Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses. During a viral or bacterial infection, these sinuses are filled with exudate and become inflamed, which causes a lot of unpleasant symptoms. The danger of sinusitis is that without timely treatment, it can become chronic or cause serious complications, for example, meningitis. Therefore, it is worth knowing the symptoms of sinusitis in adults and the methods of its treatment.
- Symptoms of sinusitis in adults
- Causes of sinusitis
- Consequences of the disease
- How to treat sinusitis in adults
- Physiotherapy and massage
- Surgical intervention
- Treatment with folk remedies
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Sinusitis can be of various forms depending on the degree and place of the lesion. The main types of disease are:
- Sinusitis is the most common form of sinusitis. Inflammation of the maxillary sinuses, one or both at once.
- Fronitis - inflamed frontal sinuses.
- Sphenoiditis - inflammation appears in the region of the sphenoid sinus.
- Etmoiditis - the sinus sores inflame.
There are no fundamental differences in the treatment between different forms of sinusitis, only the signs of the disease depend on the form. Also, sinusitis can be acute and chronic. In a permanent form they go, if the treatment was wrong, the main cause of the disease was not eliminated.
Symptoms of sinusitis in adults
Symptoms of various types of sinusitis may vary slightly, however, the main signs of how this disease manifests are:
- Runny nose lasts for more than a week, the condition does not improve.
- Nasal congestion, abundant discharge of mucus.
- Headache, can give in the teeth, whiskey, ears, eye area.
- In acute sinusitis, there is a temperature of 38 degrees and above, with a chronic temperature rises rarely to low values.
- Lachrymation, weakening of smell, sometimes - an easy hearing loss.
- General weakness, nausea, malaise, other symptoms of the presence of the inflammatory process in the body.
These symptoms are characteristic of acute sinusitis, with chronic they appear during exacerbations. During the remission, there may be shortness of breath, the appearance of abrasions in the nose, and an unpleasant odor from the mouth.
At front, the symptoms can be accompanied by swelling, sore throat and the appearance of a cough, which for other types of sinusitis is almost not observed. With allergic sinusitis, there may be other allergy symptoms, for example, severe itching.
Important!If an acute stage is found, immediately begin treatment so that the disease does not become chronic.
Causes of sinusitis
Often, sinusitis is a consequence of another disease, it does not occur by itself. The main causes of this disease include:
- viral, bacterial, fungal infections;
- a protracted runny nose;
- curvature of the nasal septum, trauma;
- complications after cold and flu;
- adenoids or polyps in the nose.
Thus, in most cases, sinusitis can be avoided, it's all about correct treatment of already developed diseases.
Consequences of the disease
With proper and timely treatment, the prognosis with sinusitis is favorable. However, do not forget that the acute form can be deadly. If the pus will not leave the inflamed sinuses, there is a chance that it will start moving higher up the respiratory tract. This can lead to meningitis - inflammation of the membranes of the brain, pneumonia, rheumatism.
Sinusitis can lead to various diseases of the respiratory system and nasopharynx, in particular to bronchitis and asthma. Bronchitis also often changes into a chronic form. In chronic sinusitis, a person can completely lose the ability to fully breathe and recognize odors.
Also, sinusitis often causes osteoperiostitis - inflammation of bone tissue. This disease is very difficult to tolerate, it is accompanied by severe swelling and decreased vision.
Meningitis and blood infection are the most dangerous complications. They are accompanied by a strong temperature, nausea, headache, in some cases, changes in consciousness and hallucinations. If you do not immediately seek help, a person can die.
Many consequences of sinusitis can be deadly. Therefore, the earlier the therapy was started, the higher the probability of a favorable outcome.
The diagnosis is made after taking an otolaryngologist. Usually you need to do some research:
In some cases, the allocation is taken for analysis to determine the virus, bacterial infection or fungus that caused the disease. This will help to more accurately pick up the drug treatment and make sure of the need for antibiotics, if it is present.
How to treat sinusitis in adults
In the treatment it is important to eliminate the infection, remove the unpleasant sensations. Treatment at home is acceptable, a disease that occurs without complications, easily yields to conservative therapy. In some cases, you have to resort to surgery.
With drug treatment, various drugs are used, they can be divided into several groups.
- Nasal drops. Applied as a vasoconstrictor, there are also drops with antibiotics or antihistamines against allergies. Most often used Vibrocilum, Loratadine, Polydex, Bioparox, drops based on xylometazoline and others.
- Antiseptic means. They are used in the fight against viral diseases, in which antibiotics are useless. Examples: Miramistin, Furacilin, Dioxydin.
- Analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs. They help to reduce the focus of inflammation, relieve the headache, which often occurs with sinusitis. Usually, drugs based on ibuprofen or nimesulide are used.
- Antibiotics. It is not always necessary, only if the disease has a bacteriological nature. Distributed Amoxylove, Cefixim and others.
- Antihistamines. Needed if sinusitis was caused by an allergy, or it developed due to other medications. Usually used Loratadin, Claritin and others.
Important!Therapy is prescribed by an otolaryngologist, a doctor who treats sinusitis.
Also, during home treatment, bed rest is necessary, sinusitis can not be carried on legs. It is necessary to drink more liquid - ordinary water, teas, preferably herbal. They can be bitten with honey.
