Osteoarthritis of the knee joint 1, 2, 3 degrees: symptoms and treatment

Content

  • 1How to treat osteoarthritis of the knee joint at the 1 st and 2 nd degree of the disease?
    • 1.1What is osteoarthritis?
    • 1.2Causes of osteoarthritis of the knee
    • 1.3Symptoms of knee osteoarthritis
    • 1.4Diagnosis of knee osteoratrosis
    • 1.5Treatment of knee osteoarthritis
    • 1.6Non-medicamentous treatment of osteoarthritis
    • 1.7Traditional methods of treatment
  • 2Osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the first degree: treatment, causes, symptoms of the disease
    • 2.1general description
    • 2.2Causes of pathology development
    • 2.3Symptomatology of the disease
    • 2.4Treatment
    • 2.5Prevention of disease
  • 3Osteoarthritis of the knee joint - causes, signs, first manifestations, means and methods of therapy
    • 3.1What is knee osteoarthritis?
    • 3.2Symptoms of knee osteoarthritis
    • 3.3Osteoarthritis of the 1st degree of the knee joint
    • 3.4DOA knee joint 2 degrees
    • 3.5Deforming knee osteoarthritis of the third degree
    • 3.6Diagnosis of osteoarthritis
    • 3.7Laboratory
    • 3.8Differential
    • 3.9Treatment of knee osteoarthritis
    • buy instagram followers
    • 3.10Medication Therapy
    • 3.11Physiological treatment of the DOA knee joint
    • 3.12Surgery
    • 3.13Than to treat an osteoarthritis of a knee joint
    • 3.14Folk remedies for knee osteoarthritis
    • 3.15Complications and prevention
  • 4Symptoms and Diagnosis of Knee Osteoarthritis of the 3rd degree
    • 4.1Causes and features of stage 3
    • 4.2Manifestation of the 3rd degree
    • 4.3Symptoms of knee disease
    • 4.4Diagnostics
    • 4.5Difference from stages 1 and 2
    • 4.6Medication
    • 4.7Physiotherapy and diet
    • 4.8Surgical intervention
    • 4.9Possible complications and prognosis of life
    • 4.10Prevention of disability
  • 5Various methods of treatment of osteoarthritis of 1 degree in the knee joint
    • 5.1Degrees of knee osteoarthritis
    • 5.2Diagnostics
    • 5.3Treatment of gonarthrosis
    • 5.4Treatment with medicines
    • 5.5Local treatment of gonarthrosis
    • 5.6Physiotherapy
    • 5.7Physiotherapy
    • 5.8Ortokin
    • 5.9Bubnovsky's method
    • 5.10Treatment with stem cells (MSK-therapy)
    • 5.11Surgery

How to treat osteoarthritis of the knee joint at the 1 st and 2 nd degree of the disease?

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease of the joint, leading to its destruction and loss of function.

Osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the 2 nd degree is one of the most frequent reasons for seeking medical attention among people of middle and old age.

Why develop this disease and how to cope with it? Is it possible to treat osteoarthritis with folk remedies?

What is osteoarthritis?

By this term in medicine is understood such joint disease, in which sooner or later there is a complete destruction of its cartilaginous surfaces. To understand the nature of the pathology, you should know how the knee joint is arranged and what happens when the inflammation develops in it.

The knee joint is one of the largest in the human body. He has a huge load throughout his life, and there is nothing surprising in that he is one of the first out of order.

If, in the process of evolution, a person remained a creature moving on four legs, he would never have learned about a problem such as arthrosis of the knee joint.

The pathological processes that arise in this organ can be considered as a kind of payment for the ability to walk on their feet.

Osteoarthritis can be primary and secondary, arising against a background of a disease. The development of the disease begins with damage to the cartilage lining the articular surfaces. Under the influence of various factors, the food of the cartilaginous tissue is disturbed, which leads to its thinning.

In the early stages, a person does not feel any changes. The joint continues to work, but all this time its surfaces interact with each other through the thinned cartilage.

All this leads to a gradual destruction of the knee joint and as a result to a disturbance of its motor function.

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With the progression of the disease, menisci, ligaments and even the periarticular (synovial) membrane are involved in the process. The articular joint narrows, there are growths of bone tissue (osteophytes).

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Instead of the lubricant necessary for the normal movement of the joint, its cavity occupies an inflammatory effusion.

It is at this moment that the first symptoms of osteoarthritis make themselves felt, forcing the patient to seek help from a doctor.

Causes of osteoarthritis of the knee

The most important factors in the formation of the disease are the following factors:

  • heredity;
  • metabolic disorders;
  • autoimmune diseases;
  • increased stress on the joint (exercise, hard physical work);
  • trauma (including intraarticular fractures);
  • diseases of the nervous system.

With age, the risk of osteoporosis is significantly increased. In most cases, this disease overtakes people older than 40 years. In recent years, there has been a trend towards rejuvenating the disease.

