The stages of alcoholism is a classification of chronic alcoholism on the clinical symptoms of and indicative of its onset, swelling and completion. The most correct model of the concept of alcoholism includes three stage chronic development of disease. The definition of and the isolation of independent and successively alternating stages of alcoholism allows us to correctly describe the clinical picture of the disease, accurately establish the diagnosis of and designate the appropriate treatment for .Despite this, up to now, different experts - doctors-narcologists and psychiatrists - the concept and definition of stages of alcohol dependence is not always unambiguous.
This is especially true of the first stage. And some researchers refer also cases of household drunkenness to the zero( 0) stage of alcoholism. If you take the report from zero, then all the stages are already four( 4).
- So how many stages of alcoholism are there?
Name all stages from different sources can be grouped in the following table:
alcoholismIt is important to remember the three main manifestations of alcoholic illness:
- Increased tolerance to alcohol( endurance).
- Painful attraction to a state of intoxication( addiction to alcoholic beverages).
- Abstinence alcohol syndrome( with the cessation of alcohol intake, a complex of symptoms of somatic, vegetative, neurological and psychiatric disorders is revealed).
The most important heart of the disease is contained in a pathological attraction to a state of intoxication! That is, in the overwhelming need for alcoholic beverages.
The first stage of alcoholism
The formation of the first stage of alcoholism occurs with a sharp increase in craving for intoxication. In normal situations it is very difficult, and sometimes it becomes impossible to control the amount of alcohol consumed. And the dose leading to loss of quantity control can be 0.3 - 0.4 liters of vodka. To break down drunkenness in this case can only be a situation in which it is impossible to continue the abuse of alcohol. Thus, situational control is still maintained.
Attraction to a state of intoxication in a sober state is not very pronounced. Even in humans, along with animation and activity, there are doubts - to use or not to use alcohol on the upcoming feast. But if the anticipation of the festive gatherings with alcoholic beverages is not satisfied, discontent, irritation, mood falls. So, gradually, the motives of behavior attract situations in which the need for alcoholic intoxication is met. Consumption of alcohol is not considered a pathology. The person continues to study, work, he still has personal interests and interests.
The resistance to high doses of alcohol gradually increases - tolerance. And also the frequency of abuse. Vomiting reflex and feeling of saturation with alcohol are lost. And this is an unfavorable forecast. There are frequent states of deep intoxication. After the end of many days of drinking, asthenia appears - weakness and fatigue. A dream is broken in terms of early awakenings. To improve their well-being, drinking people in the morning tone themselves with strong coffee, tea, and shower.
In the initial stage of alcoholism, there is no criticality to alcohol. Patients can partially or completely deny drunkenness. Justify cases of abuse, give examples, which is worse for others, compared with them. The blame for drunkenness is shifted to outsiders. At the heart of the lack of self-criticism are laid the psychological mechanisms of protection. If, for some reason, patients seek medical help, they agree, only with the fact that they simply can not control the amount of alcohol consumed, but in fact they are healthy.
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In the first stage of alcoholism, behavior can change, which is characterized by not quite adequate reaction to ordinary situations, a freer manner, negligence in clothes. The manner of speech becomes loud, more rigid in intonation, too expressive without emotional overtones. For the first time the days when alcohol abuse ceases, there are difficulties in finding words.
The duration of the first stage of alcoholism, if it goes to the expanded stage, can be from 1 year to 15 years or more.
The second stage of alcoholism
The middle stage of alcoholism is characterized by maximum tolerance to alcohol and it can be diagnosed in nine out of every ten alcoholics who are registered with drug treatment specialists. For each day, patients take inside at least 0.5 liters of 40% vodka. And when you reach the "plateau of tolerance" and the presence of alcohol can take up to two liters of vodka. The usual consumed dose is in the range of 0.5 to 1.2 liters per day. While the patient has not drunk, the craving for alcohol is not very pronounced. But after abuse, craving for alcohol becomes compulsive.
Here there is a gradual decrease in the dose, leading to a loss of control of the amount of alcohol. A painful passion for a state of intoxication is accompanied by asthenia. It's irritability, lethargy and fatigue. There are often cases of the appearance of dysphoric( irritation) subdepression( a steady decline in mood).
