Adenoids in children of the third degree - symptoms and treatment

Hypertrophy of the nasopharyngeal tonsil (adenoids) is a common pathology in children from one to five years. When the growth of the tissue reaches the third degree, complications develop and only surgical treatment helps. The initial stage of adenoids sometimes goes unnoticed due to the erasure of symptoms. It is important not to view the pathology at a stage when it is possible to do with medication.

Content:
  • What are adenoids?
  • Symptoms of the disease
  • Causes
  • Than the disease is dangerous
  • How to treat adenoids
  • Operative treatment
  • Treatment without surgery
  • Medication
  • Folk remedies
  • Prevention
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What are adenoids?

Initially, adenoid vegetations perform a protective function, protecting the nasopharynx from the penetration of bacteria and viruses. When infected, tonsils produce special cells that destroy pathogenic microbes. In this period, their tissue grows, and after recovery returns to normal. But often this does not happen. Adenoids remain enlarged, making it difficult for the baby to breathe.

The disease is typical for patients from one year to 15 years. In this period, the immune system and the human body are formed. Medicine distinguishes three degrees of adenoids depending on how much the opener is blocked (the base of the nasal septum):

  1. The first degree - the lymphoid tissue closes only the upper part of the vomer. It is difficult for a child to breathe at night.
  2. The second degree - the opener is blocked by two thirds. Breathing through the nose is disturbed even in the daytime, in a dream the baby can begin to snore.
  3. The third degree is the most dangerous - the opener is completely blocked. Nasal breathing stops. The child breathes only through the mouth, because of which there are constant inflammation of the nasopharynx or middle ear. Hearing impairment may occur.

Adenoides of the first degree, as a rule, are cured quite easily, without the aid of surgery. Detecting the disease at an early stage is difficult, because the symptoms are very similar to the common cold. To avoid surgical intervention, the doctor should be contacted as soon as possible.

Symptoms of the disease

Symptoms of adenoids become pronounced when hypertrophy passes into the second or even third stage. At the first stage, pathology can be recognized by the following signs:

  • frequent inflammatory diseases of the respiratory and hearing organs;
  • a persistent runny nose;
  • breathing through the mouth at night;
  • snoring or sniffing;
  • specific cough;
  • lethargy.

In adenoids of the third degree to the above symptoms are added a periodic increase in temperature (usually subfebrile), headache. There may be purulent discharge from the nose, sometimes with an admixture of blood. Due to oxygen starvation, the child feels constant weakness and apathy. Hearing and speech are broken.

Attention! Prevent a severe degree of hypertrophy if you can correct the cause of vegetation in time!

Causes

ENT doctors say that adenoids "get younger" every year. If several years ago children suffered from three to ten years, now the disease is increasingly diagnosed in 2-year-old children and even toddlers for up to a year. There are a number of factors that cause the growth of the pharyngeal tonsil.

First of all, it is the weakened immunity, which makes the body vulnerable to a wide variety of infections. A huge role is played by the nutrition of children. Modern women often prefer artificial feeding and deprive kids of ready-made maternal antibodies.

Older children start to eat early harmful foods, sweets, preservatives, semi-finished products. In addition to a general decrease in immunity, this leads to an allergy that causes edema of the amygdala.

In addition, common causes of adenoids are:

  • chronic diseases of the nasopharynx (pharyngitis, tonsillitis, otitis), leading to excessive production of lymphocytes;
  • permanent and untreated ARI and ARVI;
  • rare airing;
  • environmentally unfavorable region of residence;
  • childhood diseases - scarlet fever, measles, diphtheria, which are diagnosed again because of a decrease in the coverage of children with vaccinations.

Less commonly, the cause of adenoids proliferation are hereditary pathologies of the nasopharynx and abnormalities in the thyroid gland.

Than the disease is dangerous

Whatever the cause is not caused by adenoids, they require treatment. In case of negligent attitude to the child's health, absence or untimely health care, the following complications are likely:

  • chronic diseases of respiratory organs, including bronchial asthma;
  • pathology of the cardiovascular system;
  • disorders in the work of the gastrointestinal tract;
  • hearing loss, up to deafness and deafness, which can not be corrected;
  • speech impairment;
  • enuresis.

