The most successful treatment of the disease - its prevention, as well as the main art of prolonging life, is to not shorten it!
At present, it is obvious that medicine does not always cope with the mass of pathologies, sometimes even not because of its scientific development, but in the banal equipping of medical and preventive institutions that are most necessary to preserve, maintain or restore the level of health of citizens.
Therefore it becomes today more relevant than ever - a healthy lifestyle, technology and means of its formation among older citizens.
Are there any technologies for forming a healthy lifestyle in the elderly and what means can be used to increase interest in a healthy lifestyle? Let's consider.
What is HLS?
A healthy way of life( HLS) is a way of life for an individual person, consciously formed for the purpose of disease prevention and health promotion.
There are many different approaches to the definition of a healthy lifestyle.
Representatives of the philosophical and sociological direction( PA Vinogradov, B. S. Erasov, OA Milstein, VA Ponomarchuk, V. I. Stolyarov, etc.) regard HLS as a global social problem, an integral part of lifesociety as a whole.
In the psychological-pedagogical direction( GP Aksenov, VK Balsevich, M. Ya. Vilensky, R. Ditts, IO Martynyuk, LS Kobelyanskaya, etc.) HLS is viewed from the point of view of consciousness, human psychology, motivation.
There are other points of view( for example, medical and biological), but there is no sharp edge between them, as they are aimed at solving one problem - health promotion.
Thus, a healthy lifestyle is a way of life, corresponding to the genetically determined typological features of the person, the specific conditions of life and aimed at the formation, preservation and strengthening of health in order to fully implement the person's social and biological functions.
In the above definition of a healthy lifestyle, the emphasis is on the individualization of the concept itself, that is, healthy lifestyles should be as many as there are people.
What to consider in establishing a healthy lifestyle
In establishing a healthy lifestyle for everyone, you need to consider how:
- its typological features ( the type of higher nervous activity, morphofunctional type, the prevailing mechanism of autonomic nervous regulation, etc.),
- and age-sex accessory and the social setting of in which he lives( marital status, profession, traditions, working conditions, material security, everyday life and others).
An important place in the initial assumptions should be occupied by the personality-motivational characteristics of this person, his life guidelines, which in themselves can be a serious stimulus to a healthy lifestyle and to the formation of its content and characteristics.
What is related to the concept of a healthy lifestyle
We list a number of concepts that are closely related to the concept of a way of life.
- The image of life - a certain type of people's life, which includes a set of different activities, people's behavior in everyday life.
- Terms life - conditions that determine the way of life. They can be tangible and intangible( work, life, family relations, education, nutrition, etc.).
- The level of life( welfare level) characterizes the size and structure of the needs. These are quantitative indicators of living conditions. The standard of living is determined by the size of the gross product, the national income, the real incomes of the population, the provision of housing, medical care, and the health indicators of the population.
- The way of life - the order, the regulations of work, life, social life, within which the life activity of people.
- Style life - the individual characteristics of behavior in everyday life.
- Quality life - the quality of those conditions in which the daily vital activity of people( quality of housing conditions, nutrition, education, medical care) is carried out.
In the definition of the concept of a healthy lifestyle, it is necessary to take into account two starting factors - the genetic nature of the person and their correspondence to specific conditions of life.
For example, the task of a social worker is ultimately to help a client restore or improve the interaction between him and society to improve the quality of life of the client.
The urgency of a healthy lifestyle is caused by an increase and a change in the nature of the loads on the human body due to the complication of social life, increasing risks of anthropogenic, ecological, psychological, political and military nature that provoke negative changes in the state of health.
Human diseases are most closely related to their lifestyle and daily behavior. Currently, a healthy lifestyle is seen as the basis for preventing diseases and premature deaths, increasing life expectancy.
A healthy lifestyle should correspond to the genetic program inherent in a person. This is necessary both for the harmonious coexistence of man with nature, and for the maximum development of the potential of health.
The human genetic program determines its constitution( morphofunctional type, the prevailing types of nervous and psychic reactions), the rate of biological reactions and, consequently, predetermines the presence or absence of various diseases.
In addition to genetic factors,
- working conditions,
- family traditions and foundations,
- material well-being,
- personal motivation.
The basis for the formation and implementation of a healthy life
An active carrier of a healthy lifestyle is a specific person as a subject and object of his life and social status. In the implementation of a healthy lifestyle, a person acts in the unity of his biological and social principles.
At the heart of the formation of a healthy lifestyle is the person-motivational attitude of the person to the embodiment of his social, physical, intellectual and mental abilities and abilities.
