Lipidogram - what is it: an important stage in the diagnosis of diseases of the cardiovascular system

Lipidogram - an analysis for the lipid spectrum of blood. Refers to a group of biochemical laboratory studies. Lipids are called a wide range of organic compounds, which include fats and fat-like substances in their composition.

In the human body, fats perform a huge number of vital functions. But along with this, when we hear about cholesterol( lipoprotein) - one of the main indicators of abnormalities in fat metabolism, then immediately come to mind various serious diseases of the cardiovascular system, and in the first place - atherosclerosis.

Part of this can be blamed for "anti-cholesterol fever," which is already on the decline. Of course, cholesterol and its fractions play a role in the formation of diseases of the cardiovascular system, but here it is in balance.

In order to control this balance, there is a lipidogram( lipid spectrum) - what kind of blood test is it and what diseases does it show, we will tell further.

Contents

  • 1 Preparation for analysis of
  • 2 Indicators: what is included in the lipid spectrum of the blood
  • 3 Tables of norms in children and adult women and men
  • 4 Decoding of possible violations
  • 5 Significance in determining heart and vascular diseases

Preparation for analysis of


Usually is prescribed lipidramum in the following cases:

  • excess weight, age;
  • hereditary factors( cardiovascular disease in close relatives);
  • diseases requiring control of cholesterol;
  • smoking, low-active lifestyle;
  • during preventive examinations;
  • for the control of therapy;

Preparation before passing the analysis to the lipid spectrum is no different from the standard for any fence for biochemical analysis:

  • in the morning, on an empty stomach;
  • to exclude excessive physical activity the day before the analysis;
  • alcohol and heavy food should not be consumed per day;
  • the last meal the day before - no later than eight hours;
  • for an hour to exclude smoking and emotional stress;

About what is a lipidogram and how the delivery of this analysis affects the timely diagnosis of diseases, look at the video:

Indicators: what is included in the lipid spectrum of the blood

Traditionally, the lipidogram study includes five indicators:

  • Total cholesterol( cholesterol) is the most important number in the lipidogram. Cholesterol is divided into endogenous( synthesized by the body, mainly in the liver cells) and exogenous( coming from the outside, mainly with food).

    Participates in the formation of all tissues and cell membranes of the body, promotes the absorption of nutrients, the precursor of growth hormones responsible for puberty and the overall development of the body.

  • High-density lipoproteins( HDL, alpha-cholesterol , "good" cholesterol) is an anti-atherogenic factor. Its main task is to transport free cholesterol from the cells.

    HDLP deduce it into liver cells, from which, if the fat exchange is okay, it is removed from the body by fatty acids.

  • Low-density lipoproteins( LDL, beta-cholesterol, "bad " cholesterol) - this is the indicator that is more atherogenic.

    Even with a normal level of total cholesterol, elevated LDL indicates a violation of fat metabolism and the risk of atherosclerosis.

    This is due to the fact that the lipoproteins of this species are able to linger on the walls of the vessels, which leads to the formation of plaques.

    The percentage of LDL in the blood plasma in the total cholesterol is approximately 65%.

  • Very low density lipoproteins( VLDL) - some medical laboratories use this indicator in deciphering the lipidogram. But to date, there are no reliable studies confirming the need to diagnose the level of VLDL for assessing the risk of cardiovascular disease and the appointment of therapy.

    This indicator is relevant in the case of a rare form of dyslipidemia or, alternatively, instead of the LDL index, if the analysis passes without refusing to eat.

  • Triglycerides( TG) - in blood plasma are present in a small amount, mainly accumulate in fatty tissues. They are a combination of glycerol and fatty acid ester.

    The main function is energy. In the blood are represented in the VLDL( very low density lipoproteins), which, in turn, are converted to LDL, so it is important to monitor this figure.

  • Atherogenicity coefficient( AS) - this indicator is obtained not by direct blood test, but calculated from all other indices. This is done in order to calculate the ratio of atherogenic to anti-atherogenic factors.

    Usually, a formula is used for this, where the difference between total cholesterol and HDL is divided into HDL.The higher the ratio, the higher the risk of cardiovascular disease.

