- When the
- study is assigned Methods for performing the
- analysis Where to do the
- analysis How to prepare the child for the
- analysis Video on the topic
Polio is an acute infectious disease that causes serious damage to the central nervous system. The disease becomes the cause of the formation of damage to the brain shell( meningitis) or full / partial paralysis of the patient.
Especially often the disease is diagnosed in childhood - from 3 months to 5 years - which is why all babies without exception undergo the vaccination procedure. In children of the older age group, the susceptibility of the organism to the virus is significantly reduced. And in case of infection, the disease passes easily, and the symptomology of pathology is almost completely absent.
Performing an analysis of antibodies to poliomyelitis at the stage preceding the development of paralysis, excludes diseases such as influenza, acute respiratory viral infection or intestinal infection. A serological study of blood can detect antibodies to the poliomyelitis antigen, determine their varieties and concentration.
Symptoms of the disease
Poliomyelitis belongs to the group of highly contagious( infectious) pathologies, the causative agent of which is the intestinal virus Poliovirus homini. For infection, the fecal-oral route is typical. Transfer is possible through dirty hands and toys, poorly processed products. The first manifestations of the disease appear two weeks after the child's contact with the virus carrier.
For polio, a typically acute onset resembling flu:
- temperature rise to high levels;
- is a common cold;
- apathy and lethargy;
- worsening or complete absence of appetite;
- tearfulness and irritability;
- abdominal pain.
Timely vaccination against poliomyelitis will avoid infection with
A few days after the onset of the disease, the child becomes better. But later - a week later from the moment of stabilization of the condition - the symptomatology returns. The clinical picture is complemented by paralysis of various muscle groups - legs and hands, face, intercostal muscles and diaphragm. Particular danger for the child and his life is the defeat of the respiratory and vasomotor centers.
is assigned The main indication for performing blood test for antibodies is differential diagnosis of poliomyelitis. The immunological test will be recommended in the following case:
- if there are signs of a central nervous system disorder;
- increased sensitivity of the skin;
- muscular hypotension;
- reduced reflexes.
Methods for performing the analysis of
Venous blood sampling is performed for the study. It is best to visit the laboratory in the morning. It is necessary to try to reduce not only the physical, but also the emotional activity of the baby.
The basis of blood testing is the acid-base titration method, ie, the neutralization reaction. When the result is obtained, when the titer of immune antibodies is less than 1: 4, it is considered as negative and confirms the patient's absence of poliomyelitis.
The titer of antibodies of class M is of diagnostic interest. If the study indicates its excess is more than 1: 4, the result is positive and indicates the presence of the Poliovirus homini virus in the human body.
Antibodies to poliomyelitis in the blood appear already on the seventh day after the virus has penetrated the baby's body
Specific IgM immunoglobulins are formed in the baby's blood a week after infection. Their maximum is determined after 14 days and stored for the next 60 days. After recovery, the child develops specific antibodies of class G, due to which he develops a permanent lifelong immunity to poliomyelitis.
Where can I do the analysis of
Before vaccination, you need to make sure you need a vaccination or not. That is why he can be assigned a blood test for the definition of antibodies to poliomyelitis. But in some cases, the study may not be informative.
If the child's age is less than six months and he receives breast milk, then he receives protective antibodies from his mother. In the period of life from six months to one year, all the protective antibodies obtained by him remain in the baby's blood.
The blood test can be conducted both in the public clinic and in the private medical center
Where can I take an analysis? Blood for the study can be taken both in the procedural room of the district clinic, and go to a private medical laboratory or center. In particular, the analysis of antibodies in the Invitro laboratory can be done at the time of direct treatment.
How to prepare a child for the
test The need for a test is determined by the treating doctor or the district pediatrician. This need arises if the child's medical record lacks information about some vaccinations or has been lost. The referral to the treatment room is given by a pediatrician.
Preparation for delivery of blood is simple enough:
- biological material is collected on an empty stomach;
- procedure is best performed in the morning hours - from 7 to 11.
To date, vaccination is the only possible way to prevent the infection of poliomyelitis in children of all ages.