A healthy lifestyle is the most effective means and method of providing health, primary prevention of disease and meeting the vital health needs.
Background of the program and organization of a healthy lifestyle
The program and organization of a healthy lifestyle for this person is determined by the following basic premises:
- individual typological hereditary factors;
- objective social conditions and socio-economic factors;
- with specific living conditions in which family-household and professional activities are carried out;
- personality-motivational factors determined by the worldview and culture of a person, the degree of their orientation to health and a healthy lifestyle.
Quite often in history, the opportunity was offered to preserve and promote health through the use of a single agent with miraculous properties( motor activity of a particular species, nutritional supplements, psychotraining, body cleansing, etc.).However, some authors emphasize the physical component( for example, Hippocrates), some on the spiritual( for example, Democritus), less often the main emphasis is on social factors. Such approaches clearly do not justify themselves.
Technologies and means of forming a healthy lifestyle
There is no panacea for all diseases
As there is no panacea for all diseases, there is no main element of a healthy lifestyle. This is also understandable because any tool or phenomenon affects the human body as a whole, and not one single system.
Some people, taking a great interest in one method of health promotion, are ready to swear that this method helped them more than others, turned out to be miraculous. In this case, do not forget about the inner psychic potential of a person, self-hypnosis, as well as the effect of a placebo.
Health monitoring is performed using some indicators that have a specific quantitative expression. For example, the main indicators of homeostasis, the indices of the body's reserves under directed loads.
A healthy way of life is the realization of a complex of actions in all the basic spheres of human life: labor, public, family-household, leisure.
Adaptive capabilities of a person
The medical and biological meaning of a healthy lifestyle lies in the adaptive capabilities of a person. In this understanding of healthy lifestyles, concepts are most often put:
- upbringing healthy habits and skills from early childhood;
- is a safe and healthy environment;
- knowledge of the impact of surrounding objects on health;
- rejection of bad habits( smoking, drug use, alcohol abuse);
- moderate, corresponding to physiological needs, food
- conscious choice of products;
- physically active life, including special exercises( for example, fitness);
- compliance with the rules of personal and public hygiene;
- mastery of first aid skills;
All components of a healthy lifestyle( HLS) are related. The physiological state of a person is greatly influenced by his psychoemotional state, which depends, in turn, on his mental attitudes.
Feeling: emotional, intellectual, spiritual
Therefore, separately in the medical-biological theories of a healthy lifestyle, the following block of components is singled out:
- emotional well-being: psychohygiene, ability to cope with one's own emotions;
- intellectual well-being: a person's ability to recognize and use new information for optimal actions in new circumstances;
- spiritual state of health: the ability to establish truly meaningful, constructive life goals and strive for them, optimism.
Interaction with the society
Some researchers add to this list a social well-being - the ability to interact with other people. The formation of a healthy lifestyle, according to some authors, is carried out at three levels:
- social: propaganda through the media, outreach;
- infrastructure: specific conditions in the main spheres of life( availability of free time, material resources), preventive institutions, environmental control;
- personal: the system of human values, standardization of the domestic way.
In Russia, the problems of the social level of HLS are occupied by such services for the formation of a healthy lifestyle, which include regional, regional, city and district health centers, medical and physical health centers, beauty clinics, health promotion cabinets. Scientific and methodological support is provided by the All-Russian Scientific Research Center for Preventive Medicine.
Subjectively, a person who leads a healthy lifestyle can feel changes in his condition that will be a reward for his efforts: endurance can increase, work capacity increase, colds can rarely arise, and mood and well-being improve.
Criteria for the effectiveness of the activities of the
Healthy Way Each person's way to a healthy lifestyle is unique, but the final result is always important. The effectiveness of HLS can be assessed by a number of biosocial criteria:
First : Assessment of morphofunctional health indicators( level of physical development, fitness and adaptability);
Second : Assessment of the state of immunity( the number of colds and infectious diseases during a certain period, the number of exacerbations of chronic diseases);
Third : Assessment of adaptation to socio-economic living conditions:
- efficiency of professional activities;
- activity of fulfilling family and household duties;
- latitude and degree of manifestation of social and personal interests.
Fourth : Evaluation of the level of valeological indicators:
- degree of formation of the installation for healthy lifestyles;
- level of valeological knowledge;
- level of assimilation of practical knowledge and skills related to maintaining and strengthening health;
- the ability to independently build an individual health trajectory and the HLS program.
