Scoliosis in children: causes and treatment

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  • 1Scoliosis in children: symptoms and treatment
    • 1.1Etiology
    • 1.2Varieties
    • 1.3Symptoms
    • 1.4Effects
    • 1.5Diagnostics
    • 1.6Healing measures
    • 1.7Prophylaxis on an ongoing basis
  • 2Scoliosis in children: types, causes, signs, treatment and prevention
    • 2.1Types and degrees of childhood scoliosis
    • 2.2The causes of scoliosis in children
    • 2.3Signs and Diagnosis
    • 2.4Treatment of scoliosis in children
  • 3Scoliosis in children
    • 3.1Classification of scoliosis in children
    • 3.2Symptoms of scoliosis in children
    • 3.3Treatment of scoliosis in children
    • 3.4Prognosis and prevention of scoliosis in children
  • 4The causes of childhood scoliosis and its treatment
    • 4.1Heredity
    • 4.2Classification
    • 4.3Consequences and complications
    • 4.4Diagnosis of curvature
    • 4.5Treatment
    • 4.6Corset
    • 4.7Physiotherapy
    • 4.8Manual therapy
    • 4.9Physiotherapy
    • 4.10Operative treatment
    • 4.11Prevention
  • 5Scoliosis in children
    • 5.1The causes of scoliosis
    • 5.2Classification and scoliosis in children
    • 5.3The first symptoms of scoliosis in children
    • 5.4Diagnosis of the disease
    • 5.5Treatment of children's scoliosis
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Scoliosis in children: symptoms and treatment

Scoliosis in children - is a pathological process characterized by curvature of the spine in the lateral direction.

In modern society, this problem is very common, as children spend a lot of time not only sitting at their desk at school, but also at home, at the computer desk. It is mainly manifested in children from the age of ten to fifteen.

This is due to the fact that the skeleton has not yet passed the process of its full formation, but during this period is subjected to great stresses.

The saddest thing is that parents either do not pay attention to the fact that the child has begun curving the spine, or does not attach importance to eliminating this disease. This all leads to the fact that from the start of scoliosis in children and adolescents to get rid of completely no possibility.

But if you notice such a disease in a timely manner and begin treatment, serious problems with the vertebral column can be avoided. Scoliosis can often be accompanied by kyphosis. This means that the child is in the process of curving the spine, not only in the side, but also forward.

Simply put, he begins to stoop.

In the early stages, the ailment is treated quite easily with the help of gymnastics, massage, exercise therapy courses (a set of exercises). In neglected cases, it is often necessary to resort to surgical intervention.


The causes of the appearance of scoliosis in adolescents and children are divided into two types:

  1. congenital;
  2. purchased.

To the innate reasons is the asymmetric arrangement of the pelvis and legs. This problem is formed in the womb, when the wrong development of the spine and ribs begins.

It is impossible to combat this, but one can simply not give this pathological process even more development.

Such a curvature of the spine is observed only in the fourth part of people susceptible to scoliosis.

Most often, patients are diagnosed with acquired scoliosis. The reasons for its occurrence include:

  • incorrect posture;
  • injuries of the lower extremities and pelvis;
  • inflammatory process in muscles;
  • intervertebral hernia;
  • radiculitis;
  • kidney and gastrointestinal tract;
  • surgical intervention consisting in shortening one of the legs;
  • trauma and swelling of the spine;
  • curvature can arise as a complication from tuberculosis and syphilis;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • poor nutrition.


Scoliosis of the thoracic spine

In addition to the two types of scoliosis described above, doctors distinguish four degrees of curvature. Both congenital and acquired scoliosis can develop to a certain stage:

  1. the first stage is a slight stoop, a slightly oblique pelvis, the difference in shoulder height is almost invisible;
  2. the second stage - the vertebrae turns visually, the pelvis is slanted more, the apparent difference in the shoulder level;
  3. the third stage - pronounced stoop, pelvic crenulation, curvature of the shoulders. To this is added the weakening of the abdominal muscles and the sinking of the ribs;
  4. the fourth stage is a serious deformation of the spine, the signs of the previous stage are amplified, the angle of curvature is more than fifty degrees. This stage is extremely difficult and almost untreated. But it is extremely rare (only 10% of all cases).

Localization of scoliosis can be:

  • thoracic;
  • lumbar;
  • thoracolumbar;
  • cervical (more often congenital).

Depending on the age, it can be:

  1. less than three years old - infant;
  2. up to three years - infantile;
  3. from ten to fourteen - juvenile;
  4. fifteen to seventeen years is a teenage one.

Infant and infantile scoliosis in almost all cases can be cured independently, at home. In adolescence, there is the possibility of transition to a malignant form and the development of neglected forms that can not be cured at all, or with great difficulty.


