- Features of dietary food
- What products are excluded from cirrhosis with ascites
- What products are useful
- Related videos
In liver cirrhosis, the structure of hepatocytes and lobules of the gland is disrupted as a result of the progression of an irreversible process leading to the replacement of normal tissue by connective and nodule formation. As a result of the disease, the liver ceases to perform its function and the organism becomes intoxicated due to which death occurs.
The liver is able to fully purify the blood, even if less than a quarter of normal tissue is left in it, so it is so important to adhere to therapeutic nutrition and eliminate any factors that can lead to the progression of pathology. The aggravation and severity of symptoms will depend on the stage of the disease and the level of compensation.
With compensated cirrhosis, the leading symptoms are organ pain, jaundice, dyspeptic disorders, vascular sprouts on the skin, asthenovegetative syndrome, which manifests itself in increased fatigue, weakness, irritability, reduced efficiency, tendency to hysterics, tears, hurt.
At the stage of decompensation, when the body's capabilities are exhausted, itching, joint pain, portal hypertension, which provokes ascites, esophageal bleeding, liver failure. Patients with cirrhosis are advised to exclude factors that lead to the transformation of hepatocytes( alcohol, toxic drugs, work in harmful production), and adhere to a diet that provides mechanical and chemical shining of the gland.
Drug therapy is also prescribed, which consists in taking hepatoprotectors, anti-inflammatory drugs and medications that eliminate symptoms. If all the recommendations are met, liver regeneration will not occur, but the activity of the pathological process will be slowed down.
Features of dietary nutrition
For hepatic cirrhosis with ascites, it is recommended that No5 nutrition therapy for Pevzner. Some doctors believe that with compensated cirrhosis and normal health of the patient it is not required to adhere to a strict diet, since there are no studies that would confirm its feasibility.
But with any pathology of the liver, a complete rejection of alcohol is required, since the products of the decomposition of ethyl alcohol trigger irreversible processes. Even drunk 50 grams of alcohol can lead to liver failure. Diet with cirrhosis of the liver with ascites suggests a moderate restriction of nutrition with a reduced content of animal fats.
Therapy is aimed at chemical and mechanical shielding of the gland to normalize its function and restore the process of bile secretion. The patient should refrain from consuming refractory fats( fat, cooking oil), salt, products that contain extractives, purines, cholesterol, oxalic acid, essential oil or coarse fiber.
If liver diseases can not be used canned food, smoked meat, sausage, fatty fish and fatty meats, strong broths, refractory fats, beans and vegetables with fiber and essential oils, pickled foods, spices, spices, fatty milk, cream, sauces, buns,confectionery.
All food should be cooked for a couple, boiled, stewed or baked without crusting. When cirrhosis of the liver with ascites, it is necessary to minimize the amount of salt supplied from food( not more than 2 g per day), and limit the intake of liquid to 1 liter per day.
To reduce the severity of edematous-ascitic syndrome, diuretic therapy should also be carried out. If ascites progresses, then within 5-10 days you need to give up salt altogether and add to the diet products with a high content of potassium. If hepatic encephalopathy developed on the background of cirrhosis, it is necessary to completely exclude protein of animal origin( protein is not more than 20-30 g / day), fat in the diet should not be more than 30 grams, and carbohydrates not more than 300 g.