Evaluation of the parameters of a healthy
It is possible to offer such a classification of estimation of the parameters of the estimation of a healthy life:
- the optimality of the motor mode;
- fitness and adaptability to physical activity;
- reserve thermoregulation system;
- protective reserve of immunity;
- the balance of the psychological state;
- harmonious family and business relations;
- rationality of nutrition;
- sufficiency of personal hygiene;
- no bad habits;
- Valeological self-education
- strength and stability of motivation to lead a healthy HLS.
LN Tolstoy wrote:
"The demands of people who smoke, drink, overeat, do not work and turn night into a day that the doctor made them healthy, despite their unhealthy lifestyle, are ridiculous".
Knowledge of a healthy lifestyle is designed to make life of a person better, maximally realized all the best in the gene pool and the effect of harmful genes was smoothed out, the development and construction of relationships with the surrounding world took place as harmoniously as possible.
Stages of the formation of a healthy life style: periods of transition to a healthy lifestyle
It is important to understand that each person is able to change his environment within his home, workplace, choosing the right places for recreation, thereby reducing possible harmful environmental effects.
A healthy lifestyle gives more freedom and power over one's own life, making it more fruitful, quality and lasting. To achieve this, a person must first of all become the bearer of the idea of health as the main life priority - this problem is the most important task of applying social technologies in this sphere.
The next stage should be the formation of a certain organization of human self-awareness, focused on understanding the role and place of various means, methods and forms of a healthy lifestyle, as well as the ability to apply them in their life.
In this process, the approaches of mass medicine are unacceptable, for which universal, uniform norms and recommendations are inherent.
The basis of valeological culture is the conscious and desired transfer of the value of health( one's own and social) and care for the environment in a series of vital priorities.
The formation of a healthy lifestyle is carried out thanks to information coming from outside, through the correction of the way of life, thanks to feedback, the analysis of one's own sensations, state of health and dynamics of objective morphofunctional indicators, their correlation with the available valeological knowledge.
The formation of a healthy lifestyle is an extremely long process and can last a lifetime.
Feedback from occurring in the body as a result of the succession of HLS changes does not come immediately, sometimes it is expected for years. That's why people often "try" only a transition, but without getting a quick result, they return to their former way of life.
This is not surprising, since a healthy lifestyle involves the abandonment of many habitual pleasant living conditions( overeating, comfort, alcohol, smoking, etc.) and, conversely, - constant and regular heavy for unadapted to them the person's loads and strictregulation of lifestyle.
In the first period of transition to a healthy lifestyle, when a person is constantly experiencing a knowledge deficit, it is especially important to support a person in their desire to provide him with the necessary consultations, to point out positive changes in his state of health, in functional indicators, to correct mistakes, thereby supporting motivation.
It is especially important to orient children's healthy way of life, which is the prerequisite for the healthy beginning of future families capable of giving birth, raising and bringing up subsequent generations of people with a better gene pool and with a stable system of healthy needs.
It is clear that you can form real motivations for healthy HLS only from childhood. And the results will be better than in cases when the burden of diseases and pathological conditions has already been accumulated.
It's natural that only professionals should be allowed to work with children and teenagers. Particular care should be exercised in matters of sexual education and the prevention of chemical dependencies.
Who benefits from promoting healthy lifestyles
The state and society benefit from promoting healthy lifestyles, as the result:
- reduces morbidity and reduces the costs of treatment and disability payments;
- increases the social activity of people and the ability to work productively and, consequently, the incomes of citizens that are the source of taxes are increasing;
- family relations are improving;
- decreases the prevalence of especially dangerous bad habits;
- improves the psychological climate in society.
When using social technologies to create a healthy lifestyle, it is necessary to take into account the age characteristics of clients.
For example, children and adolescents should first explain the need for positive attitudes towards a healthy lifestyle in order to prevent various deviations, while adults are willing to read literature and listen to lectures on health and rational behavior to preserve it, are sympathetic to information on hygiene issuesand proper nutrition.
And, conversely, those who are more passive and lead a sedentary lifestyle, much earlier than others, the gradual destruction of the body and the exhaustion of physical and intellectual forces occur.
Components of a healthy lifestyle
Healthy lifestyle components:
- rational nutrition;
- optimal motor mode;
- rational mode of life;
- training of immunity and hardening;
- adherence to personal hygiene;
- compliance with the rules and regulations of psycho-hygiene;
- culture of the relationship between the sexes, rational family planning;
- prevention of autoaggression;
- control over your own health.