According to the first signs of the progression of pathology, parents can determine the scoliosis of the child themselves. There are several basic indicators on which you can see the curvature of the spinal column:

  • if it is found that one shoulder is higher than the other;
  • the position of the blades is not at the same level;
  • when the body is tilted forward, there is an obvious curvature of the spine;
  • different level of sacral pits.

If parents have noticed the first signs of scoliosis in their child, then immediately consult a doctor to avoid complications.


In fact, scoliosis has irreversible and dangerous consequences for the body of a child or adolescent. Which include:

  1. deformation of the spine;
  2. possible occurrence of a hump on the ribs;
  3. excessive pelvic asymmetry;
  4. violation of the development and functioning of internal organs.

On this dangerous health complications end. But there are other consequences:

  • ugly posture;
  • violation of internal relations;
  • deformity of the sternum;
  • violation of breathing.


Scoliosis in children and adolescents is fairly easy to diagnose. Parents can do it themselves, on such items as described above. But to identify the disease at the earliest stages, you need to contact doctors such as:

  1. pediatrician (for preschool and school children);
  2. Children's Surgeon;
  3. neurologist;
  4. pediatric orthopedist. To it it is necessary to address at problems with a backbone at teenagers.

Admission usually begins with an examination and assessment of the correctness of the bearing of a child or adolescent in a standing position (held from all sides), as well as sitting and lying. Doctors pay attention to symmetry: humerus, scapula, pelvis. The main thing is what the inspection is aimed at - revealing a rib hump.

Symptoms of scoliosis in children

The degree of curvature of the spinal column is determined using a scoliosis. If there is a deviation from the norm by five or more degrees, the doctors additionally prescribe the patient an x-ray.

It is held in the standing and lying position, after which the doctor will receive two shots in his hands.

Further, after reading the picture and calculating the curvature, the doctor may additionally assign such additional examination methods as:

Healing measures

Treatment of scoliosis in children and adolescents can take place both at home and in the hospital.

Conservative treatment is conducted with the participation of:

  • physiotherapist;
  • masseurs;
  • instructor on exercise therapy;
  • chiropractor;
  • vertebrologist.

To treat the first and second stage of scoliosis in children and adolescents, first of all, methods are used to reduce the load on the spinal column. To prevent the progression of scoliosis at such stages, children are attributed to gymnastics, exercise therapy, back massage and swimming.

Of course, do not forget about maintaining proper posture. To correct scoliosis of the first and second degree of progressive nature, except for the above-mentioned measures, children are prescribed an individual exercise complex exercise therapy, physical therapy, manual therapy and orthopedic massage.

Treatment is accompanied by a constant wearing of a special corset. Massage with scoliosis in children is also necessary. It will help to relieve the spasm of congested muscles, as well as increase the tone of weakened muscle structures.

Exercises for scoliosis in children are developed only by a medical specialist strictly individually, like gymnastics.

With the help of surgery, some curvatures of the third degree spine are corrected, absolutely all cases of manifestation of the fourth degree of the problem with the spine. Also, the operation is indicated if the internal organs are broken.

The most optimal age is from ten to fourteen years. The operation consists in implantation of specialized fixation devices. Before the operative intervention, the spinal cord is necessarily drawn.

After the operation, a long recovery process begins.

At home, you can also take a course of treatment for scoliosis in adolescents and children. Such measures are applicable only in the first and second stages of scoliosis. The child should:

  1. do morning exercises;
  2. Perform exercises prescribed by the physician exercise complex;
  3. watch your posture. This should also be followed by his parents.

Prophylaxis on an ongoing basis

In addition, that on a regular basis to monitor the correct posture and daily exercise morning exercise or gymnastics, you can turn to the help of the Internet.

It is important to perform exercises of exercise therapy regularly to prevent the progression of such pathological process.

It is possible to provide a special back massage to the child as a prophylaxis.

A source:

Scoliosis in children: types, causes, signs, treatment and prevention

To date, 80% of school-age children have scoliosis of varying severity. It develops during the period of intensive growth of the skeleton, therefore this disease is called childish.

In children, this problem is solvable, since modern methods of treatment can completely cure the curvature of the spine that has not yet formed to the end.

But after 20 years of age to change something in the posture will be impossible.

Scoliosis refers to the deformation of the spine, its lateral curvature. There are several types and degrees of the disease.

Types and degrees of childhood scoliosis

Scoliosis scoliosis is different. When stating the exact diagnosis, different types of curvature of the spine and different severity of its course are found in different children. In the form of curvature, it can be:

  • C-shaped, which is one arc of curvature;
  • S-shaped, is characterized by two arcs of curvature;
  • Z-shaped, the most difficult of all, since it already has three arcs of curvature.

