- Characteristics of the disease
- How does the infection occur?
- Yersiniosis and pseudotuberculosis
- Diagnosis and treatment
- Related videos
Yersinia in children is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinea. The smaller the child, the harder the illness goes. The infection is spread by animals. Infection with a bacterial infection leads to damage to the digestive tract and other vital organs and systems. There is a strong intoxication of the body.
The disease is transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Caring parents try to saturate the children's body with natural products from the garden, but often have to settle for old supplies from the cellar. At the same time there are high risks of infection with intestinal yersiniosis.
Most often, children of preschool age range from three to five years. Yersiniosis can occur year-round, but the peak incidence falls on the autumn and winter time. To eliminate the disease requires etiotropic therapy, that is, treatment aimed at combating the pathogen.
To this end, antibiotics can not be avoided. Therefore, parents should pay due attention to hygiene and prevention. In this article we will talk in detail about iersiniosis in children. We will learn the characteristic differences of the causative agent of the disease, as well as find out the effective methods of treating this infectious disease.
Characteristics of the disease
Scientists have found that adults are less likely to get yersiniosis due to completely strong immunity. In children, however, the protective forces are only at the stage of formation. The risk of infection increases with non-compliance with personal hygiene rules. The incubation period lasts from one day to a week, although there have been cases when it increased to twenty-one days. After incubation there is an exacerbation of signs of intoxication. There may also be an allergic reaction.
A child can become infected by eating contaminated food, and drinking contaminated water. The causative agent of the disease enters through the oral cavity into the stomach and intestines. The child's organism reacts to such penetration with an inflammatory reaction. The disease can occur under the guise of hepatitis, gastroenteritis, pneumonia, acute appendicitis, pyelonephritis.
The causative agent of an infectious disease can multiply on vegetables and in dairy products that are stored in the refrigerator. The pathogenic microorganism is able to withstand the freezing and thawing of food products on which it lives. Bacterial infection is sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, lack of moisture, and high temperatures.
Yersinia can persist for a long time in the soil
To destroy iersinia it is possible with the help of disinfectants. After twenty seconds of boiling, the bacteria completely dies. On confectionery and bread yersinii can live and actively multiply up to twenty five days. And in butter - up to 124 days. These bacteria grow well and multiply in vegetable salads.
How does the infection occur?
Dangerous bacteria can multiply in the intestines of swine, rodents, and also dogs. If there are poorly washed raw vegetables and fruits, along with dust, pathogens can enter the body. The disease can develop in young children, if the parents give them unpasteurized milk. The health of the cow, on which the quality of milk depends directly, can vary several times a day. This is directly related to what the animal eats.
Before giving milk to children, it should be boiled. Infection can be transmitted through unwashed hands, on a farm or in public places. For prevention, you should not touch the stair rail in public places. Children can easily catch an infection in school or kindergarten.
The following foodstuffs are the most commonly disseminated yersinia:
- pickled and salted vegetables;
- cucumbers and tomatoes;
- citrus fruits.
In the case of improper storage and production of Yersinia, it can be found on bakery products, meat, eggs. Often it happens that immediately the whole family or an organized collective becomes ill.
The infectious process is acute:
- chills and fever that can persist for up to a month;
- problems with sleeping;
- muscle pain;
- whims, tearfulness;
- refusal to eat;
- high temperature;
- dehydration of the body;
- abdominal pain;
- nausea and vomiting;
- diarrhea with impurities of blood and mucus.
A child can become infected with an infectious disease when using unwashed vegetables
Diarrhea appears already from the first days of the illness, but lasts, unlike other signs of yersiniosis, no more than three days. Diarrhea is accompanied by cramping pains in the abdomen. Children of school age are more likely to suffer an ailment. Most often they have a flu-like condition. Since the leading symptoms of the disease are abdominal pain, intoxication and diarrhea, children quickly get to the surgeon than infectious disease.
It often happens that children stay in the hospital for a while under the supervision of a surgeon. The appearance of pain in the joints helps specialists to suspect the development of yersiniosis. Painful sensations can be aggravated by the development of an inflammatory reaction like arthritis. The main symptoms of iersiniosis are abdominal pain, diarrhea and intoxication.
The disease is characterized by the appearance and other signs:
- enlarged lymph nodes;
- sore throat, cough;
- enlargement of the liver and spleen in size;
- skin bright red rash in the form of dots and spots, accompanied by peeling;
- purulent foci formed in internal organs.