It is necessary to do the lavage of the nose. To do this, there are special products sold in pharmacies, for example Dolphin, on its basis is a solution for washing. But there are folk remedies, for example salt and soda, with their help, you can also wash your nose.
Drops should be used after washing the nose, when all the aisles and sinuses are as free as possible. So the medicine will act faster and better.
When treating sinusitis, it is important to pay attention to other symptoms of accompanying diseases. We need complex therapy. If the ear is very sore with sinus, it is incorporated, it should be checked for otitis.
- Also during treatment it is necessary to raise immunity. You can take vitamin complexes, eat more fruits and vegetables.
- If the head hurts, the temperature is raised, anesthetizing and antipyretic is impossible, it is necessary to wet a piece of tissue with cold water and attach it to the forehead.
Physiotherapy and massage
With sinusitis, it is recommended to use not only medical therapy, but local methods of influence - physiotherapy and massage. Physiotherapy is aimed at different manifestations of the disease, conditionally all procedures can be divided into several groups:
- anti-inflammatory procedures (UHF, ultrasound);
- bactericidal procedures (electrophoresis, darsonvalization);
- immunocorrecting procedures (SUF - irradiation);
- sedative procedures (electrophoresis, galvanization).
Necessary funds should be chosen by the attending physician. In addition, you can do massage, especially effective in sinusitis. It is available to everyone, the procedure can be done at home.
You can do face massage - simple stroking with light pressure. This method is good after acute form, for the prevention of recurrence and development of chronic.
Also, with sinusitis, a point massage of the collar zone is recommended, which improves blood circulation. This variant is better left to professional masseurs.
Surgical intervention for sinusitis is necessary if the disease does not fade for a long time, there is a risk of complications - meningitis. With genyantritis can make a puncture to exudate, there are other types of interventions in different forms of the disease.
Before any operation, it is necessary to make a tomography and make sure that surgical intervention is the only effective way to get rid of the problem.
Treatment with folk remedies
There are many folk remedies that can be used as an auxiliary therapy for sinusitis. Especially they are good for the treatment of sinusitis.
Flushing the nose with sea salt
Sea salt kills harmful microorganisms, helps the nose to breathe better, rinsing removes stuffiness. This method works well in the early stages of the disease and helps dispense with more serious medications. The procedure is as follows:
- For adults, one teaspoon of sea salt is needed per half liter of warm boiled water. With salt, you can not overdo it, otherwise you can get a severe burn.
- You should carefully mix the salt in the water, large grains can damage the mucosa and increase inflammation.
- You do not need to draw water with your nose, you should use a teapot, a small watering can or a special device, for example, Dolphin.
After washing, blow your nose and drip well.
If the rinse is not suitable for some reason, you can do a saline inhalation. To do this, stir one tablespoon of sea salt in a glass of warm water, soak a solution of a piece of cloth. Put it on the face, to the nose, hold for fifteen minutes.
Important!If the salt causes irritation, after inhalations or rinses, you should lubricate the skin under the nose with baby cream.
Inhalations with medicinal plants are suitable for those who do not have allergies to essential oils. Also, this method is not suitable for sinusitis allergic nature.
You can use a variety of essential oils: lymph, eucalyptus, other burning means. You can wear an aromamedelion, dripping into it cinnamon, cloves, cedar. These oils have a pronounced antimicrobial effect.
For inhalations, you need to boil several liters of water, drop a few drops of the selected oil, breathe over it for 15 minutes, bending over the pot and covering yourself with a towel. Instead of oil, you can take a tincture of propolis, it needs two teaspoons.
Treatment with herbal infusions and decoctions
Infusions and decoctions should be taken orally, they strengthen the immune system and help the early recovery, strengthen the body. Before taking herbal remedies, make sure that there is no allergy.
Sage, chamomile, St. John's wort, eucalyptus, lavender have a firming effect, also linden is effective for catarrhal diseases. Herbs can be combined. For infusion, pour one spoonful of the selected plant with a glass of boiling water and let it brew for fifteen minutes.
Drink half a glass of infusion before meals, you can dilute, if the drink is too strong. It is useful to bite with infusion of honey.
If the active inflammatory process has already passed, you can use a variety of warm compresses, so the exudate will come out easier. Compresses can be made from potatoes, cooked eggs, boiled bay leaves. Keep should be about half an hour.
Important!Compresses are not suitable for severe inflammation and complications of sinusitis.
The rules for the prevention of sinusitis are simple, in most cases, avoiding this disease is quite simple.
First of all, at the first signs of a cold, you should consult a doctor and begin treatment. Treatment should be right, do not take antibiotics thoughtlessly, if the infection is viral, or sinusitis was caused by an allergic disease. The earlier the therapy is started, the more likely to avoid serious complications.
Diseases should not be carried on their feet, it is worth constantly flaunting if breathing is difficult. Otherwise the infection will rise further along the respiratory tract and the area of the lesion with the severity of the disease will become larger.
It is necessary to prevent colds in general. The food should be balanced, the ration should contain enough fruits and vegetables. In the cold season, you can additionally take vitamins.
Physical exercises are important. A healthy lifestyle always helps to avoid a variety of diseases. Following these simple rules, you can avoid sinusitis and other unpleasant diseases.