1Sonography: what is it, and in what areas is it used?
- 1.1What is the uniqueness of the method?
- 1.2What are the indications for ultrasound sonography?
- 1.3What is the importance of ultrasound for the musculoskeletal system and the brain?
2What is sonography?
- 2.1What is this diagnostic method?
- 2.2When is the sonography?
- 2.3Why do you need a sonography of the spine?
- 2.4Benefits of Sonography
- 2.5Do I need to prepare for the survey?
- 2.6Further actions
3When ultrasound is necessary
- 3.1Features of ultrasound
- 3.2Advantages of sonography before MRI and CT
- 3.3At what clinical cases ultrasound can be assigned
- 3.4Is it necessary to prepare for the study?
- 3.5Sonography for pain
- 3.6How is the procedure performed
4Sonography. What is it and what is the method of research based on?
- 4.2What is the method based on?
- 4.3Short description of the ultrasound machine
- 4.4Types of transducers (sensors)
- 4.5Examination of pregnant women
- 4.6Passage of the fallopian tubes
5Sonography: what is it and how it is made?
- 5.1What is research?
- 5.2Ulcer of the gallbladder
- 5.3Uzi tubal ligation
- 6What does the ultrasound scan of the cervical spine show?
Sonography: what is it, and in what areas is it used?
If with a concept like ultrasound, faced with almost any and there are no ambiguities, then when the term "sonography" is pronounced, what it is, not everyone can say. However, these are identical procedures.
Earlier with the help of sonography, only internal organs were examined, but now it is indispensable for detecting pathologies of the brain or musculoskeletal system.
Although it is commonly believed that CT and MRI are much more effective for examining the joints and spine, but this is not so.
What is the uniqueness of the method?
Ultrasonic sonography is a method of instrumental, non-invasive examination by means of ultrasound.
It should be noted that ultrasound is an effective method of diagnosis, which is used in many areas of medicine.
But in the field of rheumatology, this research has been used recently.
In fact, such a diagnosis of the musculoskeletal system came into medical practice just 10 years ago, and this became a reality thanks to the development of computer technology.
Scientists managed to develop more advanced sensors that have a high frequency, which makes it possible to examine any joint, allows you to visualize the surface of cartilage and bones.
The essence of ultrasound lies in the penetration of ultrasonic waves emanating from the sensor into tissues, which, in turn, are reflected from them and return again to the sensor.
This process of reflections and sees the doctor on the screen and on the basis of the obtained data forms his opinion. Such diagnostics are absolutely harmless, and its duration is not more than 20 minutes.
High and the indicator of the effectiveness of ultrasound - it is about 95% and in addition the procedure does not require special preliminary preparation.
What are the indications for ultrasound sonography?
The range of diagnoses in which ultrasound is prescribed is quite wide. These include:
- posttraumatic and postoperative changes of non-osseous structures;
- diagnosis of herniated disc;
- the definition of pathologies in osteochondrosis;
- arthrosis and arthritis;
- the need to examine any joint for pathological changes (this may be research shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, ankle, knee, and hand and feet);
- the need for the diagnosis of protrusions;
- finding out the causes of the onset of pain in the back;
- detection of oncology;
- tracking progress in the treatment of joints and spine;
- definition of inflammatory processes in tissues;
- examination with suspicion of pathological changes in the brain, as well as for the study of its vessels.
Ultrasound does not carry radiation on the human body, so it can be used an unlimited number of times.
In addition, when used in rheumatology, it becomes possible to obtain an image of the joint with different sides, which helps to determine the diagnosis in the early stages of the disease, when other symptoms are absent. Still this method of diagnostics is quite cheap in comparison with CT or MRI.
What is the importance of ultrasound for the musculoskeletal system and the brain?
Especially important was sonography in studies of impingment syndrome. This is the name of the disease, in which there is a contact between the edge of the acetabulum and the neck of the femur due to an abnormal build-up of bone tissue. This syndrome has several options for development:
cam-impingment - characterized by abnormal growth of bone tissue on the neck of the femur;
pincer-impingment - there is a pathological process of bone growth in the region of the acetabular margin;
mixed-impingment - a combination of both types of pathology.
It should be noted that in the final positions of the hip joint, the amplitude of movement of the femur relative to the acetabulum is limited.
But since it acts as a kind of block, because of frequent contact with them, the development of the collision syndrome is possible.
In addition, a similar process may be accompanied by a pinch in the soft tissues of the hip joint, which subsequently expand, and this leads to an even more infringement and aggravation of impingment syndrome.