Also adenoids affect the formation of bones. The chest becomes like a chicken. Deformed bones of the face, teeth, lower jaw and bite.

In the conditions of constant oxygen starvation, the nervous system and the brain cease to function normally. Because of this, the child lags behind in development, and in case of severe complications and unfavorable prognosis it can become disabled.

Attention! Critical growth of the pharyngeal tonsil by 18% reduces the flow of oxygen into the circulatory system!

How to treat adenoids

Help to avoid serious consequences correctly selected treatment. It can be conservative and surgical. Experts recommend that if possible, do without surgery, spend it only as a last resort.

The conservative method of therapy of adenoids include:

  1. Hygiene of the sinuses of the nose. All procedures for the removal of mucus and pus can be carried out both at home and in hospital (depending on the severity of the disease).
  2. Medicamentous treatment aimed at eliminating the problem itself and its causes, if the enlargement of the tonsils was a secondary process.
  3. Physiotherapy treatment of adenoids. It also proved to be highly effective. As an adjunct to the main therapy, excellent results are obtained by ultraviolet irradiation, "salt caves", inhalations, electrophoresis, magnetotherapy, UHF.
  4. Aromatherapy with the use of essential oils (eucalyptus, fir and others).

Attention! Warming procedures for adenoids are contraindicated! They can intensify edema.

Surgical intervention is applied only in the case when conservative therapy has not brought results and complications develop.

Operative treatment

Operations to remove adenoids do dozens of years. They are carried out with the help of an adenotom - a special device that is injected into the mouth and the vegetations are removed. An operation under general or local anesthesia is performed. This is a proven method, which is called classical. It is effective, but has a number of shortcomings. Among them:

  • bleeding;
  • nasal congestion;
  • pain in the ears.

Unpleasant manifestations usually pass quickly enough. To prevent relapse, prescribe a course of antibiotics.

After surgery, the child is not hospitalized, but taken home to be cured. The full recovery period takes approximately 14 days. At this time, recommended bed rest, reducing physical activity and reducing the time spent in the sun.

Note that adenotomy does not guarantee the absence of relapses. Re-growth of the amygdala can occur for the following reasons:

  • age up to three years;
  • predisposition to allergies;
  • incomplete removal of adenoids.

The well-known pediatrician Evgeny Komarovsky, on the question "Is it possible to cure adenoids of grade 3 without surgery?" Answers that surgical intervention is used according to strict indications. In other cases, conservative treatment is recommended.

It is established that the operation gives the best results at the age of three, at 6-7 or 10 years. If done to her child in four years, the risk of recurrence of vegetation is increased. But, when the disease turned into a severe form (hearing deterioration worsens, bones and facial tissues are deformed), the operation is shown at any age. To remove or not adenoids, the doctor solves.

Treatment without surgery

Very good results for laser treatment of adenoids. It is divided into intraoperative and non-invasive.

In the first case, the laser complements surgery. After the operation, the place of intervention is treated with a beam, which reduces the bleeding and promotes the healing of the joints in a shorter time. The method is based on the emission of waves of small length. Completely remove the adenoids by the laser is almost impossible. Similar operations are carried out, but with the help of endoscopic equipment.

Non-invasive laser treatment helps:

  • reduce puffiness;
  • to stop inflammatory processes;
  • to destroy harmful bacteria;
  • improve blood circulation.

Laser treatment is effective in the early stages of the disease. With adenoids of the 3rd degree, the result is likely not to last long, the tonsils will expand to the former (enlarged) sizes. In addition, the method has a number of contraindications:

  • fever;
  • blood diseases;
  • pathology of the heart and blood vessels;
  • tuberculosis;
  • anemia.

Sometimes such therapy gives positive results in the late stages of the disease. But than to treat adenoids, a qualified specialist should always decide.

Medication

Medical treatment of adenoids should be complex. It is aimed at destroying the causative agents of infection, eliminating the main symptoms and preventing complications.