It is clear that it is much easier to cope with one arc of curvature than with two, and even more so with three. The forms, methods and duration of treatment will also depend on the degree of scoliosis. This classification is called radiologic:

  1. I degree, when the angle of curvature is from 1 ° to 10 °;
  2. II degreeis set if the angle is from 11 ° to 25 °;
  3. III degreeis determined by the angle of scoliosis from 26 ° to 50 °;
  4. IV degreethe heaviest, at which the angle is greater than 50 °.
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If the disease is started, no preventive measures are taken, then the scoliosis rate increases very quickly, which complicates the treatment. Whence comes such a disease?

The causes of scoliosis in children

Most parents believe that this disease develops in the child only for one reason - an incorrect posture when sitting and walking.

Yes, this is the main reason when children are hunching and thus relax the muscles of the back. The absence of their tone leads to curvature. However, this is not the only cause of scoliosis.

It can occur due to:

  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • congenital asymmetry of the legs and pelvis.

And if the second reason should be eliminated at an early age, then prevent the first - in the power of parents and the child.

Signs and Diagnosis

How to recognize a child's scoliosis? The first stage of diagnosis can be done by parents themselves at home. For this, the baby should relax, take a natural posture for him while standing and turn his back to you. At this point, you should identify the signs of curvature:

  1. the angle of one blade is asymmetric with the angle of the second blade;
  2. one shoulder above the other;
  3. if you ask the child to press his hand to his side, when scoliosis from hand to waist will be quite a long distance;
  4. When tilting forward with the naked eye, you can see the curvature of the spine.

If any of these signs are found, you should contact your doctor soon. will diagnose the disease accurately, according to the X-ray study, and will assign the appropriate treatment.

Treatment of scoliosis in children

The smaller the child's age, the faster you will be able to cure scoliosis, since the spine is in the early stages of its formation and is easily amenable to correction.

A little longer will get the treatment of scoliosis in the adolescent period. After 18 years, it will be too late to make a decision about his treatment.

There will already be talk about surgical intervention.

If possible, at least once a year, a child with scoliosis should be sent to a sanatorium treatment, specializing just in children's curvature of the spine. Or to resort to the help of specialized clinics that conduct complex treatment.

  • Therapeutic gymnastics from scoliosis for children

The basis for the treatment of children's scoliosis is therapeutic exercise.

Specially designed exercises are effective, although not so quickly correct the spine in the right direction.

Gymnastics leads the condition of the muscles and ligaments of the back into a normal state. Regular sessions can get rid of scoliosis.

  • Massage in the treatment of childhood scoliosis

A big role in the treatment is given to a special massage. It relieves spasms from overworked and increases the tone of weak, lagging muscles.

In some cases, the physician prescribes physiotherapy procedures, the purpose of which is stimulation of the back muscles.

Special corsets relieve the load from the dorsal muscles, but this also hides the danger. Getting used to such rest, muscles can gradually relax and atrophy. Therefore, the attending physician strictly specifies the time of wearing the corset (several hours a day), which can not be worn constantly.

  • Prophylactic measures against scoliosis

To protect your child from re-curving the spine, you need to regularly take preventive measures.

It can be swimming, skiing or any other easy sports, ballroom dancing, active lifestyles, daily walking tours, constant monitoring of correct posture.

Prevent scoliosis will help the correct choice of a children's mattress and furniture, for which he teaches lessons (adjusted for the height of the child, the height of the table and chair). But tennis, badminton and artistic gymnastics for children prone to this disease are strictly contraindicated.

In some cases, parents decide on manual therapy, but if there is an opportunity to correct the curvature by others, by the above methods, it is better not to resort to it. And if there is such a need, you need to find a high-class specialist who, indeed, will heal, but not cripple.

If your child is diagnosed with scoliosis, do not panic: the problem is solved, if it does not run and make every effort to eliminate it.

A number of complex measures, both curative and preventive, will make you forget about the curvature and enjoy the straight, beautiful posture of your child.

A source:

Scoliosis in children

Scoliosis in children - pathological changes in the spine and paravertebral tissues, leading to a curvature of the vertebral pillar, its rotation around the longitudinal axis, static-dynamic disturbances and functional changes from the internal bodies. Scoliosis is one of the most common diseases of the musculoskeletal system in pediatric orthopedics, which affects 5-10% of children and adolescents. In girls, scoliosis is much more common than in boys; the approximate sex ratio is:. The risk of scoliosis in a child is not only a cosmetic defect, but also in the compression, displacement and disruption of the function of blood vessels and internal organs.

Classification of scoliosis in children

Depending on the time of development, infantile scoliosis is differentiated in children under 3 years old; children's (juvenile) Scoliosis in children of the prebiergate period (from 3 to 10 years); juvenile scoliosis in children and adolescents from 10 to 18-20 years, e. before cessation of bone growth.

In the shape of the curvature of the spine, C-shaped scoliosis is isolated - with one arc of curvature, S-shaped - with two arcs of curvature and Z-shaped - with three arcs of curvature.

