Catarrhal otitis in children is an insidious diseaseCatarrhal otitis is the most common ENT disease, for which a characteristic inflammatory process of the mucosa of the middle ear. Very often this form of the disease precedes purulent otitis, their symptoms are so similar that only the otolaryngologist can distinguish between two ear diseases. Catarrhal otitis in children occurs much more often than in adults, which is due to the lack of formation of the auditory tube.
Causes of the disease
The occurrence of catarrhal otitis in a child can be caused by the following factors:
- frequent respiratory infections, influenza;
- chronic diseases of the nose;
- sneezing and coughing.
When the otitis occurs, the Eustachian tube is clogged and the ear cavity filled with fluid, which, depending on the stage of the disease, thickens and contains impurities of pus.Most often, parents turn to specialists with children under the age of 5, in older children the Eustachian tube is shifted to the vertical, so the process of penetration of the infection into the ear is difficult.
The location of the eustachian tube in a child and an adult
Under the influence of pathogenic microorganisms that cause otitis, the mucous membrane becomes inflamed, swells, the lumen inevitably narrows, and as a result - a violation of the ventilation function of the hearing organ. Such a process creates a favorable environment for penetration into the body of a secondary infection that worsens the child's condition.
Children are prone to allergic diseases, namely - to rhinitis, when they have increased mucus secretion, are especially prone to the development of catarrhal otitis. The danger of acute catarrhal otitis media is that under pressure, the eardrum can burst, resulting in total deafness.
Symptoms of the diseaseThe main symptom, clearly indicating the development of the inflammatory process in the middle ear cavity, is severe ear pain. It can give to the temporal part of the head, jaw, teeth or crown. Painful sensations are greatly enhanced by sneezing, coughing, swallowing. Often in children against the background of inflammation the body temperature rises, there is a noise in the ears, often the parents find secretions.Such an unpleasant sign as ear noise, in the absence of proper treatment can lead to irreversible consequences - first to hearing loss, and then to deafness. Dangerous consequences are caused by the inflammation of the mucous membrane leading to its deformation, after which it is already impossible to restore the lost functions.
When examined by an otolaryngologist in the cavity of the middle ear, a specialist can not help but notice reddening of the tympanic membrane. Touching it, the patient has severe pain. In the case when catarrhal otitis in children appears against the background of another infectious disease, there is an increase in its symptoms:
- increased body temperature;
- deterioration of appetite;
- the appearance of painful sensations when swallowing;
- general malaise of the child.
The next stage of secondary catarrhal otitis in children is the development of a purulent process or the chronic form of this inflammatory disease. Unfortunately, not always the disease manifests itself with pronounced symptoms, often a child can not complain of pain and other unpleasant sensations. This greatly complicates the diagnosis, as a rule, in such situations, the disease is found quite accidentally, when the otitis is already at a late stage of the course.
TreatmentTo cure acute catarrhal otitis in a child is impossible in a few days, usually the therapy is delayed for several weeks. The initial stage of treatment should be the provision of free nasal breathing. To remove mucus from the nasopharynx, you can use a special aspirator or a small syringe with a rubber tip. It is important to avoid hypothermia of the child, if the baby is sick, it is better to put on a hat. For the entire period of treatment should be excluded from washing the head.Antibiotics are usually prescribed in the form of tablets and injections. Also, doctors prescribe nasal vasoconstrictive drops, their instillation will remove puffiness, which will ensure the patency of the auditory tube. Reduce the intensity of manifestations of acute otitis media can be done with the help of thermal procedures. You can also warm your ears with catarrhal bilateral otitis in children using a blue lamp or vodka compresses. These procedures can only be carried out according to the doctor's prescription.
If the catarrhal otitis has already acquired a purulent form, it is necessary to make of turmeric wool, moisten them in alcohol and insert into the ears. The treatment of the ear cavity helps to free it from pus. Sometimes, as an additional procedure, children are assigned:
- thermal physiotherapy;
- mud treatment.
It is much easier to prevent the disease than to treat it later. That is why timely treatment of all colds and infectious respiratory diseases is so important. Pediatricians recommend that as long as possible to feed the baby with breast milk, because so it is produced immunity, which can withstand catarrhal otitis.
Acute catarrhal otitis: causes and symptoms
- Symptoms and risks
What is acute catarrhal otitis? It is an inflammation that affects the middle ear. Because of the affected area, it is also called acute catarrhal otitis media. Very often, this disease occurs against the background of already existing diseases, such as sinusitis, diabetes, SARS, etc.
Diseases of the middle ear can be divided into four main forms, namely:
- acute catarrhal otitis;
- chronic catarrhal otitis;
- acute purulent otitis;
- chronic purulent otitis media.