And yet not every increase in bone tissue will contribute to the appearance of impingement syndrome. Such a build-up should be of a significant size, and there must also be a movement toward this growth for the manifestation of the syndrome.
Therefore, we can say - this disease of young and mature people who have increased activity of the hip joint.
Of course, in elderly people the activity is much lower, therefore, the likelihood of such a pathologytan isosceles joint is practically absent.
Thanks to Sonography, it is possible to track the development of pathology and promptly introduce appropriate hip joint treatment.
It is also used to identify foci of inflammation or infringement of the nerve fibers of the spine. In addition, ultrasound makes it possible to examine the cervical and lumbar spine for protrusions and hernias.
In addition, sonography is allowed for pregnant women, who may also have spinal injuries, but because of their position they are counter-indicative of CT and MRI.
Another problem for examination with MRI are metal staples and other similar elements in the spine.
It is irreplaceable sonography and for brain research. It allows to reveal different neoplasms, edema in the brain tissues.
And since ultrasound makes it possible to observe the picture in real time, it is used during operations on the organ to avoid resection of healthy parts of the brain.
Sonography is also an optimal and safe method for studying the brain of infants.
The most important stage in the treatment is a correct diagnosis and a quick appointment of treatment. Ultrasound allows to accelerate these processes as much as possible and therefore the future is behind it.
A source: http://drpozvonkov.ru/diagnostika/sonografiya-chto-eto-takoe.html
What is sonography?
Many people do not know what sonography is, and therefore avoid the passage of such a study in every possible way. And meanwhile, it's just a synonym for ultrasound examination. By the way, it also has another name - echography.
Consider what a sonography is, when it is shown and what advantages it has.
What is this diagnostic method?
Sonography makes it possible to examine many organs, in particular, muscles, bones, tendons. The method allows to effectively detect many pathologies of the back and other parts of the musculoskeletal system.
Ultrasound diagnosis of the back and joints has recently become more popular. The newest technologies make it possible to examine all areas of the body, including the spine.
The essence of the method of sonography is that ultrasound waves penetrate from the sensor into the tissues and organs of the human body, then reflected in them and return to the sensor.
Changes that occur in one or another organ are recorded on the monitor screen.
So the doctor can see everything that happens in the body, and on the changes occurring in the organs of the human body, can make an appropriate conclusion.
When is the sonography?
There are necessary indications for carrying out this survey. When examining with many ailments, the doctor can receive as much information as possible about the condition of the musculoskeletal system. If possible, this diagnosis also provides an opportunity to correct treatment.
The main indications for sonography are such diseases and conditions:
- Pathologies of non-individual objects that occur after trauma or surgical interventions.
- Determination of the pathological condition of the spine with osteochondrosis.
- Diagnosis of intervertebral hernia.
- Determination of the patient's protrusion of the spine.
- Diagnosis of the cause of back pain.
- Diagnosis of joints.
- Degeneration of joints, as well as their inflammation.
- Control over the treatment of joints and spine.
- Diagnosis of tumors.
It is prohibited to conduct ultrasound sonography in such cases:
- alcoholic or narcotic intoxication;
- unnecessary neuropsychic excitement;
- with some diseases accompanied by aggressiveness.
Why do you need a sonography of the spine?
Sonographic examination of the spine is primarily assigned to the correct diagnosis of his diseases. They, in turn, negatively affect the state of the whole organism.
Diagnosis of the spine by sonography is necessary in such cases:
- Headaches of unknown origin, as well as dizziness, appearing for unexplained reasons.
- Discomfort, as well as pain in the joints and spine.
- Respiratory disorders.
- Changes in posture.
- The appearance of a feeling of numbness in the hands or feet.
- Visual and auditory disorders.
- Memory impairment.
- Unexplained increase or decrease in blood pressure.
- Various violations in the work of internal organs.
The doctor is able to determine the condition of the cervical and lumbar spine.
Sonography of the cervical department makes it possible to obtain information about the condition of the cervical vertebrae, and in young children - to find out the consequences of birth trauma.
The ultrasound of the cervical region is also indicated in cases where the patient constantly shows a shaky and uncertain walk, a headache.
Examination of the lumbar region, first of all, gives an opportunity to see the degree of wear and tear of the disc, as well as to know what condition the cerebrospinal fluid is in. Sonography of the lumbar region also allows the doctor to see the features of the development of the spine, the presence of foci of inflammatory processes in it.
It is also mandatory if the patient has such symptoms:
- compression syndrome;
- pain syndrome in the gluteus muscles or hip joint;
- numbness of the extremities, burning in them, "crawling
- In the surgical treatment of ultrasound is necessary to monitor the effectiveness of the therapy.
Benefits of Sonography
The advantages of such diagnostics are primarily that it does not give a radiation load, in contrast to radiography and computed tomography. Sonography can be used without problems for the diagnosis of spine diseases in pregnant women, lactation, as well as in newborns.
Due to its effectiveness, ultrasound gives a clearly defined picture of the spine. Moreover, it allows you to visualize the status of the canal of the spinal cord, as well as see all the changes in the disk.
Sonography of the thoracic spine is not performed. This is due to the fact that it is poorly available for ultrasonic rays. The exception is the children's age: in small patients, ultrasound rays freely penetrate to this section of the spine.
Do I need to prepare for the survey?
If a sonography of the lumbar spine is planned, then such a survey should be prepared. It is necessary because the ultrasonic sensor is placed on the abdominal wall. And the presence of gases in the intestine can adversely affect the result.
So, a few days before the study from the diet should be eliminated all dishes that lead to the formation of gases. Among them - bread, dairy products, raw vegetables, legumes in any form. Before such a study, you do not need to eat anything for at least eight hours.
The doctor may recommend the use of activated carbon or Espumizan for better gas escape.
And if the patient has a weight over eighty kilograms, then before the examination a cleansing enema is shown.
Laxatives are not prescribed: elevated peristalsis is poorly displayed on sonographic results.
But before the ultrasound of the cervical spine special training is not required.
According to the results of sonography, the doctor puts a definite diagnosis, and also assesses the impact of pathology on the functioning of the spine and other organs.
If necessary, additional research can be conducted.
These measures are aimed at clarifying the suspicious diagnosis, as well as choosing the necessary method of treatment.
So, sonography is a highly informative and accurate method of studying the body. Unlike radiography, does not cause radiation exposure, and therefore can be used to diagnose diseases in many categories of patients. So, we answered the question: "Sonography what is it?"
A source: https://uziprosto.ru/ultrazvuk/oporno-dvigatelnyj-apparat/sonografiya-chto-eto-takoe-zachem-delat.html
When ultrasound is necessary
Ultrasound research plays a big role in human life. And many people have heard and know about the benefits of this method in detecting pathologies of the uterus, breast, kidneys and other internal organs.
But, not everyone knows that ultrasound also plays a huge role in the study of diseases of the musculoskeletal system.
Some patients will say that it is possible to study the musculoskeletal system much more efficiently with CT or MRI. But it is not always the case.
Features of ultrasound
Ultrasound examination - is a method of instrumental, non-invasive diagnosis, which is carried out with the help of ultrasonic rays.
This method is highly informative and differs in that it does not have any harmful effect on the human body.
The application of sonographic research is effective in many areas of medicine, including in the diagnosis of joint and spine pathologies.
In the medical practice of examinations of rheumatic joint pathology, ultrasound-sonography entered somewhere in the last 10-20 years. This became possible due to the development and constant development of computer technologies.
Scientists have developed special sensors that have a higher frequency and allow estimating the changes not only in soft tissues and liquids, but also carry out visualization of cartilaginous tissue and bone surface tissue.
Advantages of sonography before MRI and CT
Improvement of the ultrasound system allows this type of research, to have a number of advantages in evaluating rheumatological diseases.
The main competitors of ultrasound are MRI and CT. Therefore, we describe in the table what advantages have the method of ultrasound in assessing diseases of the musculoskeletal system in front of these two methods.
What are the advantages of ultrasound-sonography
It allows you to explore not only the structures of bone and muscle tissue, but also articular bags, the nature and presence of fluid in the joint cavity; ligaments; cartilage. The method is safe for health, has no complications. The study is conducted in real time. The survey is non-invasive. With the help of ultrasound it is possible to evaluate the spinal cord and the spinal canal. Simplicity in execution. Availability and economy.
At what clinical cases ultrasound can be assigned
Let's list the main indications for the appointment of ultrasound in the rheumatological area:
- Examination of the spine and joints when the patient complains of acute and severe pain in them.
- The study of large joints for the presence of pathological changes. This includes: hip, ankle, elbow, joint of the foot, shoulder, wrist, knee, joints of the hand).
- Posttraumatic diagnosis of trauma.
- Diagnosis of postoperative changes in bone and adjacent structures.
- Diagnosis with hernial attacks.
- Examinations with protrusions.
- Detection of osteochondrosis.
- Diagnosis of arthrosis and arthritis.
- Detection of inflammatory processes in tissues.
Physicians note that in the course of prophylactic examinations of ultrasound-sonography in patients can be identified such diseases:
- Becker's cyst.
- Petricitis in the soft tissues of the foot.
- Tofusi brushes.
- Hematoma in the gastrocnemius muscle (after physical overstrain).
- Lymphocele in the iliac muscle.
- Fibrosis in the large lumbar muscle caused by trauma.
- Fibrosis in the soft tissues of the foot (posttraumatic).
- Hygromas of the ankle joint.
- Osteoma of the tibia.
- Bursitis of the patella.
- Tumor formation in the gastrocnemius muscle.
- Perihondritis of the thigh.
Is it necessary to prepare for the study?
Ultrasound sonography does not require any special measures to prepare for its passage.
Moreover, sonography is an absolutely harmless and safe method of examination even for pregnant women. Therefore, if pregnant women are injured, such methods as CT or MRI are contraindicated for them, and the ultrasound method is a good alternative.
During the passage of sonography, the doctor receives and image on the monitor. You can get an image from different angles and sides. This allows you to consider all the necessary details in order to accurately diagnose.
According to medical statistics, diagnosis of the disease in the early stages in 95% of cases, allows for more effective treatment.
Ultrasound is also widely used when the patient is suspected of pinching nerves or having an inflammatory process in the tissues.
Based on the results of ultrasound, a detailed protocol is drawn up about the study, which carries accurate information for the attending physician.
Sonography for pain
As mentioned above, ultrasound examination is often prescribed when the patient complains of pain in the back, limbs or specific joints.
In this case, with the unexplained etiology of pain before the specialist of functional diagnostics, the task is to determine which pathology causes unpleasant sensations: extra-articular or intraarticular.
|Extra-articular causes of pain||Intraarticular causes of pain|
|Tears in the muscle tissue. Puffiness. Internal hematomas. Injuries of different locations. Stretching.||Necrosis. Synovitis. Bursitis. Osteoarthritis. Exudation into the joint cavity. Arthritis.|
The specialist has a very serious task, which is to distinguish the listed diagnoses in time from cancer tumors, metastases or other inflammation groups.
How is the procedure performed
The research process takes place in real time. That is, the doctor drives the sensor over the surface of the body to be examined and receives an image on the monitor.
Diagnosis can be carried out from four positions:
- Front view.
- Back view.
- Lateral view.
- Medial appearance.
The passage of the study is completely painless for the patient.
If any abnormalities are observed, then the functional diagnostician has to evaluate the degree of degenerative processes in the tissues.
Another important distinguishing feature of ultrasound from CT and MRI is the fact that it can visualize the necessary information even if the patient has prosthetic joints. This is a very significant advantage of sonography.
A source: http://bolivspine.com/lechenie/neobhodima-uzi-sonografiya.html
Sonography. What is it and what is the method of research based on?
When a doctor sends a patient to an ultrasound, unnecessary questions usually do not arise. But if the destination uses the mysterious word "sonography the questions are poured like peas. So, it is worth investigating, sonography - what is it? And in what cases is the patient given such an appointment.
The first patient associations are related to sleep, but sonography has nothing to do with this. Ultrasound and sonography are different names for one procedure. For this same study, the name echography is sometimes used.
Proceeding from this, it is possible to draw a simple conclusion: ultrasound, sonography, sonography - what is it? This is an ultrasound study that evaluates the morphological and functional parameters of human organs and tissues.
What is the method based on?
The ultrasound method is based on the features of ultrasound waves transmitted through the body. In any living being, organs consist of tissues of varying density and resistance.
Due to this, ultrasound is reflected, refracted, scattered or absorbed. As a result, an image appears on the receiving device.
That is, ultrasound is actually the recording of echoes reflected from the objects.
Medical equipment for ultrasound (sonography) uses frequencies from, to 29 MHz.
The maximum height of sound that the human ear can perceive is 20 kHz.
The resulting image is not just a contour of the internal organ or bone site, as in x-ray, but a reflection of internal structures.
Short description of the ultrasound machine
For the survey use a medical device ultrasound.
Sonography - what is it? Are all the machines the same? What elements do they consist of? The best thing in the device of ultrasound apparatus can understand physics.
They understand what a piezoelectric effect is, they understand the lengths, vibrations and frequencies. It is enough for an ordinary patient to know that the device consists of the following elements:
- an ultrasonic wave generator, i.e., a pulse sensor that emits and simultaneously receives reflected signals;
- ultrasonic sensor-transducer, in which there is a large number of piezocrystalline converters, there is a focusing lens in the sensor, which allows you to concentrate on the required depth.
Types of transducers (sensors)
The original unit is produced by mechanical and electronic devices.
Scanning by a mechanical sensor is performed by the motion of the radiating element (rotation or rocking). The main drawback - low resolution pictures, vibration and noisy work.
Modern ultrasound sonography abandoned the outdated model, preferring to use electronic versions.
Electronic sensors relate to more modern equipment. The image is scanned electronically. The picture is more clear and complete. Noise and vibration in the operation of equipment are absent.
Ultrasonic scanning is subdivided into linear, convective and sector type. Based on this, 3 types of sensors are used:
- Linear. Uses a frequency of 5-15 MHz. Gives an image of the investigated area with a high resolution image, the size of the body corresponds to the width of the sensor, but the depth of scanning is not more than 11 cm. It is difficult to ensure a uniform fit of a wide sensor in order to get a good picture. Used to scan the thyroid gland, breast, small joints and muscle tissue.
- Convex. Frequency, MHz. The scanning surface is shorter than the linear sensor. Allows a tight, even fit to the skin. Gives out a narrow picture, somewhat distorted in size, but the depth of inspection is up to 25 cm. It is used for examination of the organs of the abdominal and retroperitoneal cavity, urogenital system, large joints (hip, for example).
- Sector. Uses a frequency of -5 MHz. The image is larger than the real one. Allows scanning at great depths. It is most often used for echocardiography.
Different types of sensors are used for examination of the organs of the abdominal cavity, heart, thyroid, breast, spine and joints. In addition, there are microsensors for endoscopy and needle biopsy.
Examination of pregnant women
A computerized sonography is considered to be the optimal option for a complete examination of pregnant women.
Such equipment allows you to carefully consider the condition of the fetal organs, starting with a four-centimeter size. The examination is completely safe.
It helps with the fourth week of pregnancy to listen to the heartbeat, to identify and eliminate the threat of miscarriage, to clarify the period of pregnancy, to determine the developmental delays and other abnormalities.
Passage of the fallopian tubes
The need to assess the patency of the fallopian tubes occurs in women who can not become pregnant for a long time. Sonography of the fallopian tubes is one of the methods for evaluating the reasons why an egg can not meet a sperm.
First the doctor examines the condition of the uterine cavity, makes sure that the woman is not pregnant and has no adhesions, polyps and knots.
Further into the cervical canal, physiological saline is injected, and sonography is assessed for the patency of the fallopian tubes. If the pipes are passable, the liquid merges on both sides of the organ into the abdominal cavity.
If the liquid does not drain, but fills the segment of the uterine tube and uterus, then the tube is impassable. Ultrasound can accurately determine the location of the block.
If the patient understands the meaning of the term "sonography what is it and why did the doctor prescribe the examination, he does not feel fear, is ready to fulfill the necessary requirements of the doctor and correctly refers to procedure. Much depends on this. Because often, instead of examining and treating frightened patients turn to charlatans and "healers losing valuable time.
A source: http://.ru/article/269214/sonografiya-chto-eto-takoe-i-na-chem-osnovan-metod-issledovaniya
Sonography: what is it and how it is made?
With this kind of research of internal organs, like ultrasound diagnostics (ultrasound), almost everyone is familiar, but not everyone knows about what sonography is.
In fact, ultrasound and sonography - this is the same procedure, which in medicine has a third name - echography.
Ultrasound diagnosis (sonography, echography) - this is one of the most common and most informative types of hardware research of internal organs.
What is research?
Sonography is absolutely safe for humans: ultrasound examinations have virtually no contraindications, can be given to pregnant women and patients in serious condition.
Therefore, in comparison with radiography or computed tomography, ultrasound has an undoubted advantage.
Through ultrasound diagnosis, you can visualize any organs and systems of the body. In this case, the most common echography of the abdominal cavity, organs of the small pelvis (including the fallopian tubes), gallbladder, liver, kidneys, heart.
Ultrasound diagnosis enabled physicians to identify diseases at their earliest stages. development, which gave millions of patients around the world a chance of a full recovery, and someone - and a life.
It is irreplaceable sonography for examination of pregnant women. Thanks to ultrasound, the doctor can observe the progress of fetal development and identify pathology in the early stages, and therefore, in time to take the necessary measures, designate an effective treatment.
What is ultrasound diagnostics, what is the mechanism of its work? This type of research involves exposure to the human body through ultrasound - sound waves with a very high frequency, which the person with their hearing organs does not perceive is capable.
This makes it possible to visualize the smallest parts of the organs and their tissues. During the ultrasound, a real image of the internal organs is transmitted to the doctor's monitor patient, and the picture is dynamic, which even allows you to track the blood flow, its speed and character movement.
How do ultrasound machines visualize internal organs and systems? The principle of their work is based on the ability of ultrasonic waves to be reflected: when they permeate this or that tissue or organ, a certain number of waves are reflected and returned.
It is these reflections that fix the sensors of the apparatus, after which they turn them into electric pulses, and already A special computer program transforms the pulses into an image and transfers the image to the monitor oyster.
In order to obtain the fullest possible information, the patient should be examined from different angles, so the patient may be asked to change the position several times during the examination.
This is especially true for examination of pregnant women, diagnosis of the gallbladder, liver, uterine tubes.
Also in the course of sonography, a special gel is always used, which prevents reflection of ultrasonic waves from the body.
In this regard, before examining the organs of the abdominal cavity, it is necessary to take preparations that suppress gassing.
In addition, ultrasonic waves make it possible to obtain a qualitative picture at a depth of not more than a quarter meter, therefore to make Uzi of a cholic bubble or a liver to patients with adiposity happens enough is problematic.
Next, for an example, in more detail tell about sonography of the gallbladder and fallopian tubes.
Ulcer of the gallbladder
Ultrasound diagnosis of a gallbladder is extremely rare.
Most often, several closely related organs are scanned at once: the gallbladder, liver and pancreas. Ultrasound is indispensable for early diagnosis of stones in the gallbladder and its ducts.
Due to the fact that the doctor sees the image in real time, sonography can accurately calculate the location and size of the stones.
Indications for conduction of the Uzi gallbladder are:
- cholecystitis (acute and chronic);
- dyskinesia of the gallbladder;
- empyema and suspicion of it;
- severe pain on the right side under the ribs;
- vomiting with bile;
- protracted diarrhea;
- yellowness of the skin.
In addition, the Uzi of the gallbladder is a mandatory examination of newborn preterm infants, as well as infants who do not gain weight or suffer too frequent stools.
To make the study as informative as possible, it is necessary to properly prepare for the Uzi gallbladder.
It should be known that the study is carried out on an empty stomach, that is, the meal should be finished not less than 7 hours before the procedure.
3-4 days before the Uzi gallbladder should regularly drink enzymes, which will appoint a doctor.
In the evening before the test, you must drink a laxative and / or put an enema in order to qualitatively clean the intestines.
If it is a study of the gallbladder infants, the baby should not be fed 3-4 hours before the procedure.
The study itself is not long, the patient does not feel uncomfortable, it only lasts a few minutes. However, children often put on a cold gel to cry.
There is also a functional Uzi of the gallbladder. This study is aimed at determining the contractile ability of the organ.
Then the doctor correlates the results of the two studies and writes his opinion.
The results of the study and the conclusion of the ultrasound, as a rule, are given to the patient or his attending physician within an hour after the procedure.
Uzi tubal ligation
The most common indication for the ultrasound diagnosis of the fallopian tubes in a woman is her inability to become pregnant.
So, if a couple does not get a child for a long time, the gynecologist will most likely write to the woman the direction for sonography (sonography) of the fallopian tubes.
This study is designed to test the patency of the fallopian tubes.
The procedure is as follows: a woman is asked to get a job in a gynecological chair.
The doctor examines the patient for the presence of adhesions or polyps in the uterus, as these formations can also interfere with pregnancy.
After this, patients enter the physiological saline in the cervix of the uterus and scan the uterus and fallopian tubes already with the help of ultrasound.
If the woman is healthy and patency of the fallopian tubes is normal, saline will flow into the abdominal cavity, if there is a problem, the liquid will accumulate in the uterus and fallopian tubes.
Ultrasound helps to determine exactly which part of the fallopian tubes is impassable, so that the doctor can adjust the therapy.
Especial discomfort the scanning of the uterus and the fallopian tubes does not bring the patient. There are only a few nuances about the preparation for the study.
In this regard, 40 minutes prior to the study, a woman should drink at least one and a half liters of fluid.
In addition, Uzi tubal ligation requires preliminary analysis - for venereal diseases and hepatitis C. To conduct research better in the first days after the end of menstruation.
Despite the difficulties of preparation for the procedure, ultrasound diagnosis of pelvic organs is the most preferred among all non-invasive studies, especially for young women who plan to become pregnant.
The undeniable advantage of echography is its absolute safety. After Uzi tubal ligation a woman can plan a pregnancy in the same cycle.
Thus, the echography to date is one of the best in terms of informativity, an affordable and absolutely safe method of visualizing the internal organs of a person.
A source: http://moydiagnos.ru/issledovaniya/sonografiya.html
What does the ultrasound scan of the cervical spine show?
Ultrasound of the cervical spine is one of the main supporting methods for the pathology of blood vessels and the musculoskeletal system.
Syndrome of the vertebral artery and degenerative-dystrophic diseases of the spine are among the most common pathological conditions that can be diagnosed by ultrasound methods diagnostics.
In medical practice, quite a lot of varieties of ultrasound used in the study of pathology of the neck:
- 1. Classical modes: A, B and M.
- 2. Dopplerography.
- 3. Spectral Doppler.
- 4. Color Doppler mapping.
- 5. Three-dimensional Doppler mapping.
- 6. Echo Contrasting.
- 7. Combined methods.
The classical methods of ultrasound diagnostics are those variants that were introduced into a wide clinical practice at the dawn of the ultrasound era.
The M-mode is displayed on the monitor of the device in the form of a one-dimensional graph showing the change in distance to the structures under consideration (for example, pulse fluctuations of the vertebral arteries).
A-mode differs in that the program calculates the change in the structure not in time, but with respect to the boundaries between media with different acoustic densities. B-sonography provides information on the movement of anatomical formations in the thickness of a cut of ultrasonic rays in real time.
Dopplerography is based on the same physical phenomenon.
The essence of the Doppler effect is that the frequency of oscillations of the sound wave differs when reflected from objects approaching the sensor, and from objects moving away from it.
This technique allows you to evaluate the direction of blood flow in the vessels of the neck, possible anomalies in the structure of the vessels.
Spectral dopplerography makes it possible to better visualize the state of blood flow in large vessels, such as the vertebral artery and internal carotid arteries.
Color Doppler mapping is a logical development of other methods of ultrasonic monitoring of moving media.
It improves the visual perception of blood flow directions due to different flow colors moving in different directions.
Three-dimensional Doppler mapping generalizes the reflected signals received by the sensor with the help of special software.
As a result, the doctor receives a three-dimensional image of the anatomical structures of the neck.
With this version of the study, the image quality improves, which causes an increase in the diagnostic value and sensitivity of the technique.
Echocontrast is sonography, in which a special contrast substance is added to the circulatory system, amplifying the signal. This improves the visualization of minimal deviations in the course and structure of the vertebral arteries.
The ultrasonic method has several advantages over other types of research (standard radiography, CT and MRI):
- 1. Lower cost.
- 2. The minimum of contraindications.
- 3. Speed of execution.
- 4. The possibility of visualization of mobile structures and functional state of individual elements of the musculoskeletal system and vascular-neural bundles.
The study is a priority in conditions of emergency care, as well as in the study of the ligamentous apparatus, intervertebral discs.
Ultrasound diagnosis is indicated for all radicular syndromes in cervical osteochondrosis.
These pathological conditions occur in the presence of protrusions and herniated intervertebral discs.
Very informative is the ultrasound of the spine with reflex pain syndromes in the case when treatment osteochondrosis by standard methods did not give a positive effect, in order to find the reasons failures. But on the other hand, ultrasound is useful in the case of a decrease in the manifestations of the underlying disease.
This diagnostic method shows positive results at the structural level of the spinal column.
Ultrasound of the vertebral column allows you to quickly and qualitatively assess the degree of displacement of structures at any level of the back.
In any case, ultrasound examination of the spine is indicated when:
- 1. Chronic headache of unexplained etiology.
- 2. Feeling of discomfort, heaviness, burning or strong pain of any part of the spine: cervical, thoracic or lumbosacral.
- 3. A feeling of stiffness in the chest area in both phases of breathing.
- 4. Deviations in posture.
- 5. Fluctuations in blood pressure with the exclusion of other causes (essential hypertension, renal pathology, hyperthyroidism, etc.).
- 6. Numbness, a feeling of creeping crawling, the appearance of muscle weakness in the upper or lower limbs.
- 7. Sharply reduced vision, hearing or memory.
For the purpose of maximum visualization of the structures of the cervical spine, special anterolateral access was developed for the sensor of the apparatus.
It is based on the features of the anatomy of this part of the spinal column. Between the vertebrae in the cervical region are fairly pronounced gaps. The posterior surface of the neck has a fairly pronounced muscular layer.
Therefore, it was decided to visualize the structures from the access to the sides of the trachea.
Special preparation before the procedure is not required, since there are no specific behavioral factors that could distort the ultrasound picture. Most often the examinee is asked to lie on his back and tilt his head back slightly, turning his face in the opposite direction from the subject.
The doctor-sonologist has a sensor at the anterior edge of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.
In most cases, there are no unpleasant sensations during the procedure.
To improve the transmission of an ultrasonic signal, a special gel is used. It consists of hypoallergenic components.
Ultrasound examination allows to assess the state of bone structures, the distance between vertebrae, intervertebral discs (their size, the presence of damage to the fibrous capsule and nucleus). In addition, ultrasound is quite informative in the pathology of the ligamentous tendon apparatus.
Less often, ultrasound is performed from the rear access. It provides an assessment of the state of the intervertebral spaces.
Thus the doctor can ask to incline a head in the different parties (so-called bending assays).
Rear access is more informative if it is necessary to study the condition of the spinal canal and its contents (spinal cord, cerebral membranes and vascular plexuses).
In children, ultrasound of the cervical spine allows differential diagnosis between intervertebral joint dysplasia and various types of torticollis. There are a number of factors limiting research effectiveness:
- 1. Ossification of the ligamentous apparatus. At the same time, normal soft tissue no longer passes ultrasound.
- 2. Age over 70 years.
- 3. Condition after operations on the cervical spine (metal structures).
- 4. Immobilization of the neck in case of traumatic injuries.
Ultrasound research helps to diagnose various pathological conditions within the thoracic vertebrae, beginning with banal osteochondrosis and hernias, ending with congenital pathology. A similar pathology is also found in the examination of the lumbar spine.
Before the study, some preparatory measures are needed. They are aimed at reducing gassing in the intestine.
This is especially true for the lumbar with front access, since the intestinal loops overflowing with gas significantly limit the informative nature of the manipulation.
Within 2-3 days from the diet it is necessary to exclude legumes, dairy products, a large amount of fiber. On the eve of the study, some doctors recommend drinking several tablets of activated charcoal.
The most frequent and basic signs of destructive degenerative processes of the spine, showing with ultrasound, include:
- 1. Deviations from the normal ultrasound density and dimensions of the pulpous nucleus of the vertebra (jelly formation in the center of the intervertebral disc, playing the role of a hinge around which individual vertebrae).
- 2. Deviations from the normal ultrasound density of the fibrous ring (which limits the pulpous core).
- 3. Detection of changes on the boundary between the discs and the vertebral bodies proper.
- 4. Deviation from the normal shape and size of the spinal canal.
- 5. Detection of calcium deposits in the yellow ligament, which connects adjacent vertebrae.
- 6. Deformations of the vertebral bodies and their arches, processes and articular surfaces.
- 7. Reducing the size or changes in the shape of the intervertebral foramen through which the spinal nerves pass.
The detection of a decrease in the intervertebral foramen almost always corresponds to the clinic of radicular syndrome.
It is manifested by severe pain within the appropriate segment of the body, a certain neurological deficit (disorders sensitivity and mobility in the limbs), and in the later stages of impaired trophism of tissues (thinning of the skin, hair loss, pigment violations).
Ultrasound of the cervical spine allows assessing the degree of damage to the pulpous core and fibrous ring. This is critical for differential diagnosis of hernia and protrusion. The further tactics of treatment depend on this.
This pathological condition arises from the narrowing of the holes in the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae, where it passes the vertebral artery is a vessel providing the oblong and middle brain, cerebellum, vestibular and visual centers.
Due to pathological processes in this channel, a specific clinic arises: with a certain head position, the artery is completely compressed, the blood supply of the head the brain. As a result - a severe headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, double vision.
Often there is a short-term loss of consciousness.
In order to diagnose the syndrome of the vertebral artery, a Doppler study of the blood flow along this artery is used.
Bone structures of the spine complicate this diagnostic procedure considerably, therefore the study is possible in a very limited area. As a result, one study of blood flow in the lumbar artery is not limited.
This study should be supplemented with a number of additional diagnostic procedures: ultrasound of the heart and aorta, carotid arteries, extracranial vessels, CT or MRI of the head and neck.
The use of ultrasound diagnostics in pediatric practice is difficult to overestimate.
With the help of this method, it is possible to effectively study the condition of the bone apparatus of the lumbar spine in children who are suspected spina bifida - splitting of the arches of the lumbar vertebrae, which is occasionally observed when folic acid is deficient during pregnancy.
This pathology can have a different severity: from asymptomatic flow (found by chance during examination for another pathology) up to a significant divergence of the arcs of the vertebrae with protrusion of the contents of the spinal canal and the formation of a severe complication - a hernia of the dorsal the brain.
Despite significant advances in radiation diagnosis, after the invention of computer and magnetic resonance imaging ultrasound diagnosis of the pathology of the spine, ligament apparatus and vascular pathology continues to play an important role.
A source: http://spina-health.ru/uzi-shejnogo-otdela-pozvonochnika/