Hypotension is a reduction in pressure, which leads to unpleasant different results in the body. Therefore, in order to prevent the appearance of this pathology, it is necessary to know the causes and consequences of low blood pressure.
- When hypotension does not carry danger
- Prerequisites for abnormal hypotension
- Causes of pathological hypotension
- What does low low blood pressure mean?
- Symptoms of abnormal hypotension
- The dangerously low pressure
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When hypotension does not carry danger
Normal blood pressure is considered to be 120/80. In some cases, deviations from them in the smaller side are not considered pathology, because people live and work without experiencing discomfort. This pressure is called physiological hypotension, because its causes are natural.
It is observed in such cases:
- with a genetic predisposition;
- at a young age of up to 25 years;
- after a cardinal change of residence, until the body adapts to the new conditions;
- when working in conditions of high temperature and humidity;
- athletes and people engaged in heavy physical labor, because of which their cardiovascular system regularly experiences certain loads;
- during natural hormonal failures in women, which are observed in connection with the menstrual cycle.
If blood pressure decreases for these reasons, it does not require a drug adjustment. But in case of discomfort, you need to see a doctor to begin treatment or to eliminate the cause of hypotension.
Prerequisites for abnormal hypotension
Prerequisites for pathological hypotension may be malfunctioning of the cardiovascular and nervous systems, which occurs for the following reasons:
- The rapidly developing process of narrowing the lumen of a large number of vessels. As a result, there is a sharp stoppage of normal blood flow through the arteries.
- Reducing the quantitative indicators of blood in the body, which can occur due to prolonged intensive blood loss or dehydration. The smaller the volume of blood, the lower its blood pressure.
- Dysfunction of the heart muscle, in which there is a slowing of its work and a decrease in the intensity of contractions. This phenomenon occurs because of a long stay of the body in one position, for example, during sleep.
- Violation of the functionality of the nerve endings, responsible for maintaining blood pressure in the normal state.
Causes of pathological hypotension
A steady decrease in blood pressure leads to a number of reasons that are pathological in nature. These include:
- Vegeto-vascular dystonia, flowing through hypotonic or mixed type. During the occurrence of crises, disturbances in the work of the autonomic nervous system of a person are manifested by sweating, weakness, and shortness of breath.
- The pathology of the heart and the vascular system. With myocardial infarction, the heart muscle can not function at full power, the discharge of blood in the artery slows down, and the pressure decreases.
- Atherosclerosis of the cerebral type. Critically low blood pressure is especially frequent in elderly people, as well as in patients with atherosclerosis as a result of not the ability of blood vessels to narrow and expand as before. This phenomenon is due to the loss of arteries of flexibility and elasticity due to the growth of calcareous deposits on their walls.
- Failures in the functioning of the endocrine system. Dysfunction of the organs necessary to maintain the hormonal background at a normal level leads to hypotension. In case of adrenal gland disorders, the total volume of fluid in the body decreases due to sodium imbalance. And with dysfunction of the thyroid gland, there is a decrease in heart rate and vascular tone.
- Blockage of the pulmonary artery by a thrombus. This cause causes the rapid development of hypotension, which leads to unfortunate consequences with untimely care.
- Mechanical injuries, which cause a pain shock, overheating in the sun or in a bath, provoke a sharp flow of blood into the abdominal region due to bleeding of the brain and limbs.
- Anemia of various origin accompanied by regular blood loss.
Important!In some cases, the reason for the reduction in pressure is the uncontrolled use of diuretics, as well as drugs that have hypnotics and hypotensive effects. This type of disease is called drug hypotension.
The causes of low blood pressure in women are specific. So, hypotension causes the hormone estrogen, relaxing the walls of the arteries. Also typical for women is the neurocircular dystonia disease due to hypotonic type, which is caused by malfunctioning of the hypothalamus, the body responsible for regulation of the nervous vegetative system.