Examples of healthy lifestyle technologies
Various social technologies are used to create healthy lifestyles aimed at working with different categories of clients, as well as with employees of social protection institutions.
In working with a team of specialists it is also necessary to use the whole wide range of measures for the prevention of infectious diseases, stressful and conflict situations, hypodynamia, destructive effects of noise, vibration, aggressive environment and other adverse biological and social factors.
Such measures include hardening, auto-training, health-improving swimming, bio-information correction( BOS-training), health-improving physiotherapy procedures, phytotherapy, oxygen cocktail, exercises on simulators, elements of therapeutic physical training and massage, acupuncture, respiratory gymnastics, the use of which stimulates reservesadaptation of a person, contributes to the optimal regulation of personal health resources.
For example, the essence of social technology "Active longevity" is to model and optimize a person's lifestyle depending on the goals that he is trying to solve.
This method is especially important in connection with the rising costs of diagnostics and treatment of diseases around the world. Therefore, the opportunity to assess a person's condition and contribute to the improvement of physical and mental performance with the help of his internal reserves, changing only the style of his life, is relevant and in demand.
In the system of measures for the social protection of the population, its active forms are gaining more importance, the more effective of which is rehabilitation and social adaptation by means of physical culture and sports.
It is scientifically grounded and proven that physical rehabilitation is not only an integral part of social, professional, social, cultural, medical, psychological rehabilitation, but also lies at its base.
Active rest and tourism
An interesting direction for the promotion of active recreation and tourism among pensioners and disabled people is offered in many centers of social services in Moscow, since tourism is a unique means of recreation and rehabilitation of all categories of clients of social protection institutions.
Adaptive physical culture
Adaptive physical culture is recognized as one of the popular social technologies, and several of its various types can be distinguished:
- adaptive physical education with the aim to give the basics of physical culture education;
- adaptive motor recreation, designed to organize healthy leisure, outdoor activities, games, communication;
- adaptive sports, aimed at improving and implementing physical, mental, emotional-volitional abilities;
- adaptive motor rehabilitation, aimed at the use of natural remedies and methods that stimulate the speedy recovery of the body.
The main task is to form a conscious attitude to their forces among the people involved, a strong confidence in them, a conscious attitude to the performance of the necessary physical exertion, as well as the need for systematic exercises in physical exercises and the formation of a healthy lifestyle.
Technologies for improving the safety of everyday life
In addition, the system of social protection applies technologies aimed at improving the safety of everyday life of the elderly, disabled people and other vulnerable groups of the population and includes the main issues related to the livelihoods of low-mobility groups inmodern society.
Lessons with clients are practical-oriented and directed:
- on the study and development of the foundations of a healthy lifestyle, providing a full-fledged safe existence and realizing the abilities and requests of the individual in everyday life;
- familiarization with the types of hazards that threaten a person in modern day-to-day life, actions in dangerous and emergency situations of natural, social and technogenic nature;study and development of methods and methods of protection, which allow to minimize possible damage to the individual and society in dangerous and emergency situations, to reduce individual risks;
- develop abilities to analyze situations and make safe decisions in the home;
- formation of an idea of the ecological, socio-cultural, economic features of modern society as a medium of immediate life and participation in it in the process of self-affirmation and self-realization;
- formation of the ability to choose moral and psychological attitudes in hazardous and emergency situations;
- formation of respectful, responsible attitude to their own safety and security of surrounding people, the skills of interaction, cooperation necessary to resolve and prevent dangerous and emergency situations, awareness of the priority of safety in all spheres of human life.
Training of cognitive functions
Social rehabilitation technology "Training of cognitive functions" is developed for people of mature and advanced age( 55-95 years).
In this age group, two groups are distinguished: people from 60 to 70-75 and from 75 and older.
Objectives of work:
- creation of conditions for productive active longevity of CSR clients;
- improving the quality of life of an elderly person;
- social and psychological rehabilitation of the CSR clients. One of the directions of the rehabilitation technology program "The Academy of Psychological Health" is the training of cognitive functions, group sessions aimed at maintaining the functions of memory, attention, thinking;the development of visual-figurative thinking. The use of this social technology allows to positively influence the maintenance of memory functions, attention and thought processes of clients of social services of mature and elderly people and disabled people.
Emotional and emotional therapy: dance
At the core of the technology »Emotional-motor therapy» classical dance therapy adapted for the elderly and disabled is used.
The purpose of dance therapy is to develop awareness of one's own body, create a positive image of the body, develop communication skills, explore feelings and gain a group experience.
