An overview of the bradycardia of the heart: why it arises, is it dangerous, diagnosis and treatment

From this article you will learn: what is bradycardia, when it is considered a variant of the norm, and when - a pathology. What kind of examination you will have to go through when you see a doctor with a bradycardia. Whether treatment of a pathology is always required, and how it is carried out.

Article content:

  • Why does bradycardia occur
  • Symptoms in slow heart rate
  • Is bradycardia dangerous
  • Examination with bradycardia
  • Treatment of bradycardia

Bradycardia is a slow heartbeat. Normally, the pulse should be between 60 and 90 beats per minute.

Bradycardia - pulse below 60 beats per minute. It can talk about heart disease or other internal organs, may be a symptom of drug overdose. But sometimes even a very rare pulse doctors can recognize a variant of the norm, if there are no troubling symptoms, and there are no diseases at the examination.

Electrocardiogram waves characterize both depolarization and repolarization occurring in the heart. A normal electrocardiogram consists of a wave P, a QRS complex, and a T wave. The P wave arises when atrial depolarization occurs prior to contraction, which is a reflection of the depolarization processes in the heart. The wave T occurs after depolarization, that is, during the restoration of the resting potential of cardiomyocytes of the ventricles. Click on the photo to enlarge.

From bradycardia, which has arisen because of diseases, you can get rid of having cured the underlying pathology. To do this, you will need the help of a cardiologist, cardiac surgeon or endocrinologist( sometimes - other doctors).

Bradycardia with unexplained etiology does not require therapy if it does not cause inconvenience to the patient.

Why bradycardia occurs

Delayed heartbeat can occur due to normal physiological causes. In this case, it is not accompanied by any other symptoms and does not require treatment.

But more often a rare pulse is a symptom of dangerous diseases.

Bradycardia as a variant of

  • norm Heart beat becomes slower during sleep. In a dream, the pulse can be from 40 to 70 beats per minute. Abnormal it is considered, when palpitation, on the contrary, does not become less often in a dream - it can be a symptom of hyperthyroidism( thyroid disease).
  • Also, the pulse is slower for athletes. The heart of people, who face intense physical activity each day, becomes trained, and they do not need to shrink as often as before. In this case, it pumps a larger volume of blood for one reduction.
  • Palpitation may slow down due to hypothermia. In this case, when the body warms up, the pulse comes back to normal.

Bradycardia as a symptom of heart disease

Bradycardia occurs due to disruption of the sinus node. This is part of the conduction system of the heart, which is in the right atrium. This knot sets the heart rate. Therefore, a bradycardia, which arose because of heart disease, is also called the weakness syndrome of the sinus node.

Bradycardia can occur with the following heart conditions:

disease Description
Cardiosclerosis affecting the right ventricle Cardiosclerosis is the formation of inclusions of connective tissue in the myocardium( this can be a large scar or subtle areas of dysfunctional tissue).Often this pathology appears after a heart attack or multiple microinfarctions. Therefore, if you previously had heart problems, if your heart rate slows down, consult your doctor immediately.
Myocarditis Myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle. It appears because of the penetration of the virus into the heart, or as a complication of allergy or rheumatism. If the heart rate slows down after a serious infectious disease - this is a serious reason to turn to a cardiologist.

Rare heart rate as a manifestation of other diseases

Palpitation slows and with such pathologies:

Disease Description
Hypothyroidism( deficiency of thyroid hormone) Hypothyroidism can be congenital or acquired. The latter appears due to a chronic deficiency of iodine, an excess of thiocyanates, lithium and calcium ions.
The disease requires immediate treatment, as with the progression of a deficiency of thyroid hormones, a myxedema develops and then a myxedema coma follows.
Increased intracranial pressure, as well as depression and neuroses With increasing intracranial pressure, neuroses and depression, the parasympathetic nervous system is activated. When it is excited, heartbeat slows down.
Increased intracranial pressure occurs with brain trauma( concussion, bruise), tumors, swelling, meningitis, hemorrhagic stroke.
Jaundice The cause of jaundice is a violation of bilirubin metabolism in the body. Most often, this phenomenon is provoked by liver diseases( eg, hepatitis).
Typhoid fever Typhoid fever is an intestinal disease caused by a bacterium called salmonella.

