So, do you need flu shots and colds?
Many believe that injections of flu and cold are an effective remedy. Modern medicine, this statement is highly questioned and recommends that these manipulations only in particularly difficult cases. In the rest, you can successfully dispense with the use of tablets and syrups.
Colds and flu are the most common diseases. There is no man in the world who has not experienced their symptoms on himself. One has only to recall the cold season, which is invariably accompanied by flu epidemics. People, having caught cold, do not have the habit of immediately seeking specialized help, try to treat themselves. But there are also those who are striving for a speedy recovery, so they turn their attention to antibiotics. And, often, it is in the form of injections.
A little about the diseases
A cold, or an acute respiratory disease (ARI), never arises just like that. In most cases, the cause is different viruses, which are activated after hypothermia. They reduce immunity, and their products of vital activity are toxic to the human body.
Influenza is an acute respiratory disease caused by a virus that leads to a general intoxication of the body and possible dangerous complications. The flu virus travels very easily from a sick person to a healthy person. The flu is transmitted by airborne or by domestic route.
The virus affects the epithelium of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract. These toxins and the products of epithelial cell decay are very toxic to the body. Flu is accompanied by high fever, aching muscles and joints, headache and weakness.
The main cause of cold and flu disease is the weakening of immunity. The flu can provoke complications such as pneumonia, acute bronchitis, asthma and others.
Can I use antibiotics?
Flu and cold are viral diseases. Therefore, the fight is conducted directly with the pathogen - the virus. In medicine, there is a claim that antibiotics do not have any effect on viruses. Their goal is bacteria. Therefore, their use in anti-cold or anti-influenza treatment is inexpedient. Antibiotics should be used only if during a week the patient's condition does not improve or even gets worse.Doctors usually prescribe antibiotics with a wide spectrum of action. Among them:
- Penicillin, which are represented by "Augmentin "Amoxiclav "Ampioxus".
- Cephalosporin: "Cefazolinum" and "Ceftriaxone".
- Macrolides: "Azithromycin "Clarithromycin" and "Roxithromycin".
They can be both in the form of tablets, and in the form of injections.
It is important to note that after the normalization of the condition, you can not immediately stop taking the prescribed antibiotic. This is due to the fact that the complete destruction of bacteria could not yet occur and some of them could survive. They quickly develop protective immunity from this antibiotic, and next time the medicine will already be useless in dealing with them.
As an example, consider the broad-based antibiotic "Cefazolin." It, unlike other drugs, retains its effect for longer than 8 hours, and is excreted from the body through the kidneys. "Cefazolin" has a high efficiency and is characterized by low toxicity.The drug is administered intramuscularly with novocaine (except for minor children and people in old age) or intravenously with saline solution.It is important not to confuse!
Choosing a course of treatmentFighting the disease involves several important stages:
- Etiological - the effect on the cause of the disease.
- Symptomatic - fighting the symptoms of the disease (temperature above 38 degrees, cough, runny nose).
- Strengthening - increasing the body's defenses.
These steps must take place exclusively in a complex.
Antiviral drugs are based on interferon - a specific protein that is produced by the human body in order to fight viruses. These drugs can contain ready-made interferon (Anaferon, Laferon and others) or stimulate its production directly by the body (Amizon, Kagocel). In particularly severe cases for the binding of viruses and toxins, immunoglobulins are administered intravenously.
There are two groups of anti-influenza drugs. The first is represented by "Amantadine "Rimantadine" and their analogues, the second - "Zanamivir" and "Oseltamivir".
"Gripp-Heel" is an antiviral immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory drug, which is available as a solution for injection, ml. It is prescribed for influenza and acute respiratory viral infection with high fever and for prevention. Side effects and contraindications this drug does not. It should be prescribed at the very beginning of the disease, and after the normalization take a few more days.Antipyretic effect of "Paracetamol" and "Ibugen". "Cycloferon" is an antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating medicine with a wide spectrum of biological activity. Produced in the form of ampoules of 2 ml. The main active substance is acridonacetic acid (125 mg in 1 ampoule). Effective drug for influenza and acute respiratory disease. It is prescribed for patients older than 4 years. Sometimes it can be prescribed together with antibiotics and vitamins.
