In nature, there are more than 500 species of lice, differing in appearance, habitat, other features of life. Human lice are only a few species, so it's easier to recognize them. To do this, in most cases it is enough to simply determine the location of their localization and external features. How do lice look, where do these insects come from?
- What lice are there in man
- Head lice
- Baby lice
- Pubic hair
- How to recognize parasites
- How to multiply
- Structure and food
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What lice are there in man
In humans, there are three types of infection with lice: pediculosis:
- Head pediculosis. In this disease, parasites settle on the scalp. The most frequent zones of localization are behind the ears and at the back of the head. This variety is considered the most difficult to extract, especially when the hair is long. Head lice lay a lot of eggs, called nits, which attach them to the hair and look like numerous whitish points.
- Lapidary pediculosis. Do not live on the body, settle in the folds and seams of underwear or other clothes. This type of parasite is less common, it is found mostly in people living in unsanitary conditions.
- Pubic pediculosis. Pubic lice affect the genitals, so this form refers to venereal diseases. A prerequisite for their normal life is the presence of hair. In especially severe cases, larvae of lice can appear not only on the genitals, but under the arms, on the eyebrows, eyelashes.
There are similar types of lice found in humans, but they are related to dermatological diseases. The main ones are:
- ciliary - affect the eyelid, settle at the root of the eyelashes;
- subcutaneous - provoke acne, other skin rashes;
- subungual - hit the nail plates.
In fact, although parasites are rather tiny, it is quite possible to recognize them without special laboratory equipment. Distinctive features are the appearance of lice, as well as the location of their localization.
Interesting! The main pediculosis is considered to be the most inconvenient, because the bites of head lice most cause itching, burning, and other discomfort! If similar types of parasites can live for some time on the body, clothes of a man, without showing any signs of vital activity, then head lice are felt immediately after the settlement.
There are several erroneous opinions about possible ways of infection by parasites. No louse, head, wardrobe, pubic, can jump over, let alone fly from another person. However, do not underestimate these parasites, they creep at a speed of about 20 cm per minute.
Important! To get infected with lice, you need close contact with the patient, otherwise infection is impossible! Close contact are hugs, sexual intercourse, as well as the use of other people's hygiene products, cosmetics. At school, a child can contract from a neighbor on a school desk, and in a kindergarten - from other children during a quiet hour or a long joint game.
To pick up these parasites is easiest on the scallop or comb of an infected person. Often, nits can remain on hair care products in hairdressing salons, beauty salons, so it is advisable to visit only proven places. Head lice can be infected in other places, taking into account other circumstances. These include:
- Public places: transport, kindergarten, school, work. All this - the potential for infection, especially if you are in them during a large gathering of people.
- Dressing rooms, hangers, other places where hats are left.
- Saunas, baths, pools, similar places are dangerous because many individuals of parasites are able to survive outside the human body up to 7-10 days. Thus, you can get infected even when the patient is not around.
- Playgrounds. Children have a particularly developed habit of hugging, indulging, closely touching each other. Therefore, it is important to take a responsible approach to choosing a place for children's games.
Given that these parasites settle in human clothes, they can be infected through wardrobe items without having direct contact with a sick person. It is noteworthy that parasites can not be found on the body of the owner of the infected things, but they are easily transmitted by contact with the clothes of another person.
Most often louse-louses can live on clothes in such places:
- dressing rooms;
- long lines in public places, where one has to spend a lot of time;
- public transport, especially during rush hours;
- hotels, hotels, similar establishments;
Important! Danger also represents carrying other people's things and buying used clothes! When buying clothes in stores such as "confiscated" or "second-hand", you must immediately wash them, preferably boil.
The number of ways to transmit pubic lice is understandably limited. It is possible to infect them, first of all, during sexual intercourse. Sexual hygiene is the main prevention of infection with lice of this species.
However, pubic lice can live on the body in other ways:
- use of public towels, bathrobes and other bath accessories (for example, in hotels, trains, etc.);
- use of public bed linen;
- purchase of wearing underwear.
Advice! Considering all possible ways of infection with pubic lice, it is recommended to go on business trips, to rest with your own bedding and towels!
How to recognize parasites
To recognize lice, it is not necessary to consider them under a microscope, it is sufficient to know the features of the structure and appearance of each species. Let's look at how each species that resides on the human body looks:
- Head. They are the most common among people of different ages, and besides the human body, they can not live anywhere else. They have a translucent, elongated body 2-3 mm long, so they are not noticeable in the hair. It is much easier to detect nits - shell-covered eggs laid by lice. They are attached to the hair, have a light gray color.
- Clothes. They are similar to head lice, but they have a lighter color - from white to yellow-gray hue. Nits of lice are very small - up to 0.5 mm, so they can be stored in clothing for a long time.
- Pubic. They have a short, flattened body in the anterior-posterior direction, resemble crabs, the body length reaches 1-3 mm. The peculiarity of pubic lice lies in the fact that they can stay for some time in the genital area, and obvious symptoms of infection will be absent, since insects will practically not be visible. Only the emerging itching and burning sensation will be proof of their presence. Also pubic lice are able to crawl into the mouth of hair. In these places there are reddish spots, along which it is also possible to suspect the presence of a parasite
Important! Often, it is impossible to recognize pubic lice without referring to a gynecologist, as the signs of their vital activity can resemble other diseases! The possibility of parasite infestation is one of the reasons for the need for regular medical examination.
How to multiply
The process of reproduction in lice passes quite quickly, and each female lays a fairly large number of eggs in its life:
- head - up to 160 pieces;
- a dress - up to 400 pieces;
- pubic - up to 50 pieces.
Lice eggs undergo a cycle lasting from 16 to 30 days. This suggests that only a month can pass from the moment of infection, as the head or other part of the human body will be filled with parasites.
In total, each laid egg passes through three stages of development, after which an adult specimen of this size is formed, which corresponds to a variety of parasite (from 1 to 3 mm). For reliability, each egg laid by the female is dressed in a sticky "cover", which makes it possible for him to grasp tightly the hair or pile of clothing (in the case of lice).
Structure and food
The question of what lice eat, you can simply answer - human blood. The structure of their stomach and the entire digestive system is such that they do not digest any solid food. The process of feeding itself is as follows:
- the parasite pierces the skin with stilettos (acute parts of the mouthpiece);
- fold skin around the mouth turns outward, clinging to the skin;
- in the hole penetrates the proboscis, through which the blood enters the body of the parasite;
- parallel to the wound, an anticoagulant is injected - a substance that prevents blood clotting;
- the esophagus fulfills the function of the pump - it "pumps" blood from a person.
Thus, lice are blood-sucking insects belonging to skin parasites. If there is the slightest suspicion of infection by any kind of lice, you should immediately consult a dermatologist and immediately begin treatment.