This technology is developed for mature and elderly people( 55-95 years) and disabled. In this age period, two groups are distinguished: people from 60 to 70-75 and from 75 and older.
Objectives of work:
- creation of conditions for productive active longevity of CSR clients;
- improving the quality of life of an elderly person;
- social and psychological rehabilitation of clients.
The main task of dance therapy groups is the implementation of spontaneous movement. Dance therapy encourages freedom and expressiveness of the movement, develops mobility and strengthens forces both on the physical and mental level. The body and mind are considered in it as a whole.
The main setting is formulated as follows: the movements reflect the personality traits. With any emotional shifts the state of health changes, both mental and physical, and accordingly the character of our movements changes.
Dance therapy is used when dealing with people who have emotional disorders, communication disorders, interpersonal interactions.
At the beginning of the first lesson, the psychologist watches the participants, assesses the strengths and flaws of each individual's motor repertoire, then determines which movements are best for each client.
Special exercises of dance therapy are a free swing, movements that require concentration and control of the body, alternation of relaxation and concentration associated with the respiratory cycle.
In the first stage, which takes several minutes, dance therapy sessions are usually used for warm-ups, helping each participant prepare their body for work just like a musician tuning his instrument before a performance. Warm-up exercises have physical( warming up), mental( identification with feelings) and social( establishing contacts) aspects.
One of the options for starting classes is to perform spontaneous free-form movements under the potpourri from different tunes. You can use exercises that include shaking, stretching, rocking, clapping, shaking, which starts with the hands spread to the elbows, shoulders, chest. These exercises are repeated until the whole group warms up. As a rule, warm-up is spent sitting on comfortable chairs( 10 min.) And standing( 7 min.).
The second stage is the development of a general theme. For example, the theme of "meetings and partings" is being developed. At the level of movement, separate parts of the body can "meet" and "part".Hands and elbows can "meet" to immediately "part", or they can "meet", "join a fight" or "hug" each other. Interaction between the members of the group can be facilitated by meeting the palms of one with the elbows of the other, etc. Motion themes based on Russian dance, ballroom, retro, etc. can be given.
At the final stage of the session, the topic is developed using the entire space provided to the group, withThis changes the speed of movement and their sequence.
At this stage, the opportunity is used to help the team members in the exploration and expansion of their motor repertoire.
It is necessary to create in a group an atmosphere of tranquility and trust that allows participants to explore themselves and others, and also reflect and develop the spontaneous movements of group members.
Structured exercises are used in the work that promote relaxation, proper breathing and strengthening of self-control.
Dance therapy is effectively used to improve the physical condition, exit emotions, improve interpersonal interaction skills, to get positive emotions, expand self-awareness.
Walking with the Scandinavian step
The "Walking the Scandinavian step" technology is based on the popularization and introduction of Scandinavian walking with ski poles, this kind of activities can take place outdoors, does not require special physical training, it has a beneficial effect on the condition of the musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular system andeasy, group and individual lessons are possible at any time of the year.
Health Roads on a Bicycle
"Healthy Bike Roads" is a rehabilitation technique for which a three-wheeled adult bicycle is used. The person, despite the disability, confidently keeps in the saddle, trains all muscle groups, sates the blood with oxygen, doing individually or in a group, he acquires self-confidence, raises the emotional tone.
The formation of a healthy lifestyle is promoted by sports games, both in their classical embodiment and under simplified rules.
Mastering the elements of sports games promotes the development of movement skills, their psychological impact makes it easier to compensate for physical, mental and social changes in a person, normalizing social significance, increasing psychological stability in a limited time - this is a wonderful way to expand the communication space and increase the motor activity of a person.
And even passive participation in sports and recreational activities contributes to active leisure activities, distracts from problems, care of the disease, leads to health improvement, helps normalize the psychoemotional state.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the application of the technology and the means of the
healthy. Summing up the data on the effectiveness of the transition to a healthy lifestyle, we can assume that it:
- positively and effectively reduces or eliminates the impact of risk factors, morbidity and as a result - reduces the cost of treatment;
- contributes to the fact that a person's life becomes more healthy and durable;
- provides good family relationships, health and happiness of children;
- is the basis for realization of a person's need for self-actualization and self-realization, provides high social activity and social success;
- determines the high efficiency of the body, reducing fatigue at work, high labor productivity and on this basis - high material prosperity;
- allows you to abandon bad habits, rationally organize and allocate a time budget with the mandatory use of means and methods of active recreation;
- provides cheerfulness, good mood and optimism.