"Traumeel C" is prescribed in the complex for any inflammation, including those caused by flu and colds. The drug is available in the form of ampoules and tablets. But in the ampoules "Traumeel C" has a somewhat better effect. It can be effectively combined with "Lymphomyosot" intravenously, but it is possible and intramuscularly. A combination is known when "Lymphomyosot" together with "Echinacea compositum" is slowly injected intravenously. One such injection can be quite enough.
Vitamins are better to take in the form of dragees and fruits, but in some cases, to better assimilate other drugs, prescribe vitamins in the form of injections (Vitakson, Neurorubin and others). In any case, flu and cold, if they occur without significant complications, it is better to treat without using injections.
We make injections ourselvesThis is not as difficult as it seems at first glance. First you need to get a syringe into the syringe and release excess air through the needle until an even trickle flows, and the medicine no longer has air bubbles. Important! Before you take the medicine, it needs to be heated in your hand for several minutes. After this, it is worth wiping the future site of the injection with alcohol.
Intramuscular injections are traditionally done in the upper outer quarter of the buttocks, while driving the needle down slightly more than half. It needs to be done sharply and clearly. Then, slowly and smoothly, with a non-trembling hand, enter the contents. With a quick movement, pull out the syringe and apply cotton wool.
Before you take a shot, it's better to practice on a non-living thing, but in extreme situations it may not be before.
Prevention of diseases
Everyone knows that it is best not to get sick, but to carry out preventive maintenance of certain diseases on time. Prevention should be devoted to strengthening immunity, enhancing the body's defenses. It may include the following items:
- The intake of vitamins (in dosage form and in the form of fruits and vegetables).
- Mandatory rest after a hard day.
- Good healthy sleep.
- Morning work-out.
- Fresh air.
- Gradual hardening of the body: contrast shower, dousing with cold water. The main thing is to remember that you need to do this gradually.
As the prevention of influenza during epidemics, vaccinations can be used. They can be "Grippol "Agrippal "Vaksgripp "Begrivak" and others. Vaccination against influenza is based on different strains, so it is advisable to do an annual vaccination with different medications. This will help protect the body more reliably.
Antibiotics for colds and flu: what's better for adults
People with medical education know for certain that antibiotics for colds and flu are ineffective, and they are not cheap and harmful.
And doctors in polyclinics and those who have just finished medical high school know it.
Nevertheless, antibiotics are prescribed for colds, and some patients recommend these medications for the prevention of infections.
With a common cold without antibiotics, it's best to get by. The patient must ensure:
- bed rest;
- abundant drinking;
- balanced nutrition with a high content of vitamins and minerals in food;
- if necessary, effective antipyretic tablets or injections;
- inhalation and rinsing of the nose;
- rubbing and compresses (only in the absence of temperature).
Perhaps, these procedures can treat cold treatment and limit it. But some patients persistently ask their doctor for a good antibiotic or a cheaper analogue.
It happens even worse, a sick person, in view of the fact that he does not have time to visit a polyclinic, begins self-treatment. The benefits of pharmacies in large cities today are every 200 meters. Such open access to medicines, as in Russia, is not found in any civilized state.
But for the sake of justice it should be noted that many pharmacies began to dispense antibiotics of a wide range of actions only on the prescription of a doctor. However, if you wish, you can always pity the pharmacist, referring to a severe illness or find a drugstore, which is much more important than the health of people.
Therefore, antibiotics for colds can be purchased without a prescription.
When should you take antibiotics for ARI and the flu?
In most cases, the common cold has a viral etiology, and viral infections are not treated with antibiotics. Tablets and injections of a wide spectrum of action are prescribed only in those cases when an attenuated organism has an infection that can not be defeated without antibacterial drugs. Such an infection can develop:
- in the nasal cavity;
- in the mouth;
- in bronchi and trachea;
- in the lungs.
In this situation, antibiotics for flu and cold are needed.Laboratory methods of research, according to which you can judge the need to take antibacterial drugs, are not always appointed. Often polyclinics save sputum and urine on crops, explaining their policy by the fact that it is too expensive.
Exceptions are swabs taken from the nose and throat with sore throat on Lefler's wand (causative agent of diphtheria), selective crops urine in diseases of the urinary tract and selective seeding of the detachable tonsils, which are taken for chronic tonsillitis.