In ascites,salt, because it delays the fluid in the body
To prevent fat deposition in hepatocytes or reduce the severity of fatty hepatosis in the menu, it is necessary to add products that have lipotropic action, as well as fruit with pectin. Lipotropic properties are found in cottage cheese, whey, buttermilk, buckwheat, vegetable oil, fiber. What products are excluded in cirrhosis with ascites
In the diet of a patient with hepatitis should not be present:
- freshly baked bread, buns, pancakes, pies, puff pastry;
- soups on fish, meat, mushroom broth, soups with the addition of legumes, as well as fat soup and okroshka;
- fatty meat, sausages, lard, canned goods, smoked products, by-products;Eggs raw or hard boiled eggs, fried eggs;
- salted or smoked fish, oily fish, seafood, caviar;
- dairy products with high fat content( milk should be less than 4% fat content, sour cream less than 30%);
- salted, pickled and pickled vegetables, as well as radish, turnips, spinach, sorrel, garlic, radish, mushrooms, green onions in any form;
- sour fruit and berries;
- chocolate, cocoa, nuts, ice cream, confectionery with cream;
- seasonings and sauces( horseradish, vinegar, mustard, mayonnaise, pepper, ketchup, wasabi);
- black coffee, juice from grapes, drinks with gas;
When a disease is necessary to strictly follow the dietary prescriptions
Which products are useful
When liver disease in the diet of the patient can include:
- dried wheat or rye bread;
- dry biscuits, uneatable pastries;
- soups on vegetable broth with rice, pearl or oatmeal, macaroni;
- from meat is allowed the use of beef, lean pork, chicken, rabbit, turkey. In limited quantities, you can eat milk sausages or doctor sausages;
- from fish is allowed to eat pike, capelin, cod, perch, pike perch, flounder, pollock, carp, hake;
- sour-milk products( curdled milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, sour cream, butter) should be low in fat content. In the diet can be present low-fat cheese;
- soft-boiled eggs or steam omelettes( you can eat 2 eggs a day);
- buckwheat, oatmeal, rice porridge. The dish must be prepared on water and made semi-liquid;
- vegetables( tomatoes, carrots, zucchini, cucumbers, pumpkin, beets, potatoes, cauliflower and broccoli) and vegetable greens;
- vegetable and butter( add to the prepared dish);
- sweet berries and fruits, dried fruits( apricots, watermelons, bananas, pears, melons, kiwi, peaches, plums, apples, persimmon, strawberries, blueberries, raisins, dried apricots, prunes);
- jujube, honey, pastille, jam, marshmallow, jelly;
- not strong tea, juices, broth from a dogrose or wheaten bran, mineral still water.
During the period of pain intensification and in case of complications, the list of allowed products and caloric content of dishes decreases. In order not to provoke increased bile secretion it is recommended to eat small portions and with small time intervals between meals.
The No5 diet is balanced because it contains all the necessary nutrients. It is easy to observe, as it is not required to grind food, and from cooking methods only frying is excluded. At the same time, the patient's diet should be diverse and include not only foods that people love, but also those dishes that contain ingredients that improve liver function or reduce the severity of ascites.
To adhere to dietary nutrition must always
Especially useful for liver:
- olive oil;
- seeds of flax and sesame;
- dried apricots;
For example, sea kale contains salts of alginic acid, which promote the removal of toxins from the body, than unload the liver. Olive oil is rich in vitamin E, which is an antioxidant and neutralizes poisons. And in dried apricots there are substances that reduce cholesterol and prevent the development of cancer.
Potassium improves the excretion of fluid from tissues and muscles, protects blood vessels from the formation of plaques and deposits, speeds up metabolic processes. The microelement is contained in oatmeal, buckwheat, fish, beef, potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, pumpkin, banana, melon, watermelon, carrot, raisins, dried apricots, prunes, therefore these products are recommended to use if ascites developed.
In case of liver disease, it is necessary to limit the intake of "bad" cholesterol
When fluid is accumulated in the abdominal cavity( with ascites), diuretics are prescribed that help to reduce exudation. Diuretic action is possessed by tomatoes, cucumbers, celery, beets, pumpkin, carrots, apples, strawberries, plums, buckwheat, oatmeal, pearl barley, green tea, cinnamon, parsley, turmeric.
The menu for cirrhosis of the liver will depend on the stage of the disease. In the compensatory form of the disease, the diet should contain a lot of protein, because thanks to choline and amino acids, hepatocytes recover more quickly. The menu should be cottage cheese, milk, kefir, lean fish, beef, buckwheat, oatmeal, greens.
At the stage of decompensation, enzymes that neutralize ammonia are not synthesized, therefore vegetable fats and vegetables should be based on the diet. Dietary nutrition with cirrhosis of the liver with ascites has the same significance as medical therapy.
Most drugs prescribed for the disease contain the same components that are in food, so a well-designed diet can supplement the basic treatment. In addition, due to proper nutrition, the load on the liver decreases. In order to develop a menu that takes into account the individual tolerability of products and taste preferences, it is recommended to consult a dietician.