Cholesterol: what is and what is needed in the body
Cholesterol , or cholesterol , is a fatty alcohol contained in cell membranes, giving them strength. However, it accumulates on the walls of the vessels, forming cholesterol plaques, is the cause of atherosclerosis. Thus, it can be said that cholesterol is "good" and "bad".
Today we will consider the norm of cholesterol in the blood of women and men by age in the table after 30, 40, 50, 55, 60 and more years.
Cholesterol as a component is extremely important for the body:
- It actively participates in the process of digestion, since cholesterol production by the liver of digestive juices and enzymes is impossible.
- It is involved in the synthesis of male and female sex hormones( testosterone, estrogen, progesterone).The change in the concentration of fatty alcohol in the blood( both large and small) can lead to malfunction of the reproductive function.
- With the help of cholesterol, the adrenal glands stably produce cortisol, and vitamin D is synthesized in the skin. Violations of the cholesterol concentration in the blood lead to weakening of immunity and other disorders of the body.
- 75% of cholesterol is produced by the body on its own( about 75%), 25% - comes from food. The level of cholesterol can deviate from normal values depending on the diet.
Difference between "bad" and "good" cholesterol
There is an opinion in society that it is better when the blood has a low concentration of cholesterol. But it's not right.
Cholesterol plays a big role in the stability of the functioning of the human body. Fatty alcohol was divided into "bad" and "good."This division is conditional, in fact, cholesterol is not "good", "bad".It has a single composition and structure. It all depends on which transport protein he joins. Cholesterol is dangerous only in a certain connected, not free state.
"Bad" cholesterol ( low-density cholesterol) is able to settle on the walls of blood vessels and form stratifications that close the lumen of the blood vessel. When combined with protein-apoproteins, cholesterol forms LDL complexes. With the increase of such cholesterol in the blood - there is a danger.
"Good" cholesterol ( high-density cholesterol or HDL) differs from the previous in structure and function. It clears the walls of the vessels from the "bad" cholesterol and sends the harmful substance for processing into the liver.
Cholesterol in the blood: age-standard, tables
Blood cholesterol content according to CNN:
|Total cholesterol level|
|Below 5.2 mmol / l||Optimal|
|5.2 - 6.2 mmol / l||Maximum allowable|
|Over 6.2 mmol / L||High|
|Level of LDL cholesterol( "bad")|
|Below 1.8 mmol / l||Optimal for people at high risk of cardiovascular disease|
|Below 2.6 mmol / l||Optimal for people with a predisposition to cardiovascular diseases|
|2.6 to 3.3 mmol/||Optimal|
|3.4 - 4.1 mmol / L||Maximum allowable|
|4.1 - 4.9 mmol / l||High|
|Over 4.9 mmol / l||Very high|
|HDL cholesterol level( "good")|
|Less than 1.0 mmol / l( formen)||Bad|
|Less than 1.3 mmol / l( forwomen)||Bad|
|1.0 - 1.3 mmol / L( for men)||Normal|
|1.3 - 1.5 mmol / L( for women)||Normal|
|1.6 mmol / L and above||Excellent|
|Below 1.7 mmol / l||Desirable|
|1.7 - 2.2 mmol / L||Maximum allowable|
|2.3 - 5.6 mmol / L||High|
|Above 5.6 mmol / L and above||Very high|
Cholesterol in the blood of women: age norms - table
Let's look at the same norms of cholesterol concentrationin the blood of women are permissible in connection with age.