Patients undergoing treatment in the hospital are much more likely to obtain laboratory confirmation of microbial infection. Changes in the clinical blood test are indirect signs of bacterial inflammation. Having received the results of the analysis, the doctor can proceed from the following indicators:
- number of leukocytes;
- an increase in segmented and stab-shaped leukocytes (a shift of the leukocyte formula to the left).
And yet antibiotics for colds doctors appoint very often. Here is an example of this, which is taken from the results of testing one child's medical institution. 420 outpatient cards of small patients from 1 to 3 years were analyzed. In 80% of cases, doctors diagnosed children with ARI, ARVI; acute bronchitis - 16%; otitis - 3%; pneumonia and other infections - 1%.
With pneumonia and bronchitis antibacterial therapy was prescribed in 100% of cases, but in 80% it was prescribed for both acute respiratory infections and inflammation of the upper respiratory tract.
And this despite the fact that the vast majority of doctors understand perfectly well that it is unacceptable to use antibiotics without infectious complications.
Why do doctors still prescribe antibiotics against influenza and colds? This happens for a number of reasons:
- reinsurance due to the early age of children;
- administrative settings;
- preventive measures to reduce complications;
- lack of desire to visit assets.
How can complications be determined without tests?
A doctor can determine by eye that an infection has become a cold:
- the color of the discharge from the nose, ears, eyes, bronchi and pharynx from transparent changes to dull yellow or poisonous-green;
- when a bacterial infection is attached, a second rise in temperature is usually observed, this is typical for pneumonia;
- the urine of the patient becomes cloudy, a sediment can be observed in it;
- in fecal masses there is pus, mucus or blood.
Complications that may occur after ARI are determined by the signs below.
- The situation is this: a person had an acute respiratory viral infection or a cold and was already recovering, when suddenly the temperature jumped to 39, increased cough, there was pain in the chest and shortness of breath - all these signs signal that there is a high probability of development pneumonia.
- If you suspect a sore throat and diphtheria, the temperature rises, throat pains intensify, tonsils appear on the tonsils, and lymph nodes increase on the neck.
- With an average otitis fluid is released from the ear, when pressing on the tragus in the ear there is a strong pain.
- Symptoms of sinusitis are manifested in this way: the patient has completely lost his sense of smell; In the forehead area there are severe pains that are worse when the head is tilted; the voice becomes nasal.
What antibiotics to drink for a cold?
Many patients ask the therapist this question. Antibiotics for colds should be selected, based on the following factors:
- localization of infection;
- the patient's age (for adults and children, his list of drugs);
- individual drug tolerance;
- the state of the immune system.
Sometimes broad-spectrum antibiotics are recommended for use against uncomplicated acute respiratory diseases.
Against some diseases of the blood: aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis.
With obvious signs of weakened immunity:
- a subfebrile condition;
- catarrhal and viral diseases more than five times a year;
- chronic inflammatory and fungal infections;
- congenital pathologies of the immune system;
- oncological diseases.
Children up to 6 months:
- against vaginal rickets;
- against lack of weight;
- against various malformations.
Taking antibiotics for colds is recommended for the following indications:
- Bacterial angina requires treatment with macrolides or penicillins.
- Purulent lymphadenitis is treated with a wide spectrum of action.
- Acute bronchitis, exacerbation of its chronic form, and laryngotracheitis bronchoectatic disease will require the appointment of macrolides. But it's better to do a chest X-ray, which will exclude pneumonia.
- With an acute average otitis, the doctor after the otoscopy makes a choice between cephalosporins and macrolides.
Azithromycin is an antibiotic for colds and fluAzithromycin (another name Azimed) is an antibacterial preparation with a wide spectrum of action. The active substance of the drug is directed against protein synthesis of sensitive microorganisms. Azithromycin is rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Peak action of the drug occurs two to three hours after admission.
Azithromycin is rapidly distributed in biological fluids and tissues. Before you start taking pills it is better to test for the sensitivity of the microflora that provoked the disease. Adult Azithromycin should be taken once a day for an hour before meals or three hours after it.
- In case of infections of the respiratory tract, skin and soft tissues, a single dose of 500 mg is given on the first day of admission, and for three days the patient takes Azithromycin 250 mg per day.
- Against acute urinary tract infections, the patient should once take three tablets of Azithromycin once.
- Against the initial stage of Lyme disease, one tablet is also administered once.
- With gastric infections caused by Helicobacter pylori, for three days the patient should take a single dose of three to four tablets.