Jaundice and typhoid fever have marked specific symptoms. Bradycardia is not the most pronounced symptom and has no clinical significance.

Drug and toxic bradycardia

Drug form of the disease occurs due to the taking of some medications: as a side effect or as a result of an overdose.

Toxic appears due to poisoning with poisonous or narcotic substances.

What may cause these forms of the disease:

Medicaments Folk remedies Toxic
Beta-blockers digitalis Lead
Cardiac glycosides Lily Pesticides
antiarrhythmic agents Gorizvet Morphine and other opioids
Adenosine cinchona
Calcium channel blockers

To prevent bradycardia, do not self-medicate. Before taking medication or medicinal herbs, consult a doctor.

Characteristic symptoms of

Form of bradycardia Characteristic symptoms of
Heart disease-induced Lethargy, weakness in muscles, dizziness, sweating, syncope, convulsions
Caused by hypothyroidism Lowered pressure, drowsiness, anemia, memory loss, swelling, nausea
Caused by increased intracranial pressure Headache, nausea, vomiting

Is bradycardia dangerous

With bradycardia caused by heart disease( syndrome of weakness of the sinus node), the risk is increasedpnoy cardiac arrest and ischemic stroke, especially if symptoms are present among fainting.

In other cases, not bradycardia itself is dangerous, but diseases that it can testify about( hypothyroidism, brain tumors, etc.).

If during the course of a thorough medical examination the specialists did not find any deviations, then the slow pulse itself is not considered dangerous and is recognized as an individual feature of the body.

Click on photo to enlarge

Examination with bradycardia

When you contact a cardiologist with delayed heartbeat, he will recommend that you undergo such diagnostic procedures:

  • ECG;
  • heart ultrasound;
  • blood test( total and for infection).

These methods allow us to identify cardiosclerosis and myocarditis. To clarify the diagnosis may appoint an MRI of the heart.

MRI Apparatus

If the cardiologist has not revealed any abnormalities of the heart, he will refer you to another doctor.

If you have symptoms of hypothyroidism, you will be assigned the following:

  • thyroid ultrasound;
  • blood test for thyroid hormones.

If you are concerned about headaches, you will be prescribed a brain MRT.

Treatment of

From delayed heartbeat can be completely eliminated with the help of therapy of the underlying disease.

The bradycardia itself is treated with a pacemaker, which will set the rhythm correctly. Such treatment is required if the heart rate is slowed due to heart disease.

Cardiac pacemaker

If a rare pulse is a symptom of diseases of other organs, treatment depends on the specific pathology.

Therapy of diseases causing bradycardia

Disease Her treatment
Hypothyroidism Admission of synthetic thyroid hormones, correction of diet
Depression, neuroses Antidepressants, psychotherapy without the use of medicines
Tumors of the brain Tumor removal;chemo- or radiotherapy if the tumor is malignant

If the heartbeat slows due to medication, they are canceled or the dosage is adjusted.

If bradycardia occurs as a result of intoxication, measures are taken to purify the body.

Folk remedies for bradycardia

They can be used if you only have a slowed pulse and there are no any diseases.

The following folk remedies will help to speed up the heartbeat:

  1. ginseng;
  2. Eleutherococcus;
  3. caffeine.

Before using traditional medicine, take a check to make sure that you do not have any medical conditions, and tell your doctor that you are going to use traditional medicine advice.

How to prepare a medicine for heart rate acceleration

Ginseng tincture:

Take 15 g of dry root, chop, pour 0.5 l of vodka, insist 20-30 days, shake every 1-2 days. Take 30-40 drops per day. The maximum duration of treatment is 1.5 months. Then take a month's break.

Eleutherococcus extract can be bought at a pharmacy.

And as a source of caffeine, regular coffee is suitable.

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