|Age||Total cholesterol||LDL cholesterol||HDL cholesterol|
|up to 5 years||2.90-5.18 mmol / l||-||-|
|5-10 years||2.26 - 5.30 mmol / l||1.76 - 3.63 mmol / l||0.93 -1.49 mmol / l|
|10-15 years||3.21-5.20 mmol / l||1.76 - 3.52 mmol / l||0.96 - 1.81 mmol / l|
|15-20 years||3.08 - 5.18 mmol / l||1.53 - 3.55 mmol / l||0.91 - 1.91 mmol / l|
|20-25 years||3.16 - 5.59 mmol / L||1.48 - 4.12 mmol / L||0.85 - 2.04 mmol / l|
|25-30 years||3.32-5.75 mmol / l||1.84 to 4.25 mmol /l||0.96 - 2.15 mmol / l|
|30-35 years old||3.37-5.96 mmol / L||1.81-4.04 mmol / l||0.93 - 1.99 mmol / l|
|35-40 years||3.63 - 6.27 mmol / l||1.94-4.45 mmol / l||0.88 - 2.12 mmol / llASAS-2ASAS 40-45 years||3.81 - 6.53 mmol / l||1.92 4.51 mmol / l||0.88 - 2.28 mmol / l|
|45-50 years||3.94 - 6.86 mmol / l||2.05 - 4.82 mmol / l||0.88 -2.25 mmol / l|
|50-55 years||4.20 - 7.38 mmol / L||2.28 - 5.21 mmol / l||0.96 - 2.38 mmol / l|
|55-60 years||4.45 to 7.77 mmol / l||2.31 to 5.44 mmol / l||0.96 - 2.35 mmol / l|
|60-65 years||4.45 - 7.69 mmol / l||2.59 - 5.80 mmol/ l||0.98 - 2.38 mmol / l|
|65-70 years||4.43 - 7.85 mmol / l||2.38-5.72 mmol / l||0.91 - 2.48 mmol / l|
|& gt;70 years||4.48 - 7.25 mmol / l||2.49 - 5.34 mmol / l||0.85 - 2.38 mmol / l|
The concentration of cholesterol in women is stable, so it continues to menopause, then - the concentration begins to increase.
It is important to take into account, along with gender, age, a number of additional factors when interpreting the results of laboratory studies, which can significantly change the picture of the result of the analysis and lead to incorrect conclusions:
- Seasonal fluctuations. Depending on the season, cholesterol levels may decrease or increase. It is known that in the cold season the concentration increases by 2-4%.So a deviation to a similar value can be considered a physiological norm.
- The onset of the menstrual cycle. In the first half of the cycle, the deviation can reach almost 10%, which is the physiological norm. In later stages of the cycle, cholesterol is increased by 6-8%.This is due to the peculiarities of the synthesis of fatty compounds under the influence of sex hormones. Fruit bearing. Pregnancy is another reason for a significant increase in cholesterol, due to a different intensity of fat synthesis. It is considered normal to increase by 12-15% of the norm.
- Diseases. Diseases such as angina pectoris, acute arterial hypertension( attack, crisis), acute respiratory diseases often cause a significant decrease in the concentration of cholesterol in the blood. The effect can persist for a period of days, up to a month or more. Reduction is observed in the range of 13-15%.
- Malignant neoplasms of contribute to a sharp decrease in the concentration of fatty alcohol. Explain the process can be an active growth of pathological tissue. To form it requires a lot of substances, including fatty alcohol.
Cholesterol in women after
- 40 - 45 years old .The norm of total cholesterol is 3.81-6.53 mmol / l, LDL-cholesterol is 1.92-4.51 mmol / l, HDL-cholesterol is 0.88-2.28.
- 45-50 years old .The norm of total cholesterol is 3.94-6.86 mmol / l, LDL-cholesterol is 2.05-4.82 mmol / l, HDL-cholesterol is 0.88-2.25.
- 50-55 years .The norm of total cholesterol - 4.20 - 7.38 mmol / l, LDL-cholesterol - 2.28 - 5.21 mmol / l, HDL-cholesterol - 0.96 - 2.38 mmol / l.
- 55-60 years. The norm of total cholesterol is 4.45 - 7.77 mmol / l, LDL-cholesterol - 2.31 - 5.44 mmol / l, HDL-cholesterol - 0.96 - 2.35 mmol / l.
60 years old
- 60-65 years. The norm of total cholesterol is 4.43 - 7.85 mmol / l, LDL-cholesterol - 2.59 - 5.80 mmol / l, HDL-cholesterol - 0.98 - 2.38 mmol / l.
- 65-70 years. The norm of total cholesterol is 4.20 - 7.38 mmol / l, LDL-cholesterol is 2.38 - 5.72 mmol / l, HDL-cholesterol is 0.91 - 2.48 mmol / l.