Attraction to alcohol may not be realized. But in conversations with people who abuse alcohol, there can always be an alcoholic topic. The realization of attraction depends on the situation, the environment, the patient's personality. If a patient with increased nervous excitability, with pathological traits, then attraction can manifest with maximum force and immediate realization.
The alcoholic withdrawal symptoms form the abstinence alcohol syndrome - the most characteristic feature of the developed stage of alcoholism. If at the beginning the patient was alcoholized after the large doses of alcohol taken the day before, now there is a constant use of small and medium doses of alcohol. The hangover syndrome initially manifests itself 10 hours after stopping the intake of alcohol, then this time is reduced to 2 hours. The duration of abstinence is first 1 to 2 days, then increases to 4 days( this is an average).As the disease worsens, abstinence can last from 6 to 10 days!
The duration of the second stage of alcoholism is 10 to 15 years after the formation of abstinence.
The third stage of alcoholism
The most important sign of the 3 stages of alcoholism is a decrease in resistance, or tolerance to alcohol. Primarily the attraction( in a sober state) to alcohol increases and the secondary( in a state of intoxication) becomes cyclical, or paroxysmal.
Alcohol from the blood is excreted much more slowly, epiletiformic seizures and neurological symptoms of alcoholic encephalopathy can occur. Therefore, the last stage of alcoholism is also called encephalopathy.
Abstinence gets more heaviness and duration. Patients are tired, anxious, suspicious. They are steadily reduced mood, there is fear, disorientation, illusions, hallucinations are possible. Metakolnye psychoses are observed in 2 times more often, than on 2 stages of alcoholism. Intoxication is characterized by aggression, brutality, but there can be a state of passivity and stun, without euphoria. Total amnesia is common in a state of intoxication.
At the final stage of alcoholism, the form of alcohol consumption changes. Prepare binges of a true nature, drunkenness alternating. And 16% of drinking patients experience pseudoarthrosis and episodic abuse of alcohol. True binges are formed in several stages. At first the tolerance to alcohol is lowered at the end of the drinking-bout, then - in the middle of the drinking-bout. Sometimes the resistance to alcohol is constantly lowered. And then the transition to everyday abuse in small doses is carried out. Virtually all drinking patients experience intellectual-mnestic disorders and alcoholic degradation of the individual. This is manifested by disorders of attention, memory, a decrease in the ability to generalize and abstract.
Every alcoholic patient has this or that degree of social, family and labor disadaptation. More than half of the patients have liver pathology, myocardial dystrophy, chronic pancreatitis. Every 4 out of 10 drinkers have scattered encephalomyelitis syndrome, and 75% have polyneuropathy.
A few questions and answers on
Do the stages of alcoholism differ between men and women?
Women prefer a single form of drunkenness, and for a long time hide their painful attraction from relatives and co-workers. If the moral level from the very beginning is high laid in a woman, then she is very experiencing a moral fall. The form of drunken drunkenness is less pronounced than that of men. The stages of alcoholism in women are the same as in men.
Stages of beer alcoholism?
With beer alcoholism, psychological and physical dependence develops faster. This is a disguised alcohol product. After all, beer on the palatability near the vodka, you can not put moonshine. It is initially less nasty, quenches thirst and gives a light intoxicating effect. But, nevertheless, you need to remember that it is still an alcoholic drink. And large doses of liquid that is injected into the body have a negative effect on the activity of the kidneys, the heart and the whole organism! In general, beer alcoholism has the same stages as alcoholic beverage. After all, the dependence is general, it is the same.
How to determine the stage of alcoholism?
It is important to remember: alcohol withdrawal syndrome is the core of the disease when it is already started! And the beginning of the loss of the emetic reflex and the increase in the dose of alcohol taken in order to get drunk - the first bells of the beginning of the formation of the first stage of alcoholism.
To find out at what stage of alcoholism your neighbor is, a special test can help. Answers to his questions will help in determining whether alcoholism is domestic or has already become chronic alcoholism.
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