Symptoms of knee osteoarthritis

With the development of the disease passes through three stages, and each of them has its own distinctive features. In this article, we will consider only the first two stages of the disease.

Treatment at these stages is most often conservative, and the patient manages to do without a surgical operation. The third degree of osteoarthritis is characterized by almost complete loss of function of the affected organ.

The only way to return the patient the possibility of active life at this stage is endoprosthetics - replacement of the joint with an artificial implant.

  • Osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the first degree

In the initial stage of the disease, the main symptom is pain. Unpleasant sensations occur with considerable physical exertion (for example, with prolonged walking or playing sports). After rest the pain goes away. At night, a person sleeps quietly - at this time his illness does not bother.

Simultaneously there is a feeling of tightness of the skin directly under the knee joint. After a long static position, there is some stiffness of movements, which quickly passes. The mobility of the joint is practically unlimited.

Treatment of pathology at this stage is only conservative.

In the first stage of the disease, patients rarely consult a doctor, considering the problem not worthwhile.

Meanwhile, it is much easier to help the patient during this period, until the pathological process begins to progress.

Occasionally, osteoarthritis is detected when passing a physical examination or when examining for another disease.

  • Osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the 2 nd degree

In the second stage of the disease, the pain becomes stronger and makes itself felt much more often. Unpleasant sensations in the knee arise after a slight load (including during normal leisurely walks).

Gradually developing visible deformity of the joint, changing its contours, reducing the possibility of active movements in the knee. During walking, many patients feel a crunch in the affected joint.

Most of the calls to the doctor happen at the second stage of the disease. At this point, patients understand that something is wrong in the body, and they want to get rid of the pain.

Treatment of osteoarthritis of the second degree consists in the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and other means that return mobility to the joint.

Diagnosis of knee osteoratrosis

To clarify the cause of the disease and identify the stage of the disease, doctors use an X-ray method. At the first stage of the disease, a joint narrowed to a third is visible in the picture. At this point, there are no osteophytes yet.

The second stage of osteoarthritis is characterized by a more pronounced narrowing of the joint gap. There is deformation of the organ, there are bony growths.

In the third stage of the disease, the articulation gap is practically not determined and the shape of the joint changes beyond recognition.

Treatment of knee osteoarthritis

The disease therapy in the first and second stages should be comprehensive, with an impact on all key points. Drug treatment includes the following stages.

  • Anti-inflammatory drugs

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed for severe pain. "Nurofen "Nyz "Celebrex" and other drugs quickly eliminate pain syndrome, relieve edema and improve general condition.

It should be noted that with prolonged use of NSAIDs exacerbation of peptic ulcer and other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and may cause bleeding.

Treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs should be under the supervision of a doctor.

These funds do not relieve pain, but affect the very cause of the disease. Chondroprotectors restore the damaged cartilage, thereby restoring mobility in the joint.

The effect comes in 4-6 months after the beginning of admission and is preserved 3 months after the drug was discontinued. Treatment with chondroprotective agents lasts for years.

Optimum results are achieved after 2-3 years of constant therapy.

  • Intra-articular drug administration

With severe pain, glucocorticosteroids are injected into the joint cavity. These drugs quickly remove the swelling and return the possibility of active movements. It is not recommended to carry out more than two injections of hormones within a year.

To replenish the synovial fluid, hyaluronic acid is injected into the knee joint. This drug eliminates pain, and also improves the mobility of the joint, reducing the friction of its cartilage. Treatment is long, from 6 to 24 months.

Non-medicamentous treatment of osteoarthritis

In addition to medical methods in the treatment of osteoarthritis, therapeutic gymnastics and physiotherapy are actively used. It is best to practice a gymnast under the supervision of a specialist who will show how to properly perform the exercises.

LFK groups are often organized in polyclinics, as well as in fitness centers. All exercises for osteoarthritis of the knee joint are done sitting or lying down. A good effect gives aqua aerobics - classes in the pool.

Having mastered the basic methods of exercise therapy, you can practice gymnastics at home.

Treatment of osteoarthritis does not do without orthopedic correction. To remove the load from the joint, various devices are used: a cane or crutches.

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Also, experts recommend wearing special orthopedic shoes. Actively applied for the treatment of the disease insoles-arch supports.

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All the devices are purchased in special shops according to the doctor's prescription.

To eliminate pain and increase the mobility of joints, physiotherapy methods are used.

Treatment by ultrasound, magnet or laser is performed only in the absence of contraindications and provided that these methods of therapy are well tolerated.

In addition, with osteoarthritis, acupuncture, massage and other methods of affecting the affected joint are used. Also, to maintain the effectiveness of treatment, a special diet can be prescribed.

Surgical treatment of the disease is carried out in severe cases with ineffectiveness of other tried and tested techniques. Prosthesis of the knee joint is performed both in our country and in foreign clinics.

