Finger blood test or general clinical analysis is an important diagnostic study that is assigned to identify almost all known to date diseases.
Analysis includes counting different types of cells, determining their basic parameters, relationships, etc. Its parameters play a big role in the formulation of the final diagnosis and the appointment of timely treatment.
Rules for the preparation of the patient for delivery: how to take the JAB
- 3.1 For males and females
- 3.2 For newborns and in childhood by years
- 4.1 Hemoglobin
- 4.2 Red blood cells
- 4.3 White blood cells
- 4.4 Hematocrit
- 4.5 Platelets
- 4.6 SOE
- 4.7 Leukocyte formsula( lymphocytes, monocytes and others)
Rules for preparing the patient for delivery: how to take the UAC
To avoid errors during decoding, blood collection should be appropriately prepared. It is important to know, on an empty stomach( on an empty stomach) or not to give a general blood test from a finger, whether it is possible and in which cases it is allowed to eat before surrender, whether it is possible to drink or must be tolerated all night and morning.
The training rules are as follows:
- Biological material is given early in the morning on an empty stomach ( the last meal should be taken 8-12 hours before blood donation).The exception is when there is a suspicion of an acute illness requiring urgent care. Moderate consumption of drinking water is allowed, but sweet drinks, tea and coffee should be avoided.
- The day before the laboratory visit it is better to give up fatty, heavy food, alcohol intake, smoking, active sports activities and other effects on the body( for example, visiting a sauna).
What shows a detailed clinical study
- Hemoglobin .A complex protein compound that performs the function of delivering oxygen from the lungs to other tissues and organs.
- Red blood cells .Red blood cells containing hemoglobin in their composition, which are responsible for gas exchange in tissues.
- The color index of in a general blood test. Marker degree of saturation of blood cells with hemoglobin.
- Hematocrit .The ratio of the volume of the blood sample to the volume occupied by the red blood cells( measured in percent).
- Platelets .Particles of blood, whose role is to ensure the process of blood coagulability.
- Leukocytes .White corpuscles, designed to protect the body from viruses and bacteria.
- ESR ( sedimentation rate of erythrocytes).To determine the parameter, the rate of separation of biological material into erythrocytes and the liquid part is measured, that is, plasma - in violation of it, the blood cells lose electrical charge, so they settle more slowly or faster.
- Leukocyte formula .Calculation of the number of cells representing a variety of leukocytes( eosonophils, basophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, etc.).
About what different indicators mean, than the general analysis differs from biochemistry and how doctors decipher the results, look at the video:
Normal human indices
Interpretation of the results of a general blood test depends on a number of factors, including the sex and age of the patient, as the normal parameters differ significantly from one another due to physiological characteristics in children, women and men.
For males and females
This table presents norms for general clinical blood counts in adults for correct interpretation of the results:
In newborns and in infants by years
The table below shows the norms of extended general blood count parameters common in children, the transcript of the results is carried outin accordance with these data:
For the rates in children and the indices indicated on the blood donation forms, see the video:
Values increased or decreased: possible diagnoses
Knowing what is included in the expanded general clinical analysis of blood and how to decipher normal parameters in an adult and a child, one can assume a possible diagnosis. However, it is important to remember that can be made ONLY by a doctor!
Reasons for increasing : sugar or diabetes insipidus, dehydration of the body due to dyspeptic disorders, poisoning, impaired kidney function and other factors. Violations of the hematopoiesis system.
Reasons for reducing : congenital or acquired hematopoiesis( leukemia, anemia), lack of nutrients in the body, severe blood loss.
Red blood cells
Reasons for increasing .Dehydration, blood diseases, respiratory and heart failure, stenosis of the renal artery.
Reasons for decline. Improper nutrition with a limited amount of vitamins and proteins, leukemia, heavy blood loss, impaired production of enzymes involved in the process of hematopoiesis.
Reasons for the increase. Violations of the rules of preparation for analysis, pregnancy, inflammatory processes, postoperative period, oncological diseases, large-scale soft tissue injuries, rheumatism.
Reasons for reducing .Viral and infectious diseases, some types of leukemia, rheumatic diseases, hypovitaminosis, taking certain drugs.
Reasons for improvement. Dehydration, erythremia, diabetes, respiratory or heart failure.
Reasons for decline. Anemia, kidney failure, pregnancy.
Reasons for improvement. An increased number in the general analysis of blood occurs in inflammatory processes, various types of anemia( including iron deficiency), after removal of the spleen, in malignant tumors, during the postoperative period.
Reasons for decline. Congenital hemopoiesis, bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune disorders, blood transfusions, renal vein thrombosis, heart failure, deep prematurity in newborns.
Reasons for the increase. Physiological factors( menstruation, pregnancy), inflammatory, bacterial and viral diseases, cardiac muscle disorders, malignant tumors, autoimmune disorders, kidney diseases, trauma.
Reasons for decline. Recovery after a recent illness, body exhaustion, hyperglycemia, nervous system exhaustion, impaired blood coagulability, craniocerebral trauma. In addition, ESR is usually decreased in newborns.
Leukocyte formula( lymphocytes, monocytes and others)
This parameter varies mainly with infectious diseases, parasite infestations, blood diseases, autoimmune disorders, gastrointestinal diseases and other pathological conditions.
Diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases
- Hemoglobin .The level of hemoglobin reflects the saturation of cells with oxygen. Low figures mean that tissues, including myocardium, experience oxygen starvation, against which background ischemia develops, which can lead to myocardial infarction.
- Leukocytes .Leukocytosis, or an increase in the number of white blood cells in a general blood test, can be observed during the first day with myocardial infarction, as well as with cardiac aneurysm and acute pericarditis. Many experts say that there is a direct relationship between the number of leukocytes and the size of the damage to the heart muscle.
- Erythrocytes .Reduction of erythrocytes is usually observed in patients with chronic cardiovascular disease and is often accompanied by an increase in hemoglobin and other symptoms.
Platelets .These cells are involved in stopping bleeding.
Increasing their number often leads to the formation of large clots and more serious consequences( for example, pulmonary embolism).
- Hematocrit .By the figures of hematocrit, the level of hemoglobin and the number of erythrocytes, it is possible to talk about the presence of anemia in the patient. At low rates and aneurysms of the heart or aorta in the anamnesis it is possible to speak with a high probability about rupture of an aneurysm.
- ESR .With acute damage to the myocardium, the ESR begins to increase during the first two days, and subsequently retains high values for 3-4 weeks or more. It should also take into account the initial value of the indicator, since it is possible to increase it due to concomitant diseases. Also, this figure can increase with cardiac aneurysm and acute pericarditis.
- Leukocyte formula of .Changes in the leukocyte formula occur in the presence of inflammatory processes in the body, as well as acute infarction.
Finally, it should be noted that , in the presence of any symptoms of cardiovascular disorders, a general blood test is a very important factor of .In combination with other methods of research, it makes it possible to quickly diagnose a patient and prescribe appropriate therapy.
In conclusion, we offer a video about the analysis of the children: