- Reasons for
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- How to help a child?
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Constipation in a child 2 years occupies a leading position among the ailments that occur in pediatric practice. Functional disorder of the intestine manifests itself in the form of an increase in the interval between acts of defecation. Constipation is also considered the appearance of painful sensations during the emptying of the intestine, even under the condition of regular defecation. Children react to such pathological processes with strong crying and anxiety.
Stool retardation affects the entire body as a whole. Children become lethargic, apathetic, they lose their appetite. The delay of stool in the intestine leads to the fact that toxic substances begin to be absorbed into the blood, poisoning the body. Babies suffering from chronic constipation become irritable, lethargic and fearful. Before we talk about what to do about this problem, we will find out why it generally arises.
Causes of constipation in young children can be very high. Not always the delay of the stool is a manifestation of some disease. The interval between acts of defecation can be increased due to malnutrition. Normally, a child in two years should have a stool every day with registered calves.
If it is not possible to identify and not eliminate the reasons that caused the stool delay, this can lead to the development of chronic constipation, which is much more difficult to cope with. Some adults have struggled with this problem for many years, originating in childhood. Specialists distinguish two types of constipation - functional and organic. In each case, the reasons may differ.
Defecation disorders in this case are associated with abnormalities of the intestine, for example, lengthening of the sigmoid colon or the absence of innervation of the large intestine. If the problems with the intestine have arisen against the background of inaccuracies in the diet and are accompanied by a digestive disorder, then organic constipation can be ruled out. Tumors, polyps, spikes can cause such unpleasant symptoms as abdominal pain, swelling, bubbling.
Constipation in a 2-year-old child may be associated with intestinal abnormalities
Associated with impaired functioning of the gastrointestinal tract( GIT).This type of constipation in a two-year-old child can be caused by the following factors:
- improper diet;
- unbalanced menu;
- insufficient intake of natural water;
- endocrine disorders;
- disorders of the central nervous system( CNS);
- food allergy;
- morphofunctional immaturity of the intestine;
- uncontrolled intake of medicines;
- conscious reflex suppression to the bowel movement.
Functional constipation, in turn, is divided into a spastic and hypotonic type. In the first case, spasm promotes the compaction of fecal masses. Hypertension of the musculature of the intestine does not allow the calves to move freely to the rectum. This condition is accompanied by colic, bloating, frequent emission of gases, a sense of heaviness.
Hypotension of the intestine is accompanied by a decrease in peristalsis. This type of constipation, as a rule, is an incoming violation and is associated with the appearance of dehydration against the background of high fever, sweating, vomiting, as well as inaccuracies in nutrition. Most often, atony occurs in children who do not like active pastime. A sedentary lifestyle causes relaxation of the muscles of the digestive tract.
Constipation in 2-year-old child may occur due to malnutrition
Despite the fact that psychological constipation is of a functional nature, they are isolated in a separate group because of radically different approaches to treatment. If the child is in uncomfortable conditions for him, he prefers to suffer and restrain the urge to defecate. This leads to the fact that the fecal masses in the intestine accumulate and rammed. This entails the appearance of pain and injury to the anus.
This usually occurs while getting used to a kindergarten, as well as a guest or a hospital. Unsuccessful experience can also cause fear of an act of defecation. If once the emptying of the intestines was accompanied by painful sensations, the child may begin to be afraid of going to the toilet.
Improper potting, accompanied by coercion and abuse, can also cause stress and discomfort. Little children can not be scolded for the fact that they made their business in panties. Also, do not force them to sit on the pot for longer than they want. Patience and love are the main qualities that will help in the fight against psychological problems in the child.
Patience is important, first of all, because neurogenic constipation, with all our desire, will not pass in one day. Need time. Love will help create a friendly atmosphere in the family, thanks to which the baby will recover. If you see that the child is worried and feels fear of defecation, you do not need to pull it and do not push it.
Stay calm and positive. If you take care of proper nutrition, the stool masses in the intestines will be soft and after a while your child will still have to run to the pot. Do not forget to praise the child. It is necessary to say out loud that such an action brought him relief.
To determine constipation in children at 2 years of age it is possible by the following criteria:
- no defecation for more than 24 hours;
- solid and dry feces;
- feeling of incomplete emptying of the intestine along with too soft feces;
- allocation of a small amount of feces;
- the need for straining during emptying;The
- chair contains both soft and hard fragments;
- pain during defecation;
- appearance of blood veins;
- flatulence, bloating, rumbling in the abdomen;
- cutting pain in the peripodal region;
- inflammatory elements on the skin;
- presence of cracks in the anus.
Frequent constipation in children 2 years old is accompanied by strong painful sensations
Constant constipation causes chronic fatigue, weakness and decreased appetite. This is due to digestive disorders, intoxication, as well as active absorption of harmful components from stagnant stool. With constipation, there is a slowing of peristalsis and stool retention. All this causes a change in the bacterial flora of the intestine.
The pathogenic microflora begins to actively develop and release toxic substances. The accumulation of stool causes disturbances in the trophism of the intestinal mucosa. Chronic chair delay entails a dysbacteriosis, in which the level of beneficial microorganisms decreases, whereas pathogens begin to become more active. This also affects the absorption of vitamins and trace elements.
All this forms the development of vitamin deficiency and anemia. Often against the background of dysbiosis begin to develop inflammatory processes. Fecal masses stretch the walls of the intestine, causing inflammation of the mucous membrane, increased gas formation, spastic pain, violation of the local circulation.
Severe constipation forms a rectal fissure, bleeding from the anus, and painful sensations that can lead to the development of neurological problems. Toxic substances from the intestine begin to be absorbed into the blood. Children with chronic constipation look weakened, pale, sluggish. The child does not sleep well, grows thin, becomes capricious.
How to help your child?
Parents need to understand for themselves what to give to a child with constipation medicines without doctor's approval is unacceptable. Even after the intestines have cleared, it is important to carry out a comprehensive treatment aimed at restoring the microflora and normalizing the digestive tract.
Cure constipation without diet impossible
An important aspect in the fight against child constipation is the organization of the regime of the day. If possible, the child should be taught that eating and emptying the bowels should be done at the same time. If the body will work as a clock, then the constipation can be forgotten. In addition, parents should teach their child to start the day with the charging and drinking of cool water. Physical activity should also be throughout the day.
This activates the intestinal motility and forces the muscles to move the stool to the rectum. Children will be useful slopes, squats, bringing knees bent in the knees to the stomach, swinging legs, exercises on the muscles of the press. Parents can also do a baby's tummy massage, this will also help to strengthen the intestinal peristalsis.
First aid for acute constipation in a child of two years is to use a cleansing enema. Boiled water of room temperature is used for its carrying out. Glycerin enhances the laxative effect of this procedure, so you can add a teaspoon of emollient to a glass of water. At the same time during the enema should not forget about security measures.
Pear must be disinfected before use. Her tip is smeared with petroleum jelly or baby cream. Do not use warm water, as it will simply suck in the intestines along with toxins from stagnant stool. Do not use too much water. It can injure and stretch the intestines, causing sharp spasms and painful sensations.
For oiling hard stool and facilitating its movement through the intestines, an oily enema is used. For 500 ml of water, add 50 ml of olive oil or sunflower oil. Vaseline enema is done with warm oil. This procedure facilitates the rapid release of the intestine from stagnant stool.
The enemas have a number of limitations in connection with the application:
- sharp pains against the background of the "acute abdomen";
- muscle tension of the abdominal wall;
- discharge of blood from the anus during emptying;
- calotherapy in the absence of defecation.
In some cases, a laxative is needed. Glycerin suppositories are highly effective and safe. They are even used for the treatment of newborns. All the above-mentioned measures will be sufficient to provide laxative action, but these are only emergency measures, this treatment is just beginning. Be sure to contact a specialist and undergo a comprehensive examination to find out the root cause of this problem.
The fight against stool retardation is a very individual matter. The choice of treatment is influenced by a large number of factors, among which we can identify the presence of accompanying pathologies, the psychological state of the baby, the causes of the disease. Parents should understand that the medical process can be delayed for a long time. In some cases, recovery of the intestine and elimination of psychological problems takes more than one year.
Enema helps to cleanse the baby's intestines
A laxative medicine will help you quickly cope with constipation, but it is important to understand that such drugs have a number of side effects and can be addictive. Children of two years of age are allowed laxative-based laxative preparations. The famous means is Dufalac. This medicine is available as a syrup.