Representatives of the fair half are much more likely than men to resort to diets in an effort to find ideal forms. But they forget that prolonged starvation negatively affects the balance of vitamins in the body. Particularly important for normal pressure is vitamin B12, the lack of which leads to the development of hypotension without decreasing blood volume.
Representatives of both sexes suffer from a decrease in pressure after drinking strong spirits.
What does low low blood pressure mean?
If a decrease in only the lower reading is detected in the pressure measurement, this is likely to indicate a malfunction in the urinary and cardiovascular systems (renal or heart failure). In order to make sure of the presence of pathologies, it is necessary to undergo examinations including ultrasound of the kidneys, ECG of the heart and other procedures as prescribed by the doctor.
If you do not confirm the diagnosis, you can suspect the impact on the body of an incorrect lifestyle. Therefore, if lowered lower pressure does not affect well-being and working capacity, some recommendations should be adhered to to eliminate it.
What should I do to normalize the lower pressure mark?
- to develop a daily routine and clearly adhere to it;
- spend at least eight hours on a full-fledged sleep;
- Regularly air the rooms and spend time in the air;
- balance nutrition and drinking regimen;
- take the rule of taking a contrasting morning shower;
- Do not overwork and find time to rest.
Symptoms of abnormal hypotension
Hypotension manifests itself quite characteristically. The first signs of low blood pressure are yawning, weakness, dizziness caused by a lack of oxygen in the body. With a sharp rise after a long static position, dark "flies" appear before your eyes, nausea, in rare cases vomiting.
Important!If assistance is not provided in a timely manner, there may be a fainting condition, which is also dangerous if injuries occur in the fall.
Also, the symptoms of hypotension, which are worth paying attention to, include:
- Drowsiness combined with rapid fatigue, which occur even after rest, with little mental or physical stress.
- Headaches of high intensity. Most often occur spontaneously and are characterized by "knocking" and squeezing in the temporal and occipital parts. Incorrectly diagnosed pain can resemble migraine. But from this pathology it is necessary to drink another medicine. Therefore, inadequate medication often leads to a worsening of the situation.
- Increased nervousness, which manifests itself in a sharp change in mood - from crying to hysterical cries. Many women write off this condition for premenstrual syndrome, letting the development of the disease into its own right, than exacerbating it.
- Pale skin, accompanied by sweating in hypotensive, is always present.
- Not passing thirst is also a sign of low blood pressure.
Low blood pressure and high pulse can be recognized not only by the above symptoms, but also by dull pain in the region of the heart, which is not eliminated by nitroglycerin.
Often, hypotension feel that they can not hold attention for a long time. They are highly susceptible to depressive conditions, especially during weather changes or climatic conditions. To nervous overstrain leads and a long standing on legs, being in a stuffy room or in the sun. If there is a lack of understanding of the dangers associated with chronic hypotension, sooner or later this condition will lead to irreversible consequences.
The dangerously low pressure
If hypotension occurs due to a pathological nature due to a malfunction in the CNS, the brain may deteriorate, leading to poor memorization of the new material and the inability to quickly replicate existing knowledge. The development of such a phenomenon is possible against the background of insufficient oxygen supply of brain cells, which leads to their withering away. There are also violations in the coordination of movements, especially fine motor skills, rapid drop in vision and rapid fatigue at low physical loads.
During pregnancy, the effects of hypotension can cause great harm. First of all, the fact that a fetus that receives oxygen and nutrients in insufficient quantities can develop with delays or pathologies. Prevents low blood pressure and normal delivery. For proper attempts, it is necessary that the uterus is intensively contracted. But with weakened walls of blood vessels this is not possible in full measure. Therefore, the process often lasts a long time, and the risk of ruptures and bleeding increases.
If you find signs of hypotension, which are troubling regularly and are characterized by an intense character, you should contact your doctor for qualified help. Only he can advise how to raise pressure without risk to health.