The basis of radiological classification of scoliosis in children is the magnitude of the curvature of the spine in degrees and the severity of deformation. In accordance with these criteria, the IV degree of scoliosis in children is distinguished:

  • Scoliosis of the 1st degreecharacterized by an angle of lateral curvature of less than 10 ° and minor radiographic signs of torsion;
  • Scoliosis of the 2nd degreecharacterized by an angle of curvature of 10 to 25 °, moderately pronounced torsion and deformation of vertebral bodies at the apex of curvature;
  • Scoliosis of the third degreecharacterized by an angle of curvature of 25 to 50 °, the presence of pronounced torsion of the vertebrae (costal hump), fixed changes in the spine;
  • Scoliosis of the IV degreecharacterized by the angle of curvature & g; 0 ° with a pronounced deformation of the spinal column, thorax, displacement and compression of internal organs and a violation of their functions.

Depending on the localization of the apex of the arc of curvature, the following types of scoliosis in children are distinguished: the upper thoracic (at Th3 - Th4), thoracic (Th8 - Th9), thoracolumbar (Th11 - Th12), lumbar (L1 - L2), lumbosacral (L5 - S1), combined (with the same degree of torsion in several departments).

On the etiology of scoliosis in children is divided into congenital and acquired.

The origin of congenital scoliosis in children may be due to anomalies in the development of the spine (wedge-shaped vertebrae and semi-vertebra, synostosis of spinous processes), violation of the formation of ribs (additional ribs, synostosis of the ribs, etc.), dysplasia of the lumbosacral spine (spondylolysis, lumbarization, sacralization and etc.)

The cases of acquired scoliosis in children, as a rule, are associated with neuromuscular, metabolic, neoplastic diseases and traumas.

Static scoliosis in children is most often the result of birth trauma, congenital hip dislocation, shortening of the lower limb, contractures of the knee and hip joints.

Neurogenic scoliosis in children can occur on the basis of infantile cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, syringomyelia, Friedreich ataxia, spinal cord injuries and other pathological conditions.

Genesis of myopathic scoliosis in children may be due to congenital muscular hypotension, muscular dystrophy, congenital torticollis.

Scoliosis in children can be based on traumatic deformations of vertebral localization (after fracture of the spine, thoracoplasty, laminectomy, etc.) or an extravertebral localization (after extensive burns of the trunk, empyema of the pleura, etc.).

Often the development of scoliosis in children is caused by metabolic disorders (rickets, cystine, imperfect osteogenesis, Hunter syndrome), hereditary connective tissue diseases (Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome), rheumatic pathology (juvenile rheumatoid arthritis), tumors of the spine and spinal cord, juvenile osteochondrosis, neurofibromatosis.

However, despite the variety of identified factors contributing to the development of scoliosis in children, most cases are idiopathic, i.e., arising for unknown reasons.

To the development of scoliosis in children predisposes common asthenia, inactivity, impaired posture, inadequate stress on the spine, etc.

Symptoms of scoliosis in children

Idiopathic scoliosis in children is usually found in 6-7 years, i.e., in the period of the first jump in growth, during a preventive examination of the child by a pediatrician or a pediatric orthopedist. Clinical manifestations of scoliosis in children differ depending on the degree of deformation of the spine.

Scoliosis of the first degree in children can be suspected by the following characteristic signs: the lowered position of the head, folded shoulders, skewed pelvis, stoop, asymmetry of the shoulder and waist, a planned turn of vertebrae around longitudinal axis. The arc of curvature is seen when tilted forward and disappears when the child's torso is straightened.

At a scoliosis of II degree, except for the above listed signs, at children appears pathological rotation of the vertebrae, muscle cushion in the lumbar region and protrusion - in the thoracic part on the side curvature. The curvature of the spine does not disappear in any position of the body.

Clinical signs of scoliosis III degree in children are characterized by pronounced rotation of the vertebrae, well outlined rib hump, muscle contractures, weakening of the abdominal muscles, bulging of the ribs and other

At a scoliosis of IV degree the backbone of the child is considerably deformed, the paravertebral muscles are stretched, the rib hump is expressed, the ribs and muscles in the concavity zone fall.

Progression of pathological changes in children with scoliosis leads to the development of functionally significant deformation of the chest, accompanied by compression and displacement of the heart, lungs and vascular beam. This condition is regarded as a scoliotic disease in children.

Scoliosis of I and II degree in children usually proceeds without subjective complaints; with scoliosis of III and IV degree can disturb back pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, heart pain, tachycardia, stiffness movements. Complications and consequences of scoliosis in children and adolescents may be vegetative-vascular dystonia, neurocirculatory dystonia, biliary dyskinesia, cholecystitis, etc.

