What is myocarditis of the heart and how is this disease treated in children and adults

Inflammation of the myocardium( myocarditis) is a serious disease, which, nevertheless, is safely treated.

For successful recovery without consequences for the body it is important to find out the primary symptoms in time, start treatment and prevent the development of concomitant cardiac pathologies.

Contents

  • 1 General Information
  • 2 General Information
  • 2 Complaints, Symptoms and Signs
  • 3 Diagnosis: How to Identify the Problem
  • 4 Causes and Classification of Species
    • 4.1 Infectious( bacterial, viral, fungal)
    • 4.2 Allergic
    • 4.3 Idiopathic
  • 5 Disease in children
  • 6 Treatment tactics
    • 6.1 Drug therapy and prescription medications
    • 6.2 Lifestyle
    • 6.3 Preventive measures

General information


Myocarditis is a disease of the heart muscle, withOtor it is inflamed, and the heart loses its ability to perform its main functions : excitability, contractility, conductivity.

How often does the disease occur. Quite often - myocarditis is up to 11% of all other diseases of the cardiovascular system. The disease is not diagnosed at once - in many cases its clinical passage is not pronounced, and therefore the initial form is difficult to determine. There is a disease as a result of infections. They( directly or indirectly) affect the heart through immune mechanisms.

Pathology takes various forms, depending on the size of the lesions and the degree of weakness of the heart tissue.

On the quality of flow, myocarditis forms are divided into four types.

  1. Flying .With this form, severe left-ventricular dysfunction is observed, the patient experiences cardiogenic shock, cardiomyocytes are destroyed, inflammation foci appear. If assistance is provided in a timely manner, this form can be stopped until complete recovery and restoration of tissues.
  2. Acute .With pathology in acute form, heart failure develops. Here it is possible only partially to restore the cardiac tissue
  3. Active chronic .Can combine the signs of acute and transient forms. With her develops cardiomyopathy. Focal inflammations after treatment can persist.
  4. Persistent chronic .This form of the disease is insidious in that it has no initial manifestations of pathology. The left ventricle functions normally until the active phase of the border myocarditis occurs. After chronic myocarditis, heart failure develops, which even when the inflammatory response is stopped.

Complaints, Symptoms and Signs

What do patients who have myocarditis diagnosed complain about? The first symptoms can occur in a week from the onset of the disease. They are quite diverse and nonspecific.

  • Shortness of breath.
  • Severe fatigue.
  • Pain in the chest.
  • Excessive sweating.
  • Asthenic syndrome.
  • Signs of tachycardia.
  • Febrile fever in acute form.
Most often begins to manifest asthenia, accompanying a sharp change in mood, irritability, capriciousness, tearfulness, sleep disorders and vegetative disorders.

After this, arises in the heart, accompanied by shortness of breath .These pains are not associated with physical exertion or stress on the heart.

The mild form of myocarditis, in which left ventricular dysfunction does not occur, can pass without pain or other symptoms of .Such patients mostly complain of fatigue, mild dyspnoea and uncomfortable sensations in the heart area.

Diagnosis: how to identify the problem

Most often the disease is diagnosed in the "suspect" category. The diagnosis is for ECG .Signs of myocarditis on ECG can be such as an increase in heart size and progressive heart failure, heart rhythm and conduction disorders.

cardiovisor helps to detect a disease in time. It is a device that allows you to check the functioning of the heart and its system at home.

also undergoes echocardiography( EchoCG) in severe cases of , which shows expansion of the left ventricle and intracardiac thrombi, chest X-ray, which allows to detect signs of pulmonary congestion.

From laboratory diagnostic methods biochemical and general blood analysis( increase in ESR), immunological analysis, intracardiac biopsy( only in severe course to clarify the diagnosis) is used.

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Causes and classification of

species There are several forms of myocarditis of the heart, consider each of them and tell what it is and how it differs from other species.