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Traditional methods of treatment

Treatment with folk remedies at home is possible only when combined with the methods of classical medicine.

Do not ignore the appointment of a doctor and use only non-traditional methods - this can lead to deterioration of the general condition and the development of complications.

Therapy with folk remedies implies the use of compresses, lotions and ointments based on natural herbs. The leaves of burdock, cabbage, celandine, lemon peel - all this is used to prepare various infusions.

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A good effect is seen from the use of propolis and other bee products. Before starting therapy, it is useful to consult a doctor and clarify the compatibility of traditional methods of treatment with already prescribed drugs.

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Osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the first degree: treatment, causes, symptoms of the disease

Osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the 1st degree is the initial stage of joint damage, which is characterized by the subsequent destruction of the cartilaginous tissue. If you do not start treatment in a timely manner, then a person can become disabled.

general description

It is important to know! Doctors are shocked: "An effective and affordable remedy for joint pain exists ..." Read more ...

So, with the first degree of knee injury, the articulation still does not undergo any damage to the knee structure. Everything begins with changes in the synovial fluid, and at the molecular level.

In this case, the nutrition of the knee is disturbed, the cartilage starts to soften, thinner, cracked. At the same time, bone tissue, which is loaded more and more, begins to experience increased friction.

The first degree of osteoarthritis of the knee is characterized by a certain decrease in the functionality of the synovial membrane. The patient may feel some fatigue in the joint. Even some simple actions become more difficult.

For example, he can no longer climb the stairs as before, the knee bends and does not unbend fully.

If the articulation was subjected to a significant load, the patient may notice a minimal swelling in the affected area, as well as feel a slight pain.

The first degree of pathology development is successfully treatable.

However, to begin therapy, you need to accurately identify the symptoms of the disease and turn to a rheumatologist.

Treatment of the disease at the initial stage will provide an opportunity to restore the functionality of the joint with minimal use of medications.

Causes of pathology development

It should be noted that osteoarthrosis of the first degree was found in 6% of the world population. Most often it occurs in the elderly. And in women, he is diagnosed much more often.

The following factors may lead to this:

  1. Too much body weight.
  2. Constant increased knee loads associated with severe working conditions or sports training.
  3. Long stay in the standing position.
  4. Frequent injuries: bruises, patella detachment, strokes, tearing of the meniscus.
  5. Violation of metabolic processes in the body as a whole or cartilaginous tissue in particular.
  6. Inflammatory diseases: arthrosis, arthritis, bursitis, tuberculosis.

Symptomatology of the disease

In order to timely begin treatment of osteoarthritis of the 1st degree knee, it is desirable to pay attention to the most insignificant body signals:

  • discomfort in the affected joint during walking;
  • After a serious load in the knee, there is a slight pain;
  • fast fatiguability;
  • the appearance of an unpleasant crunch in the joint, which is barely noticeable and audible only when walking.

In order to determine osteoarthrosis of the first degree, a thorough diagnosis is carried out. The doctor listens to the patient's complaints, prescribes a radiograph, which makes it possible to see some narrowing of the joint space.

Treatment

The main goal of the treatment is to restore the normal nutrition of the cartilage, its structure, normal volume of movements. The first degree of osteoarthritis basically does not require the use of anesthetics, since the pain syndrome is not very pronounced.

First of all, it is necessary to eliminate those reasons that provoked the problem. For example, patients with excess weight are recommended diet to reduce body weight.

If the pathology develops as a result of a metabolic disorder, then an endocrinologist is required.

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If the cause of osteoarthritis of the knee is hard work, it is advisable to change the scope of activity.

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Medicated

With regard to drug treatment, it provides for the use of such drugs:

  • Chondroprotectors. They contribute to the restoration of cartilage, protect it from destruction. It is best to give preference to combined agents that simultaneously contain glucosamine and chondroitin. Use should be given to preparations for intramuscular injection, which will quickly nourish the cartilage. Effective are such medicines: "Teraflex "Aflutop".
  • Muscle relaxants. They are taken once in case of increased pain and the appearance of muscle spasm.

Physiotherapy

Treatment of the presented disease is most often performed with the help of special exercises chosen by the doctor. Osteoarthritis is a deforming type of disease, so exercise therapy should be started as early as possible.

To ensure that the complex of exercises does not harm the knee, it is necessary to use special orthopedic fixators of the joint: bandages. They will make it possible to avoid excessive overstretching of the joint. The movements are not limited to this.

The complex does not contain a large number of exercises. Treatment of osteoarthrosis 1 degree can be performed with the help of such a complex:

  1. It is necessary to stand with your back to the wall, lower your arms. To the wall should touch the largest area of ​​the body. Further, leaning on the wall, you need to climb as much as possible on your toes and stand in this position for at least 5 seconds. The exercise is repeated about 25 times.
  2. Lying on your back, you need to bend your legs in your lap, and your feet are leaning against the floor. One leg should be straightened and raised to the level of the second knee. In this position, the limb should be about 7 seconds. Repeat the exercise for 10 seconds. each foot.