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Girls suffering from scoliosis, increased risk of developing violations of the menstrual cycle, and in the future - spontaneous termination of pregnancy, violations of labor (weakness, discoordination and etc.).

Scoliosis in children is often combined with another pathology of the musculoskeletal system: hip dysplasia, flatfoot, curvature of the spine in the sagittal plane (kyphosis).

Early identification of scoliosis is the most important task of dispensary examinations of children of preschool and school age by pediatrician, pediatric surgeon, neurologist, pediatric orthopedist.

For a correct assessment of posture, it is necessary to consistently examine the child in a standing position (front, side, back), sitting and lying down.

In this case, pay attention to the height of the shoulder, asymmetry of skin folds, scapula, pelvis, the presence of a rib hump and other signs of scoliosis in children.

The degree of curvature of the spine in degrees is determined with the help of a scoliometer. Detection of the deviation of the spine by more than 5-7 °, is the basis for the X-ray to the child.

Radiography of the spine is performed in the standing and lying position in 2 projections.

Based on the received spondylograms, the curvature is calculated according to the Fergusson or Cobb method, and the spinal stability index is determined.

For more detailed examination of the interesting part of the spine, X-ray tomography, MRT or CT of the spine, myelography can be used.

For examination and dynamic observation of children it is preferable to use non-radiation methods of research, for example, computer optical topography. An obligatory component of the diagnosis of scoliosis in children is photographing the child from various points at all stages of observation.

With the development of functional disorders from the internal organs, according to the testimony of the child, consultations are held a children's pulmonologist, a children's cardiologist, a children's gastroenterologist; performed FVD, ECG, ultrasound of the abdominal organs cavity pr.

Treatment of scoliosis in children

A common tactic presupposes differentiated approaches to the management of children with different degrees of scoliosis. Conservative treatment is conducted with the participation of physiotherapists, masseurs, LFK instructors, vertebrologists, manual therapists.

Children with non-progressive scoliosis of I-II degree need to eliminate the causes contributing to the distortion spine, reducing the static load on the spine, the organization of optimal motor activity.

In order to prevent the progression of scoliosis, children are recommended therapeutic exercises, back massage, swimming.

An important component of scoliosis therapy in children is compliance with the orthopedic regime - sleep on the shield, control for correct posture, periodic unloading of the spine in a horizontal position.

With progressive scoliosis of I-II degree, in addition to the above-mentioned measures, children are prescribed an individual complex of exercise therapy, physiotherapy (electromyostimulation, magnetotherapy, CMT therapy, hydrotherapy, mud therapy, heat treatment), orthopedic massage, soft techniques manual therapy. Treatment is supplemented by wearing corrective orthopedic corsets.

Indications for surgical correction of scoliosis in children are the rapid progression of deformity, in spite of conducted conservative treatment, angle of curvature of the spine more than 40 °, disruption of the vital bodies. The optimal period for surgical treatment is the age of 10-14 years.

The operation consists in implantation of fixation devices with transthoracic, dorsal or combined access. The most widespread in the surgery of scoliosis was received by the distractors Kazmin, Harrington, the endocran of Rodnyansky-Gupalov, the Cotrel-Dubusset system, and others. Extension of the spine is performed before the surgery.

According to the indications, corrective osseous-plastic operations (wedge resection of the vertebrae), mobilizing operations (Sholutko's tenoligamentocapsulotomy, discectomy), cosmetic interventions (rib hump resection, extrapleural thoracoplasty, resection angle of the blade), etc. After the surgery, a long-term rehabilitation therapy is performed.

Prognosis and prevention of scoliosis in children

An unfavorable progressive course has early-onset deformities of the spine (up to 6 years); scoliosis is more favorable in children older than 10-12 years.

All children with scoliosis should be treated regularly, at least 2 times a year, by a specialized treatment prescribed by an orthopedist. With severe scoliosis in children, surgery can only reduce the degree of curvature of the spine and stop its progression.

Therefore, the main efforts of adults should be aimed at preventing scoliosis in children.

A rational organization of the motor regime of children at home and in children's institutions is necessary, control over the retention of correct posture, Exclusion of heavy loads on the spine and asymmetrical muscle load, exercise gymnastics and sports, prevention injuries. In case of violations of posture, children are shown courses of exercise therapy, restorative massage, swimming.

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The causes of childhood scoliosis and its treatment

Scoliosis - curvature of the spine in the lateral plane. This ailment is very common in children due to accelerated growth.

It is important to identify and begin to treat the disease in the early stages, while the formation of the skeleton is not over.

For example, a scoliosis that occurred in a child of 5 years, can easily correct the therapeutic exercises.

A neglected disease in the elderly will lead to the development of complications. Prophylaxis of scoliosis is the best way to eliminate it.

What are the causes of scoliosis? An incorrect and unbalanced load on the muscles of the back leads to a turn of the spine in one direction or another. Over time, muscle traction contributes to the appearance of changes in the ligaments, and even later to the dystrophy of the vertebrae themselves.

Such a load, first of all, is associated with an incorrect posture during study. This is the most common factor in the onset of illness in children 7-16 years of age. Other reasons for scoliosis include:

  1. Congenital deformities that could occur in utero or during labor.
  2. Injuries of various parts of the spine that occurred within a few years after birth.
  3. Incorrect, intensive workload during sports activities.
  4. Constant load when carrying a portfolio on one side.
  5. Dystrophic diseases: rickets, diseases of the nervous system - infantile cerebral palsy, beriberi.
  6. Irrational diet.
  7. Inflammatory diseases: pleurisy, tuberculosis.
  8. Shortening (including, imperceptible, unexpressed) of one foot.


A question that worries many couples who want to have children: "Is scoliosis transmitted by inheritance?". The answer is "No".

Scoliosis and heredity are related as follows. To the emergence of this pathology may lead to some hereditary diseases: muscular dystrophies, diseases of the nervous system. But as such, the "scoliosis gene" does not exist.


To treat scoliosis in accordance with its severity and characteristics, doctors suggest to divide it into types of curvature and severity. There are two types of curvature of the spinal column:

  1. Arc-shaped (can be right-handed and left-handed).
  2. S-shaped. A heavier look. Curvature is observed immediately in two parts of the spinal column.

In clinical practice and in the treatment, the most informative is another classification, namely, the severity of the symptoms. According to this feature, 4 degrees are distinguished:

  • The angle of curvature is less than 10 degrees. The changes are almost imperceptible. It is possible to find the jointed shoulders, weakly expressed stoop. Such changes can and should be corrected by physiotherapy exercises, gymnastics. Other treatment is not required.
  • The angle is 10-25 degrees. At this degree, the appearance of a visible rotation of the vertebral bodies around the axis occurs. The curvature is already detected visually. The shape of the pelvis may change. It is necessary to begin a set of exercises to prevent the transition of the disease to stage 3.
  • The angle can reach 50 degrees. Appearance of the costal hump and / or abduction of the ribs. Pelvic decurction is expressed significantly. The doctor should prescribe a comprehensive treatment. Correction is difficult, but you can still cure the disease.
  • The angle is more than 51 degrees. Extremely severe curvature is almost not amenable to treatment. The muscles are stretched, all the vertebrae participate in the deformity.

Consequences and complications

Why should children's scoliosis be treated if it is slightly expressed? Literally in a few years, an easily discernible curvature, in the absence of correct therapeutic measures, can develop into a pronounced deformation. Scoliosis causes such complications as:

  • gross deformities of the vertebrae;
  • the emergence of the costal hump and asymmetry of the pelvic bones;
  • muscular dystrophy;
  • headaches, effects on the spinal cord;
  • decreased lung volume;
  • osteochondrosis;
  • disruption of the heart and blood vessels.

Diagnosis of curvature

Determine the curvature of the spine can be at home.

The baby is practically impossible to detect pathology, therefore at this age it is important to examine the pediatric orthopedist.

But a child's scoliosis at the age of 8 is already easy to detect for the parent. To do this, ask him to bend down and evaluate:

  1. Is the height of the standing of the shoulder blades, shoulder girdle equal?
  2. Are the distances between the trunk and the lowered arms symmetrical?

The next position is standing with a straight back, hands are pressed to the trunk. In this posture, scoliosis reveals:

  • asymmetry of the shoulders;
  • Rotate the lower angle of the blade outward;
  • different height of lowered arms;
  • the pelvis line at an angle from the horizontal plane.

If you find such signs, you need to contact the doctor as soon as possible to the orthopedist, who will prescribe the necessary treatment.


How can you cure scoliosis in children? There are different methods, a combination of which will help achieve the desired effect. Methods of treating scoliosis in children include:

  1. fixing corset;
  2. physiotherapy;
  3. manual therapy;
  4. physiotherapy;
  5. surgical treatment.


Doctors recommend this method of treating scoliosis in children since the 2nd degree of curvature. The therapeutic corset effectively corrects the angle of scoliosis with prolonged and correct use.

It is recommended to wear under it clothes with a minimum number of seams and unevennesses. The corset is selected and appointed by a doctor, only on this condition it will be ideal for your child.


What if the child has scoliosis above stage 2? It is necessary to assign the right exercises under the supervision of a specialist. Parents are advised to do exercises with children in order to provide moral support and to follow the correctness of the performance of gymnastics.

Exercises vary depending on how old the child is and the degree of curvature of the spine. The right choice of gymnastics can be done by a specialist.

Manual therapy

Treatment of scoliosis in children with the help of massage helps to relax the musculature of the spinal column and achieve mobility in the joints. Stimulation of blood circulation with manual therapy stops the process of ossification of tissues. The method is effective in children under 16 years old.


The effect of various methods of physiotherapy is based on activation of the immune system and enhancement of blood circulation in the spine. Are applied:

  • magnetotherapy;
  • electrostimulation;
  • ultrasound;
  • use of paraffin;
  • electrophoresis.

All methods must be previously approved by the attending physician. Physiotherapy can also help in preventing and treating complications of scoliosis.

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Operative treatment

When the doctor's recommendations are implemented in the 2-3 stages of the disease, surgery is not required.

Indications for surgical treatment may be the 4th degree of scoliosis, complications that threaten life and health.

The installation of metal devices is used to correct the curvature and get rid of the symptoms of the disease.


Prophylaxis of scoliosis in children is always much more effective than any treatment. To prevent the occurrence of pathology, you need to do the following:

  1. Use an orthopedic mattress for children.
  2. Support the back of the baby when picking it up.
  3. To lay the child in a bed on a different side.
  4. Classes at the table should alternate with active exercises.
  5. It is necessary to ensure a correct, rational diet.
  6. Children of any age are recommended morning exercises. For this, you need to do exercises with the children.
  7. We need to find the right school bag, teach the child to wear it on two shoulders.
  8. Watch how the child is sitting at the study table. It is important to teach him to take the right posture.

Prophylaxis of scoliosis includes simple rules that will help your child stay healthy and happy. Their observance will help to prevent the disease, and timely treatment for qualified care will save complications.

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Scoliosis in children

The human spine in the frontal plane dividing the trunk into the anterior and posterior parts should be straight.

Its pathological lateral curvature, called scoliosis, can reach a significant degree and thus influence the condition of other internal organs.

Under certain conditions, the spine not only receives lateral deformation, its vertebrae rotate around its axis (a symptom of torsion).

Scoliosis in children - a fairly common disease, which is often diagnosed even in the preschool years. Both boys and girls especially suffer from them often, in the teenage period almost half of children have any degree of curvature of the spine.

Scoliosis of the spine

The causes of scoliosis

Scoliosis is a polyethiologic disease, that is, several unfavorable factors may lead to its formation and further progression. All the causes of scoliosis in children can be represented as follows:

  • congenital, as a result of which the child's pathology manifests very early, as soon as he begins to sit, crawl and walk (various vertebrae anomalies, additional ribs, lumbosacral dysplasia department);
  • acquired, affecting the initially healthy spine (trauma, spinal tumors, neurological and metabolic disorders, diseases of the muscle tissue).

In addition to these reasons, there are also negative predisposing factors. Of these, the most frequent is the incorrect posture of the child at the table, when he hunches or bends in one direction, puts his foot under him when the furniture does not match his height.

Incorrect posture can cause scoliosis

Deformity of the spine can also lead to general asthenia, lack of motor activity, or, on the contrary, excessive physical stress.

It should be noted that the effect of all these negative factors is very undesirable during periods of active growth of the child, when the bone and the cartilaginous tissue of the vertebrae does not have time for rapidly developing connective or muscular structures: 5-6 years, 9-10, 12-14 years.

Classification and scoliosis in children

The curvature of the spine can have a different shape, that is, one, two and rarely three arcs of curvature.

C-shaped children's scoliosis occurs most often and means one arc of curvature in the form of the letter C, with left-sided and right-sided deformations being equally common.

The older the child, and the more negative factors affect it, the more S- or Z-shaped deformations (with 2 or 3 arcs) are possible.

Depending on what the causes of the disease are, children share a congenital and acquired scoliosis.

The localization of scoliosis is divided into:

  • thoracic;
  • chest-lumbar;
  • lumbar;
  • lumbosacral;
  • combined.

Types of curvature

For the period of formation of curvature scoliosis can be:

  • infantile;
  • juvenile;
  • youthful.

The subdivision is carried out by means of radiography. The obtained images accurately determine the magnitude of the deformation and the angle of curvature. Depending on this, there are 4 degrees of scoliosis in children of different ages:

  • the angle is 1-10 degrees, there is no vertebral torsion or it is insignificant;
  • 11-25 degrees, the torsion is moderate, the deformation of the vertebral structures is noted at the apex of the curvature;
  • 26-50 degrees, the torsion is significant;
  • 51 degrees or more, deformation is strongly manifested, there is a significant rib hump, internal organs are displaced and squashed.

Degrees of curvature

Depending on the degree of scoliosis, the manifestations of this pathology also differ.

The first symptoms of scoliosis in children

The first stage of the disease, when the curvature is still slight, does not yet look like a cosmetic defect.

It can be accidentally detected by X-ray examination, conducted on other occasions.

