- Diabetes mellitus
- Pancreatic tumors
- Pancreas cyst
- Video on topic
Still, being a mom, every woman knows that all the organs of a future child form in the first trimester of pregnancy and begin to function before his birth. There have been cases when a pancreas worked for two in the case of detection of pancreatitis in the mother.
in such a situation was a high risk of birth of a crumb with an enlarged organ, which provoked the development of pancreatic disease in children, the most common of which were pancreatitis and diabetes mellitus. Cases of malignant neoplasms and pancreatic cysts were recorded.
Pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by damage to the tissues of the pancreas and its ducts, caused by the activation of pancreatic enzymes. The incidence rate among children varies from 5-25%.
The course of the disease in children is slightly different from that of the adult patient, and has its own peculiarities: the disease can be triggered by a variety of internal and external causes, lethargic, without severe symptoms, and disguised as other gastrointestinal diseases( gastritis, duodenitis, intestinal dysbiosis).
The most important task in pediatrics and pediatric gastroenterology is early detection and treatment of problems with the pancreas.
Causes of the disease
The child's body is much more active than an adult and is more susceptible to various adverse factors. Virtually any disease of an infectious or allergic nature in one way or another affects the pancreas and can provoke an inflammatory process in it.
The main causes of the development of the disease:
- incorrect and irrational food( violation of the regime - a large break between meals);
- reception of products that promote irritation and increased pancreas work( sweet carbonated drinks, smoked products, canned foods, convenience foods, etc.);
- food poisoning, intoxication from taking medicines;
- reception of some medicines: some antibiotics, Trichopolum, Lasix and others;
- in infants with lactose intolerance;
- severe abdominal trauma and back area;
- diseases of the digestive system: peptic ulcer of stomach and duodenum, acute gastritis or gastroduodenitis, hepatitis, cholecystitis, cholelithiasis;
- Other diseases: cystic fibrosis, hypothyroidism, systemic Liebman-Sachs disease, mumps, obesity, chicken pox and others;
- affection of the body with parasites( ascariasis);
- severe stress or prolonged stay in conditions of emotional stress.
Abdominal pain - the main symptom of the pathology
Attention! The occurrence of pancreatitis in children is also possible in case of incorrect introduction of complementary foods in the first year of life of the baby. All products introduced into lure before the due date, have a negative effect on the work of the gland of the digestive tract.
Symptomatic of disease in children
In young children, pancreatitis can be lethargic, without pronounced symptomatology. Most often this is an easy form of the disease, purulent-necrotic pancreatitis is extremely rare. In older children, signs of inflammation of the pancreas are similar to those of adult pancreatitis.
The most common and characteristic symptom of the disease are severe pain attacks, which are accompanied by other signs:
- nausea and vomiting that does not bring relief;
- eructation, sometimes heartburn;
- bloating, increased gas production;
- Stool disorder: diarrhea or constipation;
- feeling of heaviness in the abdomen;
- general weakness, malaise, increased capriciousness;
- decrease or loss of appetite;
- pallor of the skin, dry skin.
Temperature rise, as a rule, is not observed or can reach a maximum of 37.5 degrees. But in the case of necrotic processes, the temperature can rise to 40 degrees due to the general intoxication of the body. In addition, there will be incomplete intestinal paralysis with a pronounced peritoneal irritation syndrome.
In the case of chronic pancreatitis, except for minor pain in the abdominal region, there will be a copious stool, the feces will have a characteristic fatty shine, which will make it difficult to wash off the toilet walls.
In order for a specialist to correctly diagnose a diagnosis, it is necessary to undergo a comprehensive examination, which will include the following procedures: a clinical blood test that indicates an inflammatory process in the body, blood for amylase, an increase in which indicates pancreatitis, ultrasound of the abdominal organscavity.
In case of difficulty in diagnosing the following types of examination can be prescribed:
- CT of abdominal organs;
- advanced fecal colp analysis;
- X-ray examination of pancreatic ducts with contrast agent;
Treatment of pancreatic inflammation is aimed at normalizing the digestive organs, eliminating all the unpleasant symptoms of the disease and the factors that caused pancreatitis. An important step on the road to recovery is adherence to a strict diet in both acute form and chronic.
During an exacerbation children are prescribed antispasmodics, a vitamin complex. After relief of attacks of pain, experts recommend enzymes. In rare cases, surgical intervention is indicated.
Diabetes mellitus is a pancreatic disease that is characterized by impaired glucose uptake associated with a relative or absolute lack of the insulin hormone, resulting in increased blood glucose( hyperglycemia).The disease can be both acquired and congenital( it is very rarely diagnosed).The average age of children who have diabetes varies from 6 to 12 years.
The level of glucose in children with diabetes mellitus
Causes of the development of the disease in children
There are basically two types of diabetes mellitus: insulin-dependent and insulin-independent. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus( type 1) is characterized by a lack of insulin due to the fact that pancreatic cells do not produce insulin. Most often, children are affected by this type of disease.
It is impossible to cure the disease, so endocrinologists prescribe lifelong insulin intake as a solution for injections. The cause of type 1 disease is acute infectious diseases( influenza, chicken pox, hepatitis, rubella, etc.), hereditary predisposition.
Insulin-independent diabetes mellitus( type 2) is characterized by sufficient secretion of insulin, but in an altered form and therefore it does not work or the body cells do not respond to it. In children, this form is very rare in adulthood.