Physiotherapy and the necessary diet

During therapy of osteoarthritis, it is necessary to take responsibly to one's own diet.

This does not mean that the patient will have to sit on a strict diet.

However, it is better to add to the menu products with a low number of calories, which are rich in elements such as: collagen, calcium, protein and vitamins.

You should eat the following dishes: jelly, jellied, cold, cottage cheese, hard cheese, white fish, beans and lentils. Important! The deforming nature of this disease causes the patient to think about the health of his joints. Later, going to a doctor leads to disability.

As for physiotherapeutic treatment, then such procedures can be recommended:

  • electrophoresis;
  • magnetotherapy;
  • manual therapy;
  • gymnastics in the pool, swimming.

Prevention of disease

Deforming osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the 1st degree is well treatable. However, it is better to prevent this disease. To do this, you must follow preventive measures:

  1. It is necessary to warn various injuries, bumps and bruises.
  2. It is advisable not to overcool.
  3. It should be maximized, change the sedentary lifestyle, do gymnastics.
  4. It is important to eat right, so that the body receives all the necessary elements.
  5. It is necessary to exclude any stresses that lead to nervous overexertion.
  6. It is desirable to quickly and effectively treat any inflammatory pathologies that can provoke osteoarthrosis of the knee.

That's all the features of the development and treatment of the presented pathology of the knee. We must try not to allow the influence of those factors that could provoke its development.

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Osteoarthritis of the knee joint - causes, signs, first manifestations, means and methods of therapy

The legs of a person withstand enormous loads, so they often suffer from various ailments.

Osteoarthritis of the knee joint is very common - a disease leading to the destruction of cartilaginous tissue and without treatment leading to loss of mobility. The condition is fraught with severe pain.

It interferes with normal life activity, so you need to know the reasons for the appearance and ways of treating this disease.

What is knee osteoarthritis?

The disease is classified as degenerative. The joint is gradually destroyed as a result of inflammation, ceases to function. The disease is primary (independent) and secondary (arising against the background of another ailment).

First, the cartilaginous tissue that lays articular surfaces is damaged. It breaks the food, because of what it is becoming thinner. Gradually, the inflammatory process affects the ligaments, menisci and periarticular membranes.

When the cartilage is completely erased, the knee will lose mobility.

The disease is very common, and it suffers from it, according to various sources, 20-30% of the world's population. Women are more likely than men to have an ailment. Causes of the disease can be as follows:

  1. Overweight.
  2. Diseases of the vascular system (varicose veins and hypertension).
  3. Injuries of the legs.
  4. Disruption of the hormone exchange process of estrogen. The problem is typical for women after menopause.
  5. Endocrine disruptions. Disturbances in the work of the system lead to a slowing of metabolic processes in the vessels of the extremities. As a result, the cartilage becomes thinner.
  6. Congenital pathology of the knees. Syndrome of connective tissue dysplasia, hip joint dislocation.
  7. Age. The older the person, the lower the ability of the cartilage to repair.
  8. Heredity.
  9. Training in athletics.
  10. Work associated with frequent squatting, lifting of weights, kneeling.

Even if you have not found the above factors, there are a number of conditions that increase the risk of the disease:

  • a recent surgery to remove the meniscus;
  • diabetes;
  • fractures;
  • infections, chronic inflammation;
  • passive lifestyle.

Symptoms of knee osteoarthritis

There are three stages of the development of the disease, each of which has its own characteristics. There are a number of common symptoms that may indicate that a person's disease progresses:

  • pain in the knees, flowing over the hips, shin, worse after physical exertion;
  • clicks or crunch when driving;
  • swelling of the knees, their increase in size and deformation;
  • stiffness in movement, especially after a long rest.

Osteoarthritis of the 1st degree of the knee joint

At this stage, no serious structural changes occur in the bone tissues. Functionality of the knee remains at the same level.

Recognize the disease is very difficult. As a rule, an ailment is revealed when a patient undergoes examinations for any other pathologies.

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Here are the symptoms of osteoarthritis 1 degree:

  1. Periodically, there is a minor pain syndrome (especially after a long walk), but it happens infrequently and quickly passes.
  2. Inside the knee feels stiff. This is especially noticeable if a person has been lying or sitting for a long time. Stiffness disappears as soon as the patient starts to pacing.
  3. Long standing on the legs can bring discomfort, bring a feeling of heaviness.

DOA knee joint 2 degrees

At this stage, the disease is still relatively easy to treat.

Cartilaginous tissue is already very thin, but has not completely disappeared, and the articular cleft is considerably narrowed.

On X-ray images, deformation will be very noticeable. Osteoarthritis of the 2nd degree of the knee joint is characterized by the following symptoms:

  • acute pain, as a result of which motor activity is limited;
  • crunch and clicks in the knees;
  • heaviness, aches;
  • there may be convulsions;
  • slowing of gait;
  • swelling around the knee, but without redness of the skin;
  • a feeling of pressure on the bones.