The form of the drug - tablets (capsules) of 6 pieces per package (blister).
Other antimicrobial agents
If the patient does not have an allergic reaction to penicillin, antibiotics for influenza can be prescribed from a semi-synthetic penicillin series (Amoxicillin, Solutab, Flemoxin). In the presence of severe resistant infections, doctors prefer "protected penicillins that is, those that consist of Amoxicillin and Clavulanic acid, here is their list:
With angina this treatment is best.
Names of preparations cephalosporin series:
- Ixim Lupine.
- Cefuroxime axetil.
In mycoplasmal, chlamydial pneumonia or infectious diseases of ENT organs, the following medicines are prescribed:
In addition, it is possible to use antiviral drugs that are inexpensive but effective in treatment, which suggests an integrated approach to influenza therapy.
The problem is that most pharmaceutical companies in the pursuit of profit now and then throw out into the wide sales network more and more new antibacterial agents. But most of these drugs for the time being could be in stock.
Antibiotics, influenza, cold - what conclusions can be drawn?
So, from all that has been said above, we can conclude that antibiotics should be prescribed only for bacterial infection. Influenza and the common cold are 90% viral, so with these diseases, taking medications antibacterial group not only will not bring benefits, but can provoke a number of side effects, eg:
- decreased immune response;
- oppression of kidney and liver function;
- imbalance of intestinal microflora;
- allergic reactions.
The administration of these drugs for the prevention of viral-bacterial infections is unacceptable. To take aggressive medications, which are antibiotics, is possible only in extreme cases, when there are all the indications.
The main criteria for the effectiveness of treatment with antibacterial drugs include the following changes:
- relief of the general condition of the patient;
- decreased body temperature;
- disappearance of symptoms of the disease.
If this does not happen, then the medicine needs to be replaced by another one. To determine the effectiveness of the drug from the beginning of treatment should take three days. Uncontrolled use of antibacterial medicines leads to a disruption of the resistance of microorganisms.
In other words, the human body begins to get used to antibiotics and each time demand more aggressive medications. In this case, the patient will have to prescribe not one drug, but two or even three.
All you need to know about antibiotics is in the video in this article.
Cycloferon - injections
CycloferonIs a medicinal product that is available in various forms, including for injections (injections). Tsifloferona injections are prescribed to improve immunity and prevent disease in cases where immune protection organism is weakened and unable to overcome the disease on its own, and the risk of infection or development of complications is great. Frequently injections of Cycloferon are recommended by doctors against flu and cold, with herpesvirus infection. What else is prescribed Cycloferon in the form of injections, how this drug works on the body, what are its contraindications and side effects, we will consider further.
Effect of injections Cycloferon and indications for their use
The drug under consideration is based on an active ingredient, such as meglumine acridon acetate. This component when penetrating the human body stimulates production in tissues and organs containing elements lymphoid tissue (lymph nodes, liver, spleen, intestines, tonsils, etc.), a large number of their own interferon. As is known, the protein interferon is one of the main "defenders" of the body from foreign agents (pathogens infections, malignant cells), therefore, the more its content, the more effective the pathological processes. In addition, Cycloferon causes the activation of other protective cells in the body (granulocytes, T-lymphocytes, T-killers), suppresses autoimmune reactions, has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antitumor act.
The use of Cycloferon in the form of injections is recommended in the following cases:
- HIV infection;
- serous meningitis and encephalitis;
- tick-borne borreliosis;
- hepatitis of viral etiology;
- herpesvirus infection (including cytomegalovirus);
- acute intestinal infections;
- chlamydial defeat;
- rheumatoid arthritis;
- systemic lupus erythematosus;
- deforming osteoarthritis;
- influenza and ARVI;
- tumor processes.
Thanks to the use of Cycloferon in most diseases, a decrease in the intensity of symptoms, duration of the disease, prevention of the development of various complications is achieved. In the treatment of bacterial infections, this drug significantly increases the effectiveness of prescribed antibiotic therapy. In the season of outbreaks of respiratory viral diseases, the use of Cycloferon will help to protect the body from infection and the development of severe forms of infection.