The impetus for the development of type 2 diabetes can serve as the following factors: a violation of fat metabolism( obesity), sedentary lifestyle( hypodynamia), the intake of hormonal drugs, endocrine system diseases, the period of gestation( in adults).
Symptoms of diabetes
To recognize the pathology in time, parents need to pay attention to the behavior of the child and at the first suspicions immediately go to the endocrinologist. The disease proceeds very quickly and if not timely, the diabetic coma may occur.
There are the following symptoms of pancreatic disease in children:
- strong thirst( polydipsia) and dryness of the oral mucosa;
- frequent discharge of urine, while urine slightly sticks;
- sudden weight loss with increased appetite( polyphagia);
- itching of the skin, the appearance of small pustules and dry skin;
- itching in the genital area due to high glucose in the urine and lack of hygiene after the toilet;
- increased weakness, headaches, excessive irritability.
Very young children may have urinary incontinence or polyuria. Many parents confuse this symptom with night incontinence. That's why you need to know the main signs of diabetes. In addition, a blood test will detect a glucose level of more than 10 mmol / l.
To diagnose diabetes, it is enough to perform a blood test on the glucose level in it. In a healthy child, the sugar level will not exceed 5.0 mmol / l. The value of up to 7.5 mmol / l can talk about the latent flow of diabetes. In the case when the glucose level is higher than this indicator, you can easily diagnose diabetes.
Sometimes a diagnostic glucose tolerance test is performed. To do this, initially determine the level of glucose on an empty stomach, then give a drink of water with sugar dissolved in it and after 2 hours measure again. If blood glucose varies within 7.5-10 mmol / l, then talk about the hidden course of the disease. If the index is equal to 11 mmol / l and above is unconditionally diagnosed with diabetes mellitus.
Diabetes mellitus is not treated. It is only a nutrition correction that helps regulate the consumption of sugar or lifelong use of insulin.
Cancer of the endocrine gland is very rare in children. According to statistics, this is approximately 3% of all cancer. The age of the child does not matter. Cases have been recorded in both newborns and adolescents.
Causes of development of tumor neoplasms
Until now, the exact causes of tumors in children have not been studied. But one thing scientists believe is that the process begins at the genetic level. There is a damage to some gene, it changes, and the normal cell begins to degenerate into an atypical one. There is a sharp division of such cells, as a result of which a cancerous tumor is formed.
There are a number of factors that contribute to the degeneration of some cells into others:
- unfavorable climate( polluted air, due to harmful enterprises, machines);
- is a serious viral or bacterial disease, as a result of which immunity was severely affected;
- monotonous food, with predominance of genetically modified products in the composition;
- long stay in stressful situations, tense situation in the family.
Symptoms of the disease
All oncological diseases are insidious in that they do not show themselves at an early stage of development. The first clinical signs are seen then, as a rule, when the size of the tumor is of no small importance. There are 2 types of symptoms characteristic of pancreatic cancer:
- tenderness in the hypochondrium and lumbar region, which is worse at night and lying on the back;
- strong desire to drink;
- increased blood sugar, a symptom of diabetes;
- yellowing of the skin, the appearance of severe itching;
- on the background of jaundice, the color of urine and feces changes: urine takes the color of dark beer, and feces, on the contrary, discolour;
- gastric or intestinal bleeding during tumor disintegration.
Malignant neoplasm in pancreas can sometimes be palpated
- symptoms of general body intoxication: weakness, lethargy;
- dizziness and fainting;
- nausea, frequent urge to vomit;
- decreased appetite, weight loss;
- in the breakdown of the tumor increases body temperature.
In order to diagnose a serious disease in time, it is necessary to undergo an annual examination every year. For children, beginning with 1 year of life, this is ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity organs and blood biochemistry. If there is a suspicion of the presence of a tumor, CT or MRI of the digestive tract and blood for oncomarkers are prescribed.
Pancreatic cancer therapy is aimed at eliminating a tumor, which over time can give a lot of metastases throughout the body. Therefore, the only treatment for pancreatic cancer in children today is surgery. In addition to removing the tumor, several courses of chemotherapy and radiation therapy are prescribed, depending on the stage and severity of the disease.
Cyst is a pathological entity that is a separate capsule or cavity filled with fluid. The formation of cysts in the pancreas is one of the rare pathologies. There are 2 types of disease: congenital and acquired.
Reasons for the appearance of
The most common pathology in childhood is due to several reasons: an innate cyst may appear due to some kind of malfunction during intrauterine pancreas formation, the acquired cyst usually appears after serious injuries or transferred infectious diseases.
When the cyst is only appearing in the pancreas, it can not manifest itself at all. However, with an increase in the cavity, the following symptoms may appear:
- pain in the epigastric region;
- nausea and persistent urge to vomit;
- jaundice of the skin and mucous membranes;
- heartburn, stool disorder;
- eructation and a feeling of heaviness in the abdomen.
Growth of the tumor is fraught with the fact that over time it will squeeze the neighboring organs, and their work will be carried out in incomplete force. The appearance of jaundice is the first sign that the capsule squeezes the gallbladder and the outflow of bile is disturbed.
MRI diagnosis for tumor and cysts
Diagnosis and treatment
To correctly diagnose, parents of a sick child are recommended to undergo ultrasound examination. Sometimes this is not enough and doctors can be prescribed MRI or CT of the abdominal organs.
It happens that there is a need to establish a correct diagnosis and exclude a malignant tumor. In this case, a puncture may be required with further histological examination of the resulting biomaterial. The treatment can include both conservative and surgical treatment( shown with a capsule size of 6 or more cm).