Deforming knee osteoarthritis of the third degree

The started stage of the disease, which can lead even to complete immobility and disability, can hardly be cured. The joint gap is no longer there, the tissues are severely deformed. Here are the symptoms of osteoarthritis of the 3rd degree:

  • The knee joint hurts all the time, even at rest;
  • sclerosis of the subchondral zone begins;
  • Salt is deposited around the affected joint;
  • pain increases with changing weather;
  • The fluid accumulates in the joint cavity;
  • the knee greatly increases;
  • The joint crunches almost in any movement.

Diagnosis of osteoarthritis

To identify the disease, a whole complex of studies is used, which can be divided into two large groups: laboratory and differential.

The first are needed to clarify the cause of osteoarthritis development, determine the effectiveness of treatment.

Differential diagnosis is performed by an orthopedist directly for the diagnosis, establishing the severity level.

Laboratory

Osteoarthrosis of the knee joint is a chronic disease in which remissions alternate with exacerbations. In the period of the last there are symptoms of an inflammatory-intoxication syndrome. You can identify it by doing the following laboratory tests:

  1. General blood analysis. It is performed to assess the severity of inflammation.
  2. General urine analysis. It is performed to exclude the defeat of the urinary tract and kidney, which can provoke an inflammatory process.
  3. Blood chemistry. A number of markers for osteoarthritis of the knee joint will be increased.

Differential

To diagnose osteoarthritis of joints, doctors perform the following studies:

  1. Simple radiography in two projections: lateral and posterior-front. For comparison, make photos of two knee joints: a patient and healthy. Direct signs will be a narrowing of the joint gap, microcysts of the subchondral layer and its sclerosis, osteophytes visible on the X-ray. Indirectly, the disease can indicate subluxation or dislocation, changes in the tissue of the synovial membrane, foci of ossification of the cartilage.
  2. Arthroscopy. Invasive endoscopy. From the side of the knee, a conductor with a light-emitting diode is inserted into the joint cavity through a small hole. The data is displayed on the screen. The method has a huge number of advantages. It allows not only to diagnose osteoarthritis, but also to carry out certain therapeutic manipulations. However, the disadvantage of arthroscopy is that the articular cavity is depressurized, so that bacteria can enter it.
  3. Ultrasound. Ultrasound for the diagnosis of osteoarthritis has recently been applied. In contrast to X-rays, the study can be conducted very many times. On ultrasound, soft tissues of the knee joint, blood vessels are perfectly visible. It is expected that soon this method of research will completely replace the X-ray.
  4. CT scan. Many pictures are taken in different projections. On a computer, they are combined into one three-dimensional image. With the help of tomography will be able to detect the smallest lesions of tissues. The method is rarely used because of the availability of other, cheaper, research methods.
  5. Magnetic resonance imaging. Clearly visualizes soft tissues.
  6. Scintigraphy. One type of X-ray study. In the patient's body, a contrast agent is introduced. After the whole body is scanned. A high concentration of contrast medium in any of the knee joints will indicate a cartilage tumor.
  7. Thermography. Thermal radiation from the surface of the body is recorded. Where it is elevated, there is probably inflammation and cancer.

Treatment of knee osteoarthritis

The disease is chronic, therefore it is impossible to completely get rid of it.

However, there is an extensive set of therapeutic procedures aimed at alleviating and eliminating the symptoms of the disease.

Thanks to medicamental, physiotherapeutic or surgical treatment, doctors can significantly alleviate the patient's condition, the function of movement. There are several effective methods of treatment.

Medication Therapy

Treatment with drugs is aimed at slowing the course of osteoarthritis, improving metabolic processes. Specialists prescribe the use of such medicines:

  1. Anti-inflammatory drugs. Their reception removes painful sensations, swelling, swelling (Nimesulide, Diclofenac, Meloxicam).
  2. Chondroprotectors. Their action is aimed at restoring the cartilaginous tissue. These drugs are especially effective at the first stage and eliminate not only pain manifestations, but also the cause.
  3. Vasodilators. They are recommended to take to relieve spasm of small vessels, restore blood circulation (Theonikol, Nikoshpan, Trental).

Very effective therapy with intra-articular injection. The use of such drugs is common:

  1. Corticosteroid hormones. Remove inflammation, remove swelling and swelling (Hydrocortisone, Flosteron, Kenalog).
  2. Chondroprotectors. Injections with drugs of this group are used only in the initial stages of osteoarthritis.
  3. Hyaluronic acid. Replaces the natural lubrication of the knee joint. Injections with hyaluronic acid reduce the friction of deformed surfaces. As a result, the mobility of the knee joint increases.

Treatment is prescribed by local means (ointments, creams):

Physiological treatment of the DOA knee joint

This type of therapy is aimed at alleviating the general condition of the patient, improving local blood circulation. Procedures help reduce pain, relieve inflammation. The following physiotherapy methods are used:

  • electrophoresis;
  • magnetotherapy;
  • laser therapy;
  • massage;
  • wearing knee pads to fix the position of the joint;
  • medical baths;
  • ultrasound therapy;
  • mud treatment;
  • currents.

Surgery

If osteoarthritis is badly started, and conservative methods of therapy do not bring any result, doctors perform an operation to completely or partially replace the knee joint.

Even at the last stage of the disease, surgical intervention helps to restore mobility.

The disadvantage of the operation is that rehabilitation after it takes a long time.

Than to treat an osteoarthritis of a knee joint

Therapy should be comprehensive. The patient should not expect that only medications will relieve osteoarthritis. Due attention should be paid to special physical therapy (LFK complexes).

It is necessary to abandon bad habits and normalize nutrition, because every extra kilogram creates an additional burden on the legs, which causes pain.

Alternative medicine (compresses, lotions, decoctions) will also be effective.

Folk remedies for knee osteoarthritis

There are several well-proven folk good recipes:

  1. Mix 1 raw egg yolk with 1 tbsp. l. vinegar and 1 h. l. turpentine. The resulting composition is applied to the diseased knee, wrap it with a film and a warm cloth. Leave the compress on all night. Repeat the procedure twice a week.
  2. Mix a tablespoon of natural honey with 3 tbsp. l. apple cider vinegar. Treat the affected knees. Top with a cabbage leaf. Wrap a film, a scarf. Leave the compress on overnight. Do every month for a month.
  3. Buy blue or red clay. Dilute the water to the sour cream. Put a thick layer of clay on the flap of cotton cloth. Apply the compress to the diseased knee. Bandage, wrap with a warm scarf. Leave for 3-4 hours. Repeat every day for a month.

Complications and prevention

If the treatment is not started in time, the disease will develop and can turn into serious problems. Among them are the following:

  • knee deformation;
  • frequent fractures;
  • osteoarthritis;
  • osteoporosis;
  • violation of joint function;
  • destruction of tissues.

For the prevention of osteoarthritis, you need to follow these recommendations:

  • do physical exercises for muscle endurance and stretching;
  • wear comfortable shoes with a low heel;
  • avoid injury;
  • make sure that you do not have excess weight, follow a diet;
  • Avoid lifting weights;
  • try not to be in the same position for a long time.

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Symptoms and Diagnosis of Knee Osteoarthritis of the 3rd degree

Osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the third degree is a disease accompanied by pain, stiffness of movements and deformation of the knee joint. The disease gives many problems to the patient and is treatable.

Causes and features of stage 3

  • Age. The older the person, the worse the recovery processes in the body, the cartilage tissue is destroyed, the symptoms of the disease appear.
  • High physical load. All kinds of professional activities, associated with an excessive burden on the body, are the cause of the disease.
  • Overweight is the most common cause of knee osteoarthritis of the 3rd stage. A large mass creates an excessive load on the knee.
  • Injuries, surgical interventions. Suffice a small injury in the fall - and the risk of the disease increases at times. Surgery can also cause illness.
  • Hereditary predilection is one of the causes of osteoarthritis. There are cases when the congenital pathology leads to the disease, at which there is a lack of intra-articular lubrication.

Manifestation of the 3rd degree

3 degree of osteoarthritis - the most severe form of the disease, in which the disease is almost not treatable.

In such cases, a person receives a disability, existing changes lead to restrictions in the movement or complete absence of them.

Manifestations of the disease that characterize the 3rd degree of the disease:

  • pain in the joint, which is felt at night, during rest;
  • Painful sensations are enhanced by changing weather conditions;
  • the joint cavity is filled with fluid;
  • visually the knee increases at times;
  • any movement is accompanied by a crunch.

Symptoms of knee disease

There are 3 stages of the disease. Each stage is characterized by certain characteristics. There are several symptoms of a general orientation that will help to recognize the disease at the very beginning and prevent its development:

  • pain in the knee extends to the hips, shin and ankle, intensified after an additional load on the legs;
  • In the knee, when you move, you hear a crunch and clicks;
  • visual enlargement of the joint and its deformation;
  • Stiffness is felt, especially after the rest phase.
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Diagnostics

To make a correct diagnosis, you need to undergo several diagnostic procedures that will help determine the extent of the disease and prescribe treatment.

  • Diagnosis of any disease begins with examination and questioning the patient.
  • Then you need to take blood tests, urine tests. Laboratory tests are less informative for diseases of this kind.
  • Aspiration (intake of intraarticular fluid). The resulting fluid will help determine the stage of the disease.
  • Radiography. This study will help determine the size of the gap between the bones, the degree of bone tissue change and the nature of the damage to the cartilage.
  • MRI. The image obtained with the help of a magnetic resonance tomograph turns out to be more voluminous and allows more careful examination of the damaged organ. The doctor gets a possibility of a layer-by-layer examination of the bone.