The main causes of catarrhal otitis:
- Obstacles to the normal functioning of the auditory (eustachian) tube: adenoids, nasopharyngeal cancer, congenital or acquired dysfunction of the eustachian tube (eg, cleft palate, etc.).
- Infections of the upper respiratory tract.
- Damage caused by pressure: travel by plane or diving.
- Bacterial or viral infections of the middle ear.
As a rule, the acute catarrhal process of the middle ear arises in the nasopharynx and Eustachian tube, from where it spreads into the middle ear, which in the normal state is an aseptic cavity. In the process of coughing and sneezing, as well as when blowing out mucus with both nostrils, and not each nostril alternately, there is a difference in pressure. Because of her infection can penetrate into the ear canal.
Symptoms of ailment
- The earliest symptoms of this disorder are a feeling of congestion in one or both ears and pulsating tinnitus, but without pain and hearing changes.
- Most of us experience this "mild" stage of acute catarrhal otitis along with the symptoms of colds and permanent nasal congestion. As soon as the runny nose passes, the symptoms of ear inflammation also disappear if the local treatment for the nares and nasopharynx has been successful.
- With further development of inflammation, there is pain in the ears.
- The hearing is deteriorating.
- The temperature rises, nausea and dizziness may appear.
These symptoms can be more pronounced when swallowing and during coughing and sneezing. When viewed, the tympanic membrane may appear pink or even red.
Is the otitis is contagious? No, acute catarrhal otitis is not contagious. A person with otitis can travel, although it is better to avoid flying on an airplane, since this can cause unpleasant sensations in the patient ear. At the expiration of pus from the ear can also not swim.
Acute catarrhal otitis in the child: symptoms and risk factors
Inflammation of the middle ear in children is accompanied by signs or symptoms of ear infection:
- protrusion of the tympanic membrane, accompanied by pain;
- or perforation of the tympanic membrane, often with drainage of pus.
Acute catarrhal otitis in a child is most common in infants and preschool children.Almost all children will have one or more attacks of acute catarrhal otitis before the age of 6 years.
- The Eustachian tube is shorter in children than in adults. Due to this circumstance it is easier for bacteria and viruses to penetrate into it.
- Children up to 6 weeks of age tend to have ear infections due to the presence of various bacteria in the middle ear.
Bottling is a risk factor for catarrhal otitis in children.
- Breastfeeding instills immunity to the baby, which helps prevent acute otitis media of the middle ear.
- The position of the baby during breastfeeding is better for proper operation of the auditory tube than when feeding from a bottle.
- If the baby is on artificial feeding, keep it while eating, not allowing the baby to lie with the bottle.
- The child should not fall asleep while holding a bottle in his mouth. In addition to increasing the chances of developing acute catarrhal otitis in a child, finding milk in the mouth during sleep increases the chances of caries.
Upper respiratory tract infections are among the main causes of acute otitis media.Children in pre-school children's institutions often become infected with colds, often followed by ear inflammation.
- Tobacco smoke and other irritants increase the likelihood of otitis media.
- Children with wolf mouth or Down syndrome are predisposed to ear diseases.
- Children who have been diagnosed with acute otitis media before 6 months of age subsequently suffer often from ear infections.
Symptoms of catarrhal otitis in a child:
- Small children with otitis can become irritable, fussy, eat or sleep badly.
- Teenagers can complain of pain and a feeling of stuffiness in the ear.
- Fever can occur in toddlers, preschoolers and schoolchildren.
These symptoms are often accompanied by signs of an upper respiratory tract infection, such as a runny nose or cough.
Accumulation of pus in the middle ear causes pain and extinguishes the swings of the eardrum (therefore, during the illness, hearing is often reduced). Severe ear infections can trigger a ruptured eardrum. The hole formed in this case, usually heals due to timely treatment. Therefore, with the first symptoms of otitis, you need to consult a doctor without delay, so as not to lead to unpleasant and traumatic complications.
The acute otitis media is treated most often with antibiotics. Standard course of treatment - from7thup to 10 days.
- Breasts, as well as toddlers, without severe symptoms or with an uncertain diagnosis, can be treated without antibiotics.
- Even after successful treatment, many children in the middle ear have a small amount of fluid. This can lead to temporary hearing loss for up to 3-6 weeks. In most small patients, the fluid eventually disappears on its own.
- If the child has a convex eardrum, and he experiences severe pain, the doctor can recommend mirinotomy (surgical incision of the tympanic membrane) to release pus. The tympanic membrane is restored within 7 days.
Acute otitis media - medium, purulent, catarrhal, acute otitis in children, treatment
Acute otitis media
This disease is a local manifestation of the inflammatory-infectious process, which covers three airborne components of the middle ear, which include: mastoid process, tympanum and auditory tube.
According to statistics, the frequency of acute otitis media reaches 25-30% of the total number of