This video tells about "bad" and "good" cholesterol:

Tables of norms in children and adult women and men

Decoding of possible violations

Below normal Excess
total cholesterol
  • anemia
  • hyperthyroidism
  • starvation
  • physical exhaustion
  • fever
  • pulmonary disease
  • alcoholism
  • pregnancy
  • overweight
  • chronic pancreatitis
  • malignant pancreatic tumor
  • diabetes
  • hypothyroidism
  • chronic renal failure
  • cirrhosis
  • hepatitis
  • ischemic heart disease
kidney disease
  • hyperthyroidism
  • pulmonary disease
  • malabsorption Reye Tanzhera
  • syndrome syndrome
  • syndrome
  • chronic anemia
  • excess holesterinosoderzhaschey food ration
  • anorexia
  • diabetes
  • cider Cushing
  • overweight
  • hereditary increased cholesterol
  • hypothyroidism
  • various liver diseases and kidney
VLDL
  • obesity
  • kidney disease
  • pituitary insufficiency;
  • lupus erythematosus
  • syndrome, Niemann-Pick
  • pregnancy
  • glycogenoses
HDL
  • atherosclerosis
  • infarcts
  • CHD
  • ulcer
  • tuberculosis
  • infection in the acute stage
  • kidney disease regular debilitating physical load
  • cirrhosis and alcoholism
  • malignant bowel
Triglycerides
  • hyperthyroidism
  • chronic lung diseases
  • meager same food
  • IHD
  • myocardial infarction
  • atherosclerosis;
  • hypertension
  • excess weight
  • viral hepatitis

If you have lowered cholesterol in your blood, what does it mean? Read about this in a separate article.

Significance in the definition of heart disease and blood vessels


A cardiologist is involved in the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. A therapist can also prescribe a lipidogram.

The most important function of the lipid spectrum assay in diagnosis is that with the help of it is possible to reliably estimate the risk of occurrence of such diseases as:

  • myocardial infarction;
  • strokes;
  • kidney disease;
  • diseases caused by elevated cholesterol;

In the course of diagnosis, the specialist determines whether the patient is at .For this, it is necessary to analyze many factors. The age, sex, the presence of hereditary diseases, weight, bad habits, cholesterol level and other indices of the lipidogram - all this must be taken into account by the cardiologist, and based on this, to draw conclusions whether it is necessary to prescribe the treatment with statins( drugs that lower blood cholesterol levels).

The importance of analyzing the lipid spectrum of the blood lies in the fact that it is impossible to accurately determine the need for treatment as a general level of cholesterol, as numerous studies prove that the main role in the risk of the formation of cardiovascular diseases is played by a certain indicator - LDL.

At that time, is normal and closer to high HDL, on the contrary, serve as a deterrent to when prescribing medications, as it prevents the formation of blood clots.

Elevated levels of triglycerides will be the reason to prescribe for more intensive treatment of , drugs that lower LDL levels also affect triglyceride levels. Thus, a detailed analysis of the fat metabolism analysis is a mandatory step in the course of diagnostic examinations.

At the stage of therapy of already diagnosed cardiovascular diseases, the lipidogram should serve as a marker for the efficacy and safety of the prescribed treatment of .

Before prescribing statins, along with a lipidogram the doctor is likely to assign an analysis for transaminases( ALT and AST) - biochemical indicators of liver status.

According to these data, the specialist will evaluate the effectiveness of therapy. After a certain time from the beginning of taking the drug, the lipidogram and the so-called "renal tests" are again assigned.

If the level of LDL decreased and the liver function did not increase more than three times, then in the absence of other negative effects such treatment is considered effective and safe and can continue.

Analysis for the lipid spectrum of blood takes one of the leading places in the diagnosis of the general state of human health. With timely detection of deviations from normal indices, predictions for a favorable outcome of therapy are significantly increased.

But it must be remembered that results of the lipidogram are considered in the complex of many other factors of .Only a specialist can diagnose diseases, assess risks and prescribe treatments.

What other tests are worth going to full people, find out from the video: