- Why does it arise?
- Characteristic features
- Possible consequences
- How to treat?
- Related Videos
Every year, patients with digestive disorders become more and more. Chronic gastritis has already become something common disease, which many ignore qualified specialists. The hyperplastic form of atrophic chronic gastritis differs in the ability of mucosal cells to actively grow.
Hyperplastic proliferation of cells is accompanied by microscopic changes in the tissues of the organ. The pathological process is accompanied by the destruction of the epithelium necessary for the production of gastric juice components. Chronic inflammation is fraught with the formation of polyps and cysts. A characteristic feature is an increase in the amount of mucus and a decrease in the production of hydrochloric acid.
The disease can appear only on a certain area of the stomach or spread to the entire organ. The treatment of the disease is the gastroenterologist. In his absence, hyperplastic gastritis can develop into cancerous formations. Next, let's talk about the causes, symptoms and treatment of the disease.
Why does it arise?
Chronic hyperplastic gastritis can be a consequence of internal and external causes. First, let's talk about exogenous factors:
- radical diets;
- abuse of fatty meat foods;
- bad habits: smoking, alcoholism;
- intoxication with acids and alkalis;
- taking some medications.
With food in the stomach can get substances that erode the mucous membrane. If improper nutrition becomes a way of life, the cells of the mucous membrane do not have time to recover and the regeneration process is disrupted.
Fasting can be one of the causes of the disease
The disease can also occur under the influence of endogenous causes:
- Helicobacter pylori infection;
- diseases of the nervous system;
- endocrine disorders;
- throwing the contents of the duodenum into the stomach;
- autoimmune processes;
- genetic predisposition;
- trophic changes in tissues.
In the risk zone are people with food allergies, beriberi and kidney diseases. It has also been found that prolonged use of drugs that block the production of hydrochloric acid can lead to the proliferation of cells.
Symptoms of hyperplastic gastritis may differ depending on the type of disease. Yet for all types of inflammation of the stomach, the initial manifestations are very similar, patients complain of a feeling of heaviness in the epigastric region. A long period of time, the pathological process is asymptomatic.
As the disease progresses, such complaints of patients appear: nausea, heartburn, severe pain in the abdomen, aching pain can give to the area of scapula, waist, chest, bloating, heaviness after eating.
There is a feeling of fullness of the stomach, vomiting of food, an eructation with an unpleasant odor, a plaque in the tongue, a general malaise: weakness, increased fatigue, a slight increase in temperature. With erosive changes on the mucosa, pain can be intensified when walking and tilting the body. In the autumn and spring, there are exacerbations.
Patients complain of the severity and pain in epigastrium
Specialists distinguish several forms of the disease, depending on the severity of hypertrophic changes - proliferation of the gastric mucosa. Russian experts do not quite agree with the Sydney classification, therefore among doctors there are some differences in this issue. Consider different types of hyperplastic changes in the gastric mucosa.
This benign type of disease, in which the tumor in diameter reaches no more than fifteen millimeters. Endocrine cells expand, which stimulates excessive secretion of the hormone gastrin.
It is also called granular. Pathology concerns small foci of the gastric mucosa. The mucous membrane grows in the form of grains in small accumulations, it looks tuberous and edematous. To detect such proliferation can be through FGS-survey.
The size of such formations reaches three millimeters and higher. The muscles of the organ become inactive and dense. Typically, the pathology is found in men between the ages of forty and fifty.
With granular gastritis, the mucous membrane grows in the form of grains
On the surface of the mucous membrane there are multiple adenomas - benign growths. By the large curvature of the stomach, creases are actively growing. Epithelium also emerges from the pits, which is accompanied by excessive mucus formation.
Cells, which are responsible for the production of mucous secretions, grow into the muscle layer, which eventually leads to the appearance of cysts. The pathological process is characterized by a decrease in acidity, which is fraught with protein loss and the development of dystrophic changes.
Alkaline content of the duodenum is thrown into the antral part of the stomach, damaging it. Bile acids are the most aggressive agents.
The folds of the antrum section are severely disturbed. They thicken and change direction, and on the surface they are covered with polypous growths. Along with this, the pylorus of the stomach narrows and becomes covered with scar tissue. The peristalsis of the organ is sharply reduced. The condition is aggravated by the cessation of the production of hydrochloric acid.
It is characterized by the appearance of single outgrowths on the mucous membrane. In form they resemble warts. The pathological process leads to degenerative changes in the mucous membrane of the antral part of the stomach.
At some sites of the mucosa appear atrophic changes. Polyps are diffuse or focal. Sprouting consists of glandular cells. The appearance of polyps is most often associated with autoimmune processes, Helicobacter pylori infection, as well as a decreased acidity of the stomach.
On the mucous membrane, leukocyte infiltrates and hypertrophic folds can be identified. Nodules and erosion sites are also found. The acidity of the stomach may be different.
With erosive gastritis, nodules and erosion sites are detected
In addition to all of the above, experts identify and other forms of hyperplastic gastritis:
- chronic. The disease becomes permanent. The proliferation of the mucous membrane leads to thickening of the walls of the organ;
- focal. It is distinguished by the lesion of a separate area of the stomach. During the examination, the specialist determines the localization of the inflammatory focus, the depth of the lesion and the secretory function;
- surface. This disease with the initial stage of the pathological process. In this case, there are no focal lesions, strong inflammatory processes, and also deep tissue is not involved in the process. That is why the superficial form is considered harmless.
The prognosis of hyperplastic gastritis directly depends on when the treatment was started. Overall, the outlook is favorable, but there are risks of developing cancer. In the absence of timely treatment, the disease is fraught with the appearance of such complications:
- malfunction of the mucosa and development of atrophic changes;
- weight loss;
- decreased participation of the stomach in the digestive process;
- reflux disease of the esophagus;
- a violation of the motility of the stomach;
- peptic ulcer;
- tumor process.
The examination begins with a consultation of the gastroenterologist. The final diagnosis can be made after the endoscopist's conclusion. Fibrogastroduodenoscopy will help assess the condition of the mucosa.
During this study, you can determine the acidity of the stomach, as well as conduct a test for the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection. The doctor may also prescribe an ultrasound examination, radiography. Complex evaluation of the patient's condition will also help clinical and biochemical blood analysis.
What is gastritis?
Treatment of gastritis in pregnancy
How to treat?
The treatment should be started immediately after the diagnosis, since the progression of hyperplasia is fraught with cancerous degeneration. Effective treatment is a change in the way of life in general: proper nutrition, reduction of tension and stress, rejection of bad habits: smoking and alcoholism.
Emotional overexertion leads to spasm of the mucosa
With hyperplastic gastritis, specialists prescribe such medicines:
- with a hyperacid type prescribe drugs that inhibit the production of hydrochloric acid or blockers, antacids;
- enveloping agents help to remove heartburn and to remove inflammatory reaction;
- To establish digestion enzyme preparations will help;
- when identifying helikobakter pylori can not do without antibacterial drugs;
- at a dysbacteriosis appoint agents for improvement of microflora;
- to combat constipation soft laxatives will help;
- with diarrhea, it is necessary to take fixing and enveloping drugs;
- antispasmodics will help relieve pain syndrome.
Non-traditional recipes are a good addition to drug treatment. They will help to remove inflammation, regulate acidity, and also normalize the digestive tract. The advice of traditional medicine is safe if used correctly.
Reviews of people show that unconventional advice improves metabolism and appetite. Moreover, such treatment will help to speed up the process of restoring the damaged mucous membrane of the stomach.
Let's consider the most effective recipes:
- St. John's Wort. Tincture of St. John's wort will help to stop the inflammatory reaction and normalizes the digestive processes. Two tablespoons of dry raw material should be poured a glass of boiling water and put in a thermos. Insist means must be within two hours. After the tincture has been filtered, it is taken 125 g in the morning and in the evening;
- burdock. Infusion of burdock is advised to drink in the morning on an empty stomach. This recipe helps even with erosive changes in the mucosa;
- with hypoacid gastritis it is useful to drink cabbage juice or chicory broth;
- with a hyperacid type it is recommended to take a little propolis after awakening;
- a decoction of chamomile and mint leaves will help calm the inflammatory reaction and relieve spasm;
- Prepare a gastric collection of celandine, St. John's wort, chamomile, cassowe and yarrow.
Folk recipes will help to remove the symptoms of hyperplastic gastritis
Carbohydrate foods irritate the intestines of the patient, so you should count the amount of carbohydrates eaten. The food should be cool, but not very cold. Food should be of a soft consistency, without salt and seasonings. To eat it is necessary in small, small portions.
Once a day, lean meat (rabbit meat, beef) or fish is allowed. It is forbidden to eat sour vegetables. From sweet it is allowed honey, sugar, kissel, milk jelly. Products should be boiled or stewed, it is forbidden to eat fried. From the diet should be excluded such harmful products, as smoked meat, pickles, fried, fatty, carbonated drinks, alcohol, bakery products.
Food should be heat treated, it is forbidden to eat raw vegetables and fruits. Do not rush during meals, the food should be thoroughly chewed. It is not for nothing that it is said that solid foods should be drunk, and water - there is, this indicates a thorough chewing.
In extreme cases, surgical intervention is prescribed. The operation is indicated with rapid progression of the pathological process, as well as the presence of cysts and polyps. To solve the problem, specialists use different methods. Neoplasm can be removed with a radio knife or surgical scalpel. Cauterization by electric current is also conducted.
So, hyperplastic gastritis is a serious disease that can lead to the development of peptic ulcer and cancer. The treatment of ailment is the gastroenterologist. Thus patients can observe at the therapist, and also to pass consultation at the dietician, the proctologist or the endocrinologist.
Often, the disease is accompanied by other disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite the fact that the disease is severe and often occurs in chronic form, it is possible and necessary to fight it! Observing all medical recommendations, you can achieve good results.