With an increase in nasopharyngeal tonsil in the classical scheme of drug treatment include:

  • restorative agents, multivitamins and immunostimulating agents (Broncho-Munal, Ribomunil, Levamisol);
  • means for washing the nose and reducing edema - saline solutions or herbal solutions based on medicinal herbs (chamomile, echinacea);
  • drops in the nose - an excellent antiseptic are preparations with silver Protargol and Kollargol. But an overdose of this metal is fraught with complications, funds are used with caution in young children;
  • children over the age of three are sometimes prescribed hormonal sprays for the nose - Avamis, Nazonex;
  • antiallergenic drugs (Loratadine, Levocetirizine).

Often for the removal of mucus from the nasopharynx appoint a medicine on a plant basis - Sinupret. Job-Malysh and Tui actively apply to fight inflammation and infection.

In adenoids of the 3rd degree, antibiotics of the penicillin group (Ampiox, Amoxiclav, Augmentin, Flemoxin) are included in the treatment package. In the postoperative period, it is important to prevent infection. Sometimes prescribed strong antibiotics - Aztreonam, Zivox, Avelox, Ceftriaxone. They are effective with a stable microflora.

Attention! The choice of any medication without examining the doctor can cause irreparable harm to the health of the child!

Folk remedies

In complex therapy of adenoids, you can use folk remedies. First, allergies in the child should be ruled out. Here are a few popular recipes:

  1. Drops based on anise. Take 4 hours. l. crushed plant and add about half a glass of alcohol. Insist in the dark for 10 days. Then strain and drip into the nose three times a day.
  2. Stir 1 serving of mother-and-stepmother, 3 same portions of string and 2 - St. John's Wort. Take 2 tbsp. l. of the mixture, pour a glass of boiling water, insist an hour, then strain and add a few drops of eucalyptus or fir.
  3. 100 g of St. John's wort is held in a water bath with a small amount of butter until a homogeneous mixture forms. Add the juice celandine (1 tbsp. l. - 10 drops). Drip three times a day for a couple drops in each nostril.
  4. Add to 1 tbsp. l. currant leaves of 0.5 st. l. calendula flowers and viburnum, 2 tbsp. l. berries of dogrose and 2 tbsp. l. chamomile flowers. 1 tbsp. l. The resulting mixture pour a glass of boiling water and press for six hours. Add a drop of fir oil and bury a couple of drops twice a day.
  5. Three times a day, drip a few drops of sea buckthorn oil into each nostril.
  6. 200 g of beet juice mixed with 100 g of honey. Bury in 5 drops, five times a day.

Also effective for adenoids of inhalation. Saline is easy to make at home. Salt should be heated in a pan and add three essential oils (any one is suitable). Before going to bed, dilute 3 tbsp. l. salt in 1 liter of water and follow the procedure. You can also use sea salt, which is sold in pharmacies.

Essential oils for inhalation are suitable. Especially useful are juniper and mint. Parents need to know that these drugs often cause allergies in children. It is manifested by swelling of the nose, rash on the skin or bronchospasm. Inhalation with essential oils is done with caution.

An excellent liquid for washing the nasopharynx is obtained from an alcohol solution of propolis with soda. To prepare a glass of water, add 20 drops of propolis and 1 hour. l. soda. Stir thoroughly, rinse four times a day.

Only for folk medicine in the treatment of adenoids should not be counted. All these remedies are good as tonic, as prevention or at the initial stage of the disease.

Prevention

Prevention of adenoids is compliance with the following rules:

  • do not self-cure for colds;
  • Keep cleanliness in the apartment, do not allow accumulation of dust and dirt;
  • watch out for food and day regimen;
  • engage in hardening;
  • physical education must become permanent;
  • do not overcool (especially in the autumn-winter period).
  • moisten the air in the rooms and ventilate the rooms more often.

Prevents hypertrophy of tonsils and timely treatment of foci of chronic infection. These simple rules reduce the risk of adenoids and help solve many health problems.

You can cure adenoids without surgery if you notice the problem in time. At the 3 stages of the disease, surgical intervention is the optimal method. To avoid this, be attentive to your child's health. Carry out preventive measures. In case of any catarrhal disease - consult a doctor.