Contraindications and side effects of injections of Cycloferon
In most cases, injections with this drug are well tolerated. Cycloferon does not have toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic qualities. In rare cases, the appearance of the following adverse events is possible:
- allergic reactions (including hives, angioedema, edema);
- hyperemia and swelling at the injection site;
Normal symptoms are the appearance of mild soreness, short-term burning and slight reddening of the skin at the injection site. However, all of the above side effectsusually do not require the withdrawal of the medicine.
As for contraindications, then they also have Cycloferon, but there are not many of them:
- the period of breastfeeding;
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- hypersensitivity to the components of the drug;
- children's age to four years.
Also it should be noted that in no case can one begin using the medication independently, without prescribing a doctor.
Understand when and where to get a flu shot
Today everyone is talking about vaccination. Modern society is divided into two large camps: those who are for and who are against vaccination. In this article I want to tell you in which cases and where to get a flu shot.
Why this is necessary
Physicians have long been talking about the fact that vaccination against influenza is a very important time for the prevention of this disease. And although after the introduction of the vaccine is not always possible to avoid the disease, but still the flu then flows in mild form. And such problems as complications or infection in contact with a patient are completely impossible.
Who needs it?
Before you figure out where to get a flu shot, you need to say for whom it may be mandatory.
- Children age from 6 months to 18 years.
- People whose age is more than 50 years.
- Patients with chronic diseases of the lungs, bronchi, heart.
- Those who have such diseases as diabetes, anemia.
- Pregnant women (whose period of gestation is at least 14 weeks).
To whom the vaccination is contraindicated
Where to get a flu shot - this will be learned a little later. At the same stage, I want to tell you about whom this procedure is forbidden:
- People who have intolerance to chicken eggs. After all, the vaccine makes a mix of proteins and other medications.
- It is not recommended to vaccinate those people who had previous complications caused by previous vaccination.
- Do not inoculate those who have chronic illnesses or allergic reactions.
It is worth remembering that a fully healthy person should be vaccinated. If the patient recently underwent surgery, he had severe inflammatory processes, there is weakness or temperature - in this case, the vaccination should be postponed for about a month.
Where to do?
It's time to figure out where and where to get the flu shot. So, at the very beginning it is necessary to say that it is possible to pass the vaccination in any medical institution that has a state license. It can be not only an immunological center, but even an ordinary polyclinic. The procedure is carried out by a qualified specialist in the medical field in the vaccination room. The vaccination itself is carried out in two main ways:
- The method of injection.
- The method of instilling special drops in the nose, i.e., intranasally.
If vaccination is given by injection, then it can be done:
- In the upper third part of the arm, forearm.
- Alternatively, the vaccine can be injected into the hip.
- In the buttocks, vaccination is not carried out, because it is very difficult to get the muscles in this case. There is a risk of injecting the drug into the subcutaneous layer.
Intravenous, subcutaneous or intradermal administration of the vaccine is not applied, as it is ineffective.
When and where do they get the flu shot before the first year of life? Thus, vaccination of the youngest children should not be earlier than the 6th month of life. The medicine is introduced to children twice. This is very important, as for children such infection can be very dangerous. The injection of even the smallest patients is mainly done in the forearm. However, if the crumb does not or can not sit still, the child can be injected into the hip. For this, split vaccines are used primarily. They have minimal reactogenicity and maximum efficiency for this category of patients.
It is necessary to understand separately when and where the flu vaccine is given to children at the age of 12, older children and adolescents. So, it is necessary to vaccinate against this disease to all those children who attend children's educational institutions - kindergartens, schools. After infection with the influenza virus in student groups is extremely high. The injection is also done in the upper part of the arm. If the child is afraid of injections and does not want to take the vaccine, you can also enter the vaccine into the thigh (to keep the baby more comfortable in this position).
"Where do people get the flu vaccine for adults?" - a frequently asked question. Again, mainly in the arm (as an alternative, the vaccine can be injected into the thigh). It should also be said that it is also very important for adults to get vaccinated. After all, the incidence of them is also high. And the disease most often occurs with complications. And with age, the patient's body is harder to fight with various viruses and infections.
A few words should be said about the vaccines themselves. So, they are created separately for each region, taking into account multiple important factors. If there is a desire to be vaccinated, it is best to take the drug that offers a specialized medical institution. It is not recommended to buy a vaccine on your own. If vaccination is expected by injection, then the following drugs are most often used: Influvak, Grippol, Vaxigripp. If the vaccination is carried out intranasally, it is mainly used such a drug as "Ultravac".