Statistics say that women with thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities are more likely to suffer. High heels, short skirts even in frost, taking hormonal contraceptives - all this can cause inflammation of the venous walls on the legs.
Thrombophlebitis has serious consequences for the body, the most dangerous of them are thromboembolism of the pulmonary artery and sepsis. What to look for and how to prevent complications? Consider all the symptoms of thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities and the methods of its diagnosis, show his photos and tell you about the ways of treating the disease.
- 1 Causes and Risk Factors
- 2 Symptoms and Signs
- 3 Which doctor heals and when to go to it?
- 4 Diagnostic Methods
- 5 How to treat?
- 5.1 Surface veins on the legs
- 5.2 Deep veins
- 6 Prevention measures
Causes and risk factors
Thrombophlebitis is an inflammatory disease of the venous walls caused by the formation of a blood clot( thrombus) in the lumen of the vessel. The disease often begins with varicose veins.
A combination of three factors is important for the development of the disease:
- Slowing of blood flow .Disorders of blood circulation contribute to:
- sedentary and sedentary lifestyle;
- diseases requiring prolonged bed rest;
- application of gypsum or bandages with restriction of leg mobility;
- changes in the work of the cardiovascular system;
- Increased blood clotting .Happens congenital or is caused by reception of some medical products, hormonal failures, infections.
- Inflammation and vascular damage. Walls of vessels are sensitive to damage, quickly injured due to frequent injections, mechanical damage( leg injuries), surgeries, installation of venous catheters.
Symptomatology and signs
Thrombophlebitis at the initial stage proceeds imperceptibly for a person .Many people turn to a doctor when the disease turns into a sharp form. Then the disease can take a person by surprise. It is useful to know in advance what to look for. At first, the symptoms are mild, but be sure to see a doctor if you notice signs of thrombophlebitis.
To damage the superficial veins at an early stage,
- is characterized by seals and nodules visible to the naked eye;
- small swelling and hyperemia( redness) in the area of inflammation;
- swelling and redness.
Sometimes the body temperature slightly increases or the site of inflammation on the leg becomes hot.
If you ignore the first symptoms, the inflammation will spread, will add pain, nodules on the legs will become larger than and more noticeably, the temperature will rise.
Redness of the leg and swelling of the leg, bloating of the veins with thrombophlebitis are shown in this photo:
The main symptoms of deep vein thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities:
- pain in the area of inflammation;
- marked swelling and redness;
- compaction in the thrombus formation zone;
- appearance of a venous network on the foot;
- increased body temperature.
The pain can be severe, especially in the sitting position, and slightly recede as the leg is raised. The severity and character of the symptoms in the defeat of the deep veins of the leg depends on the site of formation of the clot and its size. When the veins are blocked by the shin, the person feels pain in the gastrocnemius muscle, the shin swells, the skin can turn blue .If you ignore the situation at this stage, in one or two days the entire surface of the legs will be covered with a network of swollen veins.
When the thrombus is located in the common femoral vein, the patient feels an acute pain in the entire leg, the limb swells and turns blue. The veins are swollen, the body temperature can rise to the high .
How does the advanced stage of deep vein thrombophlebitis look on the feet, see the photo:
More about the disease and its different forms, see the video:
Which doctor heals and when to go to it?
Procrastination with a visit to the doctor with the defeat of deep veins of the legs is dangerous. Because of the rapid increase in thrombus and blood flow velocity, the clot can at any moment come off and with blood to transfer to any vessel of the body. Blockage of large arteries carries a threat to the life of the patient. If symptoms of thrombophlebitis appear, should be referred to a phlebologist.
To make a correct diagnosis, the doctor will refer you to a survey. The specialist will need to determine the degree of vascular injury and the location of the thrombus , since the treatment for deep and superficial thrombophlebitis is different.
Differential diagnosis is based on the general symptoms of the disease. Occlusion of superficial veins is distinguished from Vinivarter-Burger disease, nodular lymphangitis, periarteritis. Deep thrombophlebitis doctors differentiate with thrombosis of arterial trunks, thromboembolism, Raynaud's disease.
For proper diagnosis, specialists use the following methods of :
- a common blood test with a coagulogram to determine blood coagulation;
- ultrasound with doppler( reveals the location of the thrombus and the level of blood flow);
- phlebography( the most informative method of diagnosis in vascular lesions, especially deep ones);
- X-ray and ECG for identifying cardiac problems;
- MRI, if other methods were not informative.
How to treat?
Superficial veins on the legs
Treatment of thrombophlebitis of superficial veins of the lower extremities is carried out in the minimum volume. Sometimes it is possible to do with diet, rest and folk methods of treatment( ointments and decoctions).In mild cases, inflammation passes by itself and the doctor recommends compliance with preventive measures to prevent exacerbations in the future.
Conservative treatment includes:
- reception of drugs for the dilution of blood;
- antibiotics upon infection;
- anti-inflammatory drugs;
- ointments to eliminate pain and inflammation( ketonal gel, heparin ointment);
- drugs for the dissolution of a thrombus( fibrinolysin, chymotrypsin, streptokinase, etc.);
Thrombophlebitis of superficial veins does not pose a serious danger to the patient and passes for 1-2 weeks without the consequences of .Surgical treatment is rarely used. Subject to consultation with the attending physician, people's methods of treatment can be resolved.
The choice of method of treatment depends on the results of the diagnosis, the severity of the symptoms and the place of formation of the thrombus. In severe cases, hospitalization of is indicated for the diagnosis of the patient's exact condition and evaluation of the degree of inflammation. Treatment can be conservative or surgical.
From the first day of treatment of acute deep vein thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs, the patient needs bed rest and the diet. Legs are placed higher for better outflow of blood. Restriction of physical activity for the prevention of thrombus rupture. Conservative treatment is similar to therapy in the defeat of surface vessels.
In addition to the above, it is recommended:
- analgesics to reduce soreness in the leg;
- elastic bandage of a sick limb for 10 days, then wearing compression linen;
- plentiful drink, if there are no contraindications;
- physiotherapy and hirudotherapy after consulting a specialist;
- psychological rest.
When conservative methods fail, is surgical. Remove the site of the affected vessel with the thrombus. The clot can be removed and without a cut, through a puncture. To avoid the development of thrombosis, the surgeon binds a large subcutaneous vein.
Operation with thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities is performed under local anesthesia. Hospitalization is necessary only in severe cases of , minimal surgical intervention is performed on an outpatient basis, the patient has the opportunity to be cured at home.
Prevention of thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs is the adherence to a healthy lifestyle and optimal load on the legs of the , and should include:
- daily walks and sports;
- avoiding a long stay in one position;
- copious drink.
If you have to spend a lot of time on your legs or you are at risk for other reasons, do not neglect the preventive measures and visit the doctor on time.