Included in the composition of lactulose inhibits fluid absorption, which causes softening of intestinal contents and activates peristalsis. Dufalac is not only a laxative drug, but also a prebiotic. It promotes colon colonization with beneficial bacteria. Thanks to such properties, the digestive processes, the absorption of nutrients are improved, and the number of opportunistic microorganisms is reduced.
Contraindications to the use of the drug are:
- individual intolerance of components;
- intestinal obstruction;
- suspected acute appendicitis;
- Intestinal bleeding.
Dufalac does not have a rapid effect. It works gently, without irritating the intestines and not inhibiting muscle tone. The result can be after three days after the start of treatment. Lactulose-based drugs are allowed for long-term use, which can not be said about most other laxatives.
Such drugs do not reduce the sensitivity of intestinal receptors and are not addictive. Nevertheless, it is unacceptable to apply Dufalac uncontrolled and without prescribing a doctor.
This is due to the fact that in some cases, constipation can only be a symptom of some serious ailment. Sometimes Dufalac can cause unpleasant side effects in the form of flatulence, discomfort and abdominal pain.
In some cases, doctors even prescribe drugs that promote the escape of gases. The development of increased gas formation explains the splitting of glucose and its interaction with intestinal contents, resulting in the formation of carbon dioxide. Long-term use of Dufalac often requires an increase in dosage.
Dufalac will help get rid of constipation in a two-year-old child
Proven traditional recipes will help cope with constipation and restore normal bowel function:
- wheat bran and sea kale are natural laxatives. They can be added to food or consumed separately, washed down with water. In the intestine they swell, increasing the volume of feces, liquefying, and also speeding up the evacuation process;
- infusions of Senna leaves. A glass of water should be taken a tablespoon of raw materials. In the evening, the product should be brewed, and filtered in the morning. Give the child follows a tablespoon of infusion three times a day;
- juice and leaves of wild rose. The populists advise rubbing the leaves of the dogrose with sugar, and pour out the squeezed juice with spring water;
- tea from dried apples and cherries;
- cabbage brine has a pronounced laxative effect;
- several times a day give the child oatmeal or plum broth.
Effective control of constipation is impossible without proper nutrition. No matter how effective the medicines may be, without a diet, they may not be of use, constipation will come back again and again. But what to feed the baby with problems with evacuation? To begin with, we will outline the list of prohibited products.
It is important to exclude foods that cause thickening of the stool:
- whole milk;Rice porridge
- bakery products;
Refuse also have to gas-forming products: legumes, cabbage, mushrooms, tomatoes. Also, do not forget about products that reduce intestinal peristalsis, such as tea, coffee, cocoa, chocolate. They also have to give up. In the diet of the child must necessarily enter the sour-milk products. They normalize the digestive processes, and also contribute to the colon colonization with useful microorganisms.
Tea and coffee impair intestinal motility, therefore they will have to give up
The daily ration can consist of such products:
- boiled meat and fish;
- casseroles and porridges;
- fruit and berries;
- vegetables in raw and boiled form;
- vegetable soups;
- dried fruits;
- omelets, soft-boiled egg.
Consider an exemplary menu for a child with constipation:
- breakfast. Buckwheat porridge with a small piece of butter. Tea and curd casserole;
- lunch. Grated carrots with sour cream and broth of rose hips;
- lunch. Vegetable soup. Wheat porridge with chicken meatball, sauerkraut and fruit juice;
- afternoon snack. Compote of dried fruits and biscuits;
- dinner. Mashed potatoes with fish chops and vegetable salad. Incomplete tea.
So, if a child of two years suffers from constipation, first of all it is necessary to find out the cause of its occurrence. In some cases, problems with emptying appear due to improper diet or sedentary lifestyle. And sometimes stool retention is only a symptom that indicates the development of a more serious pathology. In any case, you can not do without consulting a specialist.
The doctor will help to make a menu that will help to soften the stool. Medicines based on lactulose will help to have a soft effect on the intestines. They should be taken according to the doctor's instructions. As a supportive aid, people's prescriptions can be used. The fight against constipation is a long process, the elimination of which can take even years. Patience and attentive attitude to the health of the baby will help to finally overcome the ailment.