- After 70 years. The norm of total cholesterol is 4.48 - 7.25 mmol / l, LDL-cholesterol is 2.49 - 5.34 mmol / l, HDL-cholesterol is 0.85 - 2.38 mmol / l.
Cholesterol in the blood of men: age norms - table
|Age||Total cholesterol||LDL cholesterol||HDL cholesterol|
|up to 5 years||2.95-5.25 mmol / l||-||-|
|5-10 years||3.13 - 5.25 mmol / l||1.63 - 3.34 mmol / l||0.98 -1.|
|10-15 years||3.08-5.23 mmol / l||1.66 - 3.34 mmol / l||0.96 - 1.91 mmol / l|
|15-20 years||2.91 - 5.10 mmol / l||1.61-3.37 mmol / l||0.77 - 1.63 mmol / l|
|20-25 years||3.16 - 5.59 mmol / l||1.71 - 3.81 mmol / l||0.78 1.63 mmol / l|
|25-30 years||3.44 - 6.32 mmol / l||1.81 to 4.27 mmol /l||0.80 - 1.63 mmol / l|
|30-35 years||3.57 - 6.58 mmol / l||2.04 - 4.79 mmol / l||0.72 1.63 mmol / l|
|35-40 years||3.63 - 6.99 mmol / l||1.94 - 4.45 mmol / l||0.88 - 2.12 mmol / l/|
|40-45 years old||3.91 to 6.94 mmol / l||2.25 to 4.82 mmol / l||0.70 to 1.73 mmol / l|
|45 to 50 years of age||4.09 to 7.15 mmol / l||2.51 to 5.23 mmol / l||0.78 -1.|
|50-55 years||4.09 - 7.17 mmol / l||2.31 - 5.10 mmol / l||0.72 - 1.63 mmol / l|
|55-60 years||4.04 - 7.15 mmol / l||2.28 - 5.26 mmol / l||0.72 - 1.84 mmol / l|
|60-65 years||4.12 - 7.15 mmol / l||2.15 - 5.44 mmol/ l||0.78 - 1.91 mmol / l|
|65-70 years||4.09 - 7.10 mmol / l||2.49 - 5.34 mmol / l||0.78 - 1.94 mmol / l|
|& gt;70 years||3.73 - 6.86 mmol / l||2.49 - 5.34 mmol / l||0.85 - 1.94 mmol / l|
With age, the blood cholesterol level in men gradually increases. But it is in men that the level of fatty alcohol grows to 50 years of age, then - begins to decline.
Causes of high cholesterol content
"Bad" cholesterol: risk groups
Risk groups for high concentrations of "bad" cholesterol in the blood are determined by the factors:
- The presence of ischemic heart disease( or IHD).
Earlier, physicians believed that the main cause of increased cholesterol in the blood is the abuse of "harmful" food and improper diet. But by 1990, it turned out that the old views are insufficient, they represent only the "tip of the iceberg" problem.
One of the new factors that began to take into account is a genetically determined feature of the metabolism. Studies have detected 95 genes responsible for the concentration of cholesterol.
According to statistics, every 500th person in the world carries one or several damaged genes( of those 95) responsible for the processing of fatty alcohol. Moreover, thousands of mutations of these genes are known. Even if there is a situation in which a normal gene is inherited from one of the parents and the other is damaged, the risk of problems with cholesterol concentration will remain high.
If one or both parents have had problems with cholesterol, with a probability of 25 to 75% the child will inherit this metabolic feature, and subsequently will have problems. Although this does not always happen.
As we have said, nutrition affects the state of the dynamics of cholesterol in the blood. After all, 25% of fatty alcohol enters the body with food. But what type of cholesterol it will go to - it depends on the products eaten in parallel and the metabolic features. The product itself, rich in cholesterol( egg, shrimp), eaten with fatty foods( mayonnaise, sausages, etc.), is likely to lead to an increase in the level of LDL cholesterol.
A similar effect will be observed with the inheritance of a defective gene, even if nothing particularly fatty people did not eat.