The disease manifests itself quite diverse, differs by the impressive speed of the onset of symptoms and the development of complications. That is why there is still no clearly defined and accepted single classification of iersiniosis. Most often, doctors use the Yushchuk classification, which includes four main types of infectious disease:
Most often, children develop intestinal yersiniosis
Is the most common form of yersiniosis. It manifests itself in the form of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, chills, lethargy. Also, the child may have catarrhal symptoms, scleritis, conjunctivitis, as well as problems with urination. Gastrointestinal form is characterized by a light or medium-heavy course.
Reminds of acute appendicitis. The child is concerned about pain in the peri-pappular region, which fall into the right iliac part of the abdomen. Pathology develops when pathogens penetrate the lymph nodes of the peritoneum. During an operation, phlegmonous gangrenous appendicitis is found.
It is characterized by the defeat of several systems simultaneously. The generalized form is subdivided into such subtypes: icteric, exanthemic, septic, arthralgic. The generalized form is characterized by the most severe manifestations.
With septic type of pathology development there is a high fever, chills, shortness of breath, palpitations, hypotension. This condition can lead to death. Joint pain can last up to two months. In addition to unpleasant sensations, children may be disturbed by impaired mobility and swelling.
Against the backdrop of the development of the aforementioned forms of yersiniosis, the immune system may malfunction. This is explained by the fact that the antigens Yersinium are similar to the antibodies of the human body. This causes the development of autoimmune reactions, in which the body, in fact, struggles with itself.
Yersiniosis and pseudotuberculosis
Both diseases are similar for reasons of origin, mechanism of development, and clinical manifestations. All this allows us to treat pathologies as closely related infectious processes. The causative agent of pseudotuberculosis can enter the children's organism in various ways:
- with infected food;
- in close contact with animals that carry infectious agents;
- by inhalation of infected moisture and dust;
- when swimming in water with infected feces and ingestion of such water.
Yersiniosis and pseudotuberculosis have common clinical manifestations
It is practically impossible to infect children for up to six months. This is explained by a reliable protection of colostral immunity. Clinical symptoms directly depend on the stage of the process. The incubation period lasts up to eighteen days and usually proceeds without pronounced clinical manifestations. The initial period is characterized by a deterioration in the general condition of the child and lasts three to four days.
At this stage, the temperature rises sharply, there is weakness, drowsiness, abdominal pain, diarrhea, muscle pain. At the height of the disease there is a skin rash in the form of single points or large spots. At this stage, soreness and swelling of the joints appear. The temperature usually comes to normal, disappears from the tongue. There is a bloating, in the appendix area there may be sudden pains.
As a result of untimely treatment or against the background of weakened immunity, such complications can arise:
- liver and kidney damage;
- violations in the work of the central nervous system;
- autoimmune arthritis;
- blood poisoning;
- phlegmonous appendicitis;
- intestinal obstruction;
- peritonitis - inflammation of the peritoneum;
- intestinal perforation;
- meningitis, encephalitis.
Yersiniosis can be complicated by peritonitis and cause death
Diagnosis and treatment
A qualified specialist can determine the exact diagnosis based on the results of the tests. For the purposes of diagnosis, bacteriological sowing of biological material is carried out. In view of the fact that it takes a long time to wait for the results, this study is assigned in conjunction with others. High accuracy has a blood test for antibodies to Yersinia.
Currently, a study is being conducted, during which it is possible to identify a DNA pathogen. A general and biochemical blood test will also be required. Therapeutic therapy is carried out in a hospital. The basis of treatment is made up of antibiotics.
The disease is also treated with other drugs:
- non-steroidal anti-inflammatory;
- of vitamins.
Folk treatment of yersiniosis in children is aimed exclusively at normalizing the digestive tract and preventing the development of complications. Chamomile broth will help to remove the inflammatory reaction in the oral cavity and intestines. Cope with a strong diarrhea will help infusion of the bark of oak, which has binding properties.
Several peas of sweet pepper will help with severe pain in the abdomen. They do not even need to be chewed. Even after the cure, it is important to observe a weekly quarantine. Such a measure will prevent the spread of the disease and ensure the final normalization of the child's condition.
Do not forget the simple rules of prevention. Properly handle and store products, especially for vegetables. Boil water, and also milk before use. Iersiniosis does not pass by itself, the child needs medical help. Timely prescribed antibiotic therapy will avoid the development of dangerous complications.