of the mucous membrane of the sinuses;
- non-compliance with oral hygiene;
- hypothermia or long stay in a hot room;
- insufficient air humidity in the house;
- pressure drops (for example, when diving);
- penetration into the respiratory tract of chemicals;
- injuries of the nasal septum;
- pathological structure of the nasopharynx.
Another of the risk factors may be weakened human immunity. This is found in chronic ENT diseases, AIDS, tuberculosis, diabetes mellitus. In any case, for the recovery it is important to establish not the fact of the presence of the disease, but also its appearance, as well as the causes that triggered the pathology.
For a competent specialist, the diagnosis of sinusitis is usually not difficult. First of all, the doctor is based on the description of the patient's complaints and external examination. At the initial stage of diagnosis, as a rule, swelling of the cheeks and eyelids, difficulty in nasal breathing, painful sensations when pressing on the face.
An obligatory part of the diagnosis is the examination of the nasal cavity (rhinoscopy). It allows you to assess the condition of mucous membranes, the presence of edema and other signs.
As clarifying techniques can be used:
- X-ray of the sinuses of the nose;
- puncture fence;
- bacteriological analysis of discharge from the nose;
- blood tests.
An immunogram is also often prescribed. And if there are suspicions of the allergic nature of the disease - cutaneous allergotests. It would be superfluous and consultation of the dentist for confirmation (exception) of odontogenic sinusitis.
In any case, only an expert can establish a correct diagnosis, and timely treatment will help to avoid serious complications.
We emphasize that sinusitis is very dangerous for humans. It can disrupt the work of almost any organ and lead to the emergence of deadly diseases. In the absence of the necessary treatment, the sinusitis turns into a chronic form, which is difficult to treat. Nasal sinuses stop performing their basic functions to protect the body from the penetration of infections.
All this is fraught with multiple complications. Let's list the most probable of them:
- osteoperiostitis (inflammation of the facial bones);
- abscess of orbit;
- neuritis of the trigeminal nerve.
This is not a complete list of complications of sinusitis, but the worst thing it can lead to is inflammation of the brain's membrane (meningitis). This disease is characterized by rapid development. Very often it leads to death or severe disability.
Attention! If to the headache and discharge from the nose is added abundant vomiting, severe heat, blurred consciousness - immediately call an ambulance!
To avoid such serious consequences of genyantritis, you can turn to medical help in time.
Treat sinusitis usually outpatient, hospitalization is recommended only in severe cases. Despite this, it is impossible to choose the treatment scheme independently. Drugs may be prescribed only by a qualified technician.
Inflammation of the maxillary sinuses is treated in a complex way and includes medicamental and physiotherapeutic methods.
The pharmaceutical complex of preparations at a genyantritis depends on the reasons which have caused disease and individual features of an organism of the patient. Usually it includes:
- antiviral drugs - Groprinosine, Amizon;
- antibacterial drugs - Cefix, Amoxiclav, Levofloxacin. Well-proven spray of local action Bioparox;
- vasoconstrictor drops and sprays - for example, Nazivin, Sanorin and their analogues;
- To reduce puffiness often appointed Rinofluimucil;
- In allergic sinusitis, therapy includes antihistamines (Cetrin, Erius) and hormone-containing sprays (Avamis).
In case the temperature rises, it is necessary to take antipyretic drugs (Nurofen, Solpadein, etc.). These drugs are not included in the course treatment, but are taken if necessary.
After the inflammatory process has stopped, the patient is prescribed physiotherapeutic procedures. More often it is:
- ultrasonic influence;
- laser treatment;
- "Salt caves";
Surgical intervention or a puncture is indicated only in the case when conservative treatment does not give results or the form of the disease is very severe. But in most cases, the possibilities of modern medicine can be cured with antibiotics.
Treatment with antibiotics
The main goal of antibiotic treatment is to stop the development of bacteria, to destroy them. The attending physician selects the necessary drug, based on the stage of the disease and its causes. If the pathogen is not defined, select a broad-spectrum drug.
Antibiotics are divided into several groups. Here are the commonly used drugs in the treatment of sinusitis:
- Penicillins (Amoxicillin, Hiconcil) are able to kill more bacteria, have few contraindications, compared to others. May cause allergies and gastrointestinal disorders.
- Cephalosporins (Cefazolin) are similar to those mentioned above, but are more resistant to bacteria.
- Macrolides and azalides (for example, Erythromycin) are low in toxicity, rarely cause allergic reactions. Their main advantages are once a day and a long-term therapeutic effect. This reduces the course of treatment for sinusitis.
- Aminoglycosides for the treatment of sinus inflammation are prescribed only as a last resort because of the large number of serious side effects. If used, it is more often local action - Polidex, Isofra.
- Sulfanilamidy (Streptocide) - one of the first antibiotics. Previously, they were often used to treat sinusitis, but because of the large number of adverse reactions they are increasingly replaced with other drugs.
Dosage and duration of antibiotics should always be prescribed by the doctor, based on the characteristics of the disease and the drug itself.
On average, the course of taking antibacterial drugs for adults is 10 days. It is necessary to strictly observe the schedule of taking tablets, otherwise the effectiveness of treatment will decrease.
Also, during the course of taking antibiotics, it is not recommended to drink alcohol. Antibacterial drugs do not combine with antiulcer drugs, activated charcoal and reduce the effectiveness of oral contraceptives.
Attention! Do not try to pick up an antibiotic yourself. This can lead to serious complications!
Treatment with folk remedies
In the early stages of the disease, you can try to cope with sinusitis with the help of traditional medicine recipes. Here are the most popular of them:
- In 2 liters of boiling water, dissolve 2 hours. l. alcoholic tincture of propolis and use for inhalations.
- To make a honey ointment, take 1 tbsp. l. grated baby soap, mix with the same amount of honey, vegetable oil and milk. Heat in a water bath. When the soap is melted, add 1 hour. l. alcohol. Cool the ointment, apply on cotton swabs, enter into the nostrils and leave for 15 minutes. The course of treatment lasts 21 days.
- 4 g crushed celandine mix with honey and aloe juice, drip into the nose five times a day for several drops.
- For the compress, you can soften in water 50 grams of clay, apply on gauze, soaked in warm vegetable oil, put on the maxillary sinuses for about an hour.
- It is good to dig in the nose with sea buckthorn oil or rose hips.
- Boil a laurel leaf (about one twig) in water, moisten gauze in a decoction, put it on the nose and leave it for an hour, covering it with a towel.
In solutions for inhalation, washing and preparation of decoctions, medicinal herbs are also used. From a genyantritis daisy, a sage, a lavender, a St. John's wort, an eucalyptus, a turn, a yarrow will approach or suit. If the headaches are very strong, you can drip a few drops of cyclamen juice into your nose.
Attention! Before you take any folk remedy, make sure there is no allergy to the ingredients.
Cure sinusitis can be and without a puncture, but only if you do not run the disease. To avoid unpleasant consequences, do not neglect the preventive measures - in time, treat the teeth, avoid hypothermia and long-term rhinitis. In case of infection with cold infections - do not self-medicate. Timely diagnosis and treatment under the supervision of a specialist will help to maintain health.