Difference from stages 1 and 2

1 and 2 stage of osteoarthritis have less severe symptoms.

Stage 3 of the disease, according to experts, leads the patient to disability and, in most cases, practically does not give in to treatment.

The patient receives temporary relief and can only move independently with the help of a walking stick, crutches or walkers.

At 1 stage of the disease, the symptomatology is negligible. The patient feels discomfort and fatigue in the knee after a load. Sharp movements in the joint cause minor pain.

Stage 2 proceeds against the background of pronounced painful sensations. Visually changes the shape of the knee. Difficult movements, there is a pain when pressing and examining the joint.

Medication

It must be understood that you can take any drug solely for the purpose of a specialist. In all other cases, there is a risk of self-inflicting irreparable damage to health.

  • With the goal of stopping pain, non-steroid drugs are used. Such drugs relieve pain, eliminate inflammatory reactions. It should be remembered that this group of drugs is addictive and dangerous side effects (nausea, indigestion, stomach and duodenal ulcer, gastrointestinal bleeding, diarrhea).
  • Chondroprotectors. Help restore damaged areas of bones and various joints: hip, knee, foot. Have a strong enough regenerative component and are effective in treating 2-3 degrees of ailment.
  • The third group of drugs - preparations based on hyaluronic acid. Strengthen the joint, cartilaginous tissue. This drug should be injected directly into the diseased knee.

Physiotherapy and diet

In the treatment of stages 2 and 3 of osteoarthritis, there are effective physiotherapeutic procedures that help to increase the effectiveness of treatment.

Ointments used in massage relieve pain and cramps.

The patient's joint should be gently rubbed with medicinal gels and ointments, without causing unnecessary pain.

Patients may be assigned such procedures:

  1. Electrophoresis.
  2. Mud packs.
  3. Ultrasonic therapy.
  4. Applications of paraffin.
  5. Magnetotherapy.
  6. Carbonic and hydrosulphuric medicinal baths.

Proper nutrition helps to improve the condition. Healthy food with a high calcium content has a beneficial effect on bone tissue. From fatty and salty foods must be discarded.

Exercise exercise therapy will help restore mobility in the joint, but gymnastics is conducted only after consultation with a specialist.

Surgical intervention

Surgical treatment is used at stage 3 osteoarthritis of the knee joint. The most simple and accessible method of surgery is arthroscopy.

In the area of ​​the knee, punctures are made, through which a variety of endoscopes are introduced - the arthroscope and surgical instruments, by which the damaged cartilage is removed.

If the above procedure is ineffective, an operation for prosthetic knee joint is performed. This is a complex operation, but such therapy always gives a positive result in treating DOA of 3-4 degrees.

Possible complications and prognosis of life

This disease can lead to disability and virtually immobilize a person, here are a few possible complications:

  • knee joint deformation;
  • osteoarthritis;
  • impairment of motor functions.

This can be avoided by performing simple daily activities.

Prevention of disability

  • Morning gymnastics will help you stay in good physical shape and maintain the elasticity of muscles and ligaments;
  • shoes should be comfortable;
  • balance the diet and watch the weight;
  • try to avoid lifting heavy objects.

These simple rules help you stay in shape and avoid illness.

arthrosisBoltic jointsOsteoarthrosis of the stage physiotherapy

A source: http://PozvonochnikPro.ru/bolezni-sustavov/osteoartroz-koleney-3-stepeni.html

Various methods of treatment of osteoarthritis of 1 degree in the knee joint

Osteoarthrosis of the knee joint (gonarthrosis) refers to degenerative-dystrophic diseases.

Gonarthrosis destroys the cartilage, causes deformity of the joint.

A more favorable prognosis for osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the 1st degree - treatment in full restores the function of the joint.

Degrees of knee osteoarthritis

Gonarthrosis is considered a disease associated with age-related changes: destruction of cartilage, high mineralization of bones. They contribute to the formation of osteoarthritis of the knee joint diabetes mellitus, obesity, gout. In a group of risk athletes, people engaged in manual labor.

There are 3 degrees of the disease. Easy is considered the initial 1 degree of the disease. In case of osteoarthritis of the 1st degree, unsharp pain occurs after a load, staying in one pose. Slightly pronounced crunch in the knee (crepitation), fatigue by evening. After rest all signs of gonarthrosis disappear.

Stage 2 is characterized by increased symptoms. After sleep, the stiffness in the joint does not pass right away, it is required to "diverge" the knee within 30 minutes. The amplitude of movement in the joint is markedly reduced, it is not possible to completely straighten or bend the leg.

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The sick knee crunches when walking, the muscles of the thigh weaken. On the roentgenogram, the articulation gap is narrowed, osteophyte overgrowth is noted, joint deformation is visible.

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At 3 stages of osteoarthritis, the pain becomes permanent, the person limps when walking, the joint is severely restricted in movement.

Diagnostics

For diagnostic purposes, in order to determine how to treat osteoarthritis of the knee joint, a complex joint examination is performed.

The condition of the knee is studied using X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonic radiation.

The most informative modern diagnostic method is the treatment and diagnostic arthroscopy of the knee joint.

Treatment of gonarthrosis

At the first stages of the disease treat conservative ways with the use of medicines, physiotherapy procedures, massage, physiotherapy exercises. The patient is recommended to normalize the weight, use the knee pads, elastic bandage, use orthopedic insoles.

Treatment with medicines

First of all, the treatment is aimed at reducing pain syndrome, restoring cartilage nutrition, reducing inflammation.

To improve the condition of the patient and reduce pain, the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee joint anti-inflammatory, analgesic drugs, drugs that improve the metabolism of the cartilaginous surface the joint.

At all stages of gonarthrosis, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used. Treatment begins with paracetamol, then more powerful drugs are prescribed: diclofenac, aceclofenac, nimesulide, meloxicam. If the pain can not be eliminated, a tramadol is prescribed.

Inflammatory phenomena in the knee joint are eliminated by intraarticular blockade - hydrocortisone, kenalog. Injections into the joint are prescribed at low effectiveness of anti-inflammatory drugs in tablets.

To restore the cartilage of the joint, chondroprotectors containing glucosamine, hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate are used. Usually used drugs Don, Artra, Diacerein, Teraflex, Structum, Piascladin 300.

Chondroprotectors are also used for insertion into the joint. When osteoarthritis of the knee joint is treated with hyaluronic acid - use drugs GIALRIPEYR-10, GIALRIPAYER-02, as well as a substitute synovial fluid Synocrome forte.

The method of inserting a "prosthesis" of synovial fluid into the joint cavity, the Synvisc preparation, has spread. This drug replenishes the lack of synovial fluid in the joint.

Local treatment of gonarthrosis

With gonarthrosis 1 degree, local treatment with ointments, gels is used. Quickly relieve pain ointment Diclofenac, Bystrum-gel, Voltaren. Appoint medical adhesive plasters Nanoplast Forte, DORSAPLAST.

The production of these patches uses the properties of magnetic powder from rare earth metals to emit waves in the infrared spectrum.

This phenomenon helps to relax the muscles, improve microcirculation, reduce inflammation.

Physiotherapy

The medicinal way of treatment is supplemented with physiotherapeutic procedures. Preference is given to ultrasonic irradiation and electrophoresis. With the help of ultrasound, metabolic processes in the cartilage are improved. Electrophoresis is used for deep penetration of the drug into the skin layers.

A popular way to treat osteoarthritis of the knee joint are mud mud applications, magnetotherapy, low-frequency impulse currents, massage, electromagnetic field of high frequency, shortwave diathermy.

Physiotherapy

With severe pain in the knees, a set of therapeutic exercises is performed sitting, lying down. With osteoarthrosis 1, 2, 3 degrees of one or both knee joints, exercises are performed for both healthy and aching legs. A complex of gymnastics is prescribed by a doctor, they learn movements in the gym.

Ortokin

The drug for intraarticular administration is obtained from the patient's own blood cells.

The patient is taken from the vein blood, treated in such a way that proteins are produced that suppress the destruction of the cartilage. Treatment is not possible at the stage of complete destruction of the cartilage.

A good effect of treatment is given in the initial degree of the disease, with the appearance of the first symptoms.

Bubnovsky's method

The method of treatment of knee osteoarthritis according to Bubnovsky is aimed at improving the nutrition of cartilage, eliminating the dysfunction of the knee muscles.

The author of the technique has developed special simulators that allow to study each group of muscles, restore microcirculation, improve the nutrition of the joint and joint tissues.

Treatment with stem cells (MSK-therapy)

For insertion into the knee joint, the patient's own stem cells are used. They take a thin needle from the pelvic bone.

Special procedures stem cells are activated, then injected into the joint cavity. The technique is considered effective, confirmed by numerous studies.

In the case of osteoarthritis of the knee joint of the 2nd degree, the treatment with stem cells allows the cartilage to be restored.

Surgery

In the advanced stage, an operation is performed on the knee joint. The method of arthroscopy was widely used. It allows you to assess the condition of the joint from the inside, remove the particles of the destroyed cartilage under visual control.

To replace the joint with an artificial prosthesis - surgery of endoprosthetics, resort to extreme cases.

Replacement of the knee joint allows to restore the functionality of the joint, to return to an active lifestyle.

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The entire joint is subjected to prosthetics, as well as a separate, most affected part of the osteoarthrosis.

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A source: http://infosustav.ru/razlichnye-metody-lecheniya-osteoartroza-1-stepeni-v-kolennom-sustave.html

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