Infectious( bacterial, viral, fungal)

The most common cause of myocarditis are viruses, parasites and bacteria .They penetrate into the myocardium and pathologically change it. The disease can develop due to the defeat of the viruses of the upper respiratory tract.

With a bacterial cause of the onset of the disease, abscesses containing sources of infection( rheumatic myocarditis) form.

Allergic

This type of disease also has an underlying cause of infection, but a pathology arises, like a general allergic reaction of the body to this infection or, more rarely, a different factor( drugs, vaccines, serums, toxins).

The disease manifests itself after prolonged contact with the causative agent by hypersensitivity of cells, which takes place against the background of infection control. As a result, the work of the heart muscle is disrupted and its physiological function suffers.

Idiopathic

This myocarditis is not fully understood, its causes are unknown, the nature is not completely revealed .The disease combines myocarditis with heart failure. At the same time, the heart rhythm, conduction, cardiosclerosis and thrombi are disturbed.

Idiopathic myocarditis is most often acute and is lethal.

Inflammation of the myocardium can cover different parts of it. In this regard, two types of disease are distinguished:

  • diffuse myocarditis, when the heart muscle is inflamed completely;
  • focal myocarditis, in which the inflammatory process passes locally, in one location, without affecting other areas.
Diffuse is characterized by heavier flow.

Disease in children

This disease is suspected in any child, in the absence of congenital heart disease suffering from shortness of breath, tachycardia or having signs of heart failure.

Influenza, herpes, rubella, measles, poliomyelitis, HIV, as well as bacteria( diphtheria), infections( fungal, mycoplasmosis) can become pathogens in children.

Children's myocarditis is particularly difficult to recognize because of the clinical signs of the symptoms, therefore laboratory instruments are widely used for diagnosis.

Discover the disease more from the video of E. Malysheva:

Tactics of treatment


The treatment option depends on the form, type of pathology and severity. The mild forms of the disease are treated on an outpatient basis by the , but, already from an average severity level, patients are hospitalized.

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Medical therapy and prescription medications

There is no specific medicine for myocarditis. That is, there is no "magic pill" that can cure inflammation of the myocardium. Therefore, therapy is applied in the complex. Treatment of is aimed at eliminating or reducing the impact of the source of the disease ( causative agent of the infection).

For treatment, antibacterial, antiviral preparations are used. Also used are anti-inflammatory and hormonal drugs, such as voltaren, ibuprofen, indomethacin, prednisolone and other immunosuppressive glucocorticoids.

If the disease is accompanied by heart failure, prescribe medications, lowering the blood pressure level of , as well as glycosides, stimulating cardiac activity, and diuretics.

With accompanying arrhythmias, antiarrhythmic medications are prescribed. In severe cases of heart damage, a pacemaker can be installed.

Thrombosis is accompanied by the appointment of anticoagulants, improving blood circulation, as well as thrombosassaging drugs.

Lifestyle

Other methods of treatment may be used to facilitate the patient's condition and support the myocardium.

Rational nutrition, salt restriction, prohibition on alcohol intake and smoking, increased physical activity.

During the treatment of disease of moderate severity and higher, is observed:

  • bed rest( 10 to 14 days);
  • restriction of physical activity;
  • cupping of heart failure;
  • anti-inflammatory therapy;
  • antibiotic therapy;
  • treatment of the underlying disease.

Preventative measures

In order not to wonder how to treat myocarditis, it is worth taking care of your health in advance. The prevention measures include:

  • general improvement in living standards;
  • rejection of bad habits;
  • healthy lifestyle;
  • proper nutrition, hardening, consumption of vitamins;
  • isolation of patients;
  • complete and timely treatment of infections;
  • justified prescription of vaccines, antibiotics and compliance with the rules for their administration.

The prognosis of myocardial disease is variable - it can result in both complete recovery and death of .Therefore, when hospitalization with severe form, even after the end of treatment, patients should be observed by a cardiologist and undergoing sanitary sanatorium treatment.