The reason is that the liver signal does not flow to reduce the production of its own cholesterol, and it continues to actively produce fatty acid. Therefore, people with a characteristic metabolism are not recommended to eat more than 4 eggs per week.
The cholesterol content in foodstuffs is listed in descending order:
- Beef brawns - 2500 mg per 100 g of product.
- Yolk of chicken eggs - 1400 mg, then - products to a lesser extent.
- Caviar grain.
- Red caviar.
- Crabs, shrimps.
- Cheese is hard.
- Chicken with skin.
Quite controversial is the question of the role of excess weight in raising the level of cholesterol in the blood. It is not completely clear what is the reason, and what is the consequence. However, according to statistics, almost 65% of people with overweight have problems with the level of fatty alcohol in the blood, and the "bad" kind of it.
Low physical activity - hypodynamia
Low level of physical activity is directly related to an increase in the concentration of cholesterol in the blood. The reason is stagnant processes and disturbances in the energy metabolism of the body. With sufficient physical exertion, the level of "bad" cholesterol is usually reduced.
Instability of functioning of the thyroid gland
The influence of the degree of functioning of the thyroid gland and the level of cholesterol in the blood is mutual. As soon as the thyroid gland ceases to cope with its functions qualitatively, the concentration of fatty alcohol increases abruptly.
At the same time, when cholesterol is elevated, and the thyroid gland used to work normally, it can change. The danger is that such changes in the functioning of the thyroid gland are practically not diagnosed, while organic changes in the organ already occur.
Therefore, people who are prone to unstable dynamics of cholesterol should be careful about the thyroid gland, regularly checking its condition, and as soon as the initial symptoms of hypothyroidism begin to be observed( weakness, drowsiness and weakness, etc.) - immediately contact the endocrinologist.
Problems with liver and kidneys
If there are problems with these two organs - the level of cholesterol can also uncontrollably rise and fall.
Accepting certain types of medications
Many drugs designed to treat cardiovascular diseases can have some effect on the concentration of cholesterol in the circulatory system. So, beta-blockers( Verapamil, Diltiazem, etc.) slightly increase the level of fatty acid. The same effect is caused by hormonal drugs to eliminate acne, etc.
The more risk factors can be attributed to the patient's anamnesis, the more likely the presence of increased amounts of cholesterol in the blood.
Cholesterol is the main cause of atherosclerosis?
The first hypothesis about cholesterol as the most important factor in the development of atherosclerosis was formulated by N. Anichkov at the beginning of the 20th century( 1912).To confirm the hypothesis, a rather dubious experiment was conducted.
For some time, the scientist injected a saturated and concentrated cholesterol solution into the digestive canal of rabbits. As a result of the "diet" on the walls of the blood vessels of animals began to form deposits of fatty alcohol. And as a result of changing the diet to normal - everything was as before. The hypothesis was confirmed. But such a way of affirmation can not be called unambiguous.
The only thing confirmed by the experiment - the consumption of cholesterol-containing foods is harmful for herbivores. However, man, like many other animals, is not herbivorous. A similar experiment, conducted on dogs, did not confirm the hypothesis.
The pharmaceutical giants played an important role in inflating cholesterol hysteria. And although by the 90s the theory was found to be incorrect, and it was not shared by the vast majority of scientists, it was beneficial for concerns to duplicate false information to earn hundreds of millions of dollars in so-called statins( drugs to lower blood cholesterol).
In December 2006, in the journal "Neurology", the cholesterol theory of the origin of atherosclerosis finally put an end to the cross. As a basis for the experiment, a control group of long-livered men aged 100-105 years was taken. As it turned out, almost all of them have a significantly increased level of "bad" cholesterol in the blood, but no one has observed atherosclerosis.
Thus, a direct link between the development of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases and the concentration of cholesterol in the blood to confirm and failed. If the role of cholesterol in the mechanism is, it is not obvious and has a secondary, if not more distant, meaning.
Thus, the role of cholesterol in the development of cardiovascular diseases is nothing more than an advantageous and replicated myth!
Source: Valentina Ivanovna Zubolenko, endocrinologist, site