However, with a close examination of the child before the school or during the annual school check-ups, it is still possible to establish signs of a scoliosis of the 1st degree:

  • stoop or lowered head;
  • asymmetry of the waist and shoulders;
  • different blade height;
  • The arc of curvature is manifested when it is tilted forward, in the forward position of the body it decreases.

Manifestation of the disease

With the progression of scoliosis, distortion begins to be noticed by surrounding people. The more his degree, the greater the cosmetic defect.

The height of the shoulders and shoulder blades varies, the waistline is curved, a muscle cushion, intercostal cavity and rib hump, the muscles of the anterior abdominal wall become weaker.

With a significant vertebral deformity, internal organs, primarily the lungs and the heart, suffer.

Therefore, since the third degree of scoliosis, the child is concerned about the pain in the back, which is aggravated even with a little physical exertion, shortness of breath, soreness in the heart, rhythm.

In the future, such serious consequences of scoliosis may develop, such as:

  • VSD;
  • cholecystitis;
  • biliary dyskinesia;
  • menstruation cycle in girls and problems with reproductive function.

Diagnosis of the disease

Diagnosis of pediatric scoliosis is not difficult. On examination, the specialist should pay attention to the height of the shoulders and shoulder blades, the symmetry of the folds and pelvic bones. The child should be examined in a lying position, standing, on his side.

If suspected of scoliosis, an X-ray examination is made in 2 projections, if necessary - CT or MRI of the spinal column. If the associated abnormalities on the part of the organs are diagnosed, the patient should be referred for consultations to a narrow specialist.


Treatment of children's scoliosis

The therapeutic approach in cases of childhood scoliosis is always differentiated, the therapy scheme is assigned individually, and depends both on the degree of curvature and on background or accompanying diseases. Virtually all cases of scoliosis in children are treated in conservative ways, but with the progression of the pathology, a surgical correction of the spine is performed.

Conservative treatment of scoliosis in children consists of several areas:

  • wearing an orthopedic corset;
  • physiotherapy;
  • physiotherapy and massage;
  • medicines.

If the child is diagnosed with scoliosis of 1-2 degrees, then conservative therapy leads to a good result. First of all, it is necessary to exclude all unfavorable factors, to correct motor activity and static load on the spinal column.

In many respects it helps to make an orthopedic corset that keeps the back in the right position, reduces muscular tension and pain syndrome, and is also a method of preventing progression scoliosis.

Corset for the spine

A huge therapeutic effect has exercise therapy in scoliosis in children, special exercises are used at all degrees of curvature. Their choice also occurs individually, taking into account whether the primary or secondary is scoliosis.

You can suggest the following exercises for scoliosis in children:

In the standing position
Walking in place for 2-3 minutes.
Rising on toes and dropping, pull both hands up, repeat 10 times.
In the supine position
With the right bent elbow, try to touch the left knee and vice versa, 10 times.
With the help of hands, pull the knees one by one to the chest, hold for 5-6 seconds, make 8 approaches.
Raise your legs and tilt them to the sides, trying to lower them down, 8-10 times.
Bend the legs and, pulling them to the stomach, connect their hands behind them, 6-8 times.
In a position on the stomach
Simultaneously raise arms and legs, hold them for 10 seconds, repeat 8 times.
Arm your head, lift the upper body 8-10 times.
Raise your legs alternately, 6-8 times.
In a position on all fours
Raise the right arm and left leg, hold for a few seconds, then swap, repeat 8-10 times.
Exercise "cat" - bend the back up and down 10 times.

Therapeutic complexes must be performed regularly, for the child they must become part of the way of life. If in the class he does not experience discomfort, then you can gradually increase the intensity of the exercises. The effect of physical education will come in a few months of regular classes.

Complex exercises (example)

From physiotherapeutic methods in children's scoliosis are used:

  • heat treatment;
  • treatment with mud;
  • use of magnetic field and electric current.

Massage with scoliosis in children of different ages helps to relieve muscle tension, regulate muscle tone, restore normal blood supply and muscle nutrition, which helps to straighten the vertebral post.


Any special medicines for the treatment of children's scoliosis do not apply. In cases where the pathology progresses, vitamin therapy, pain relievers and immunomodulating agents, as well as drugs that normalize the activity of internal organs, suffering from a scoliosis.

During the active growth of the child, even with a progressive course of the disease, surgical treatment is not applied.

In adolescence, with the ineffectiveness of conservative therapy, surgical correction of the spine has already been shown.

It consists in implanting in the spine special metal structures that are able to straighten it and maintain it in a normal position.


Prophylaxis of scoliosis in children consists in observing the physiological level of physical activity, normal posture, choosing the right furniture, carrying bags or briefcase in each hand alternately. In addition, swimming is an excellent way to prevent and treat scoliosis. Observing these simple rules, you can protect your child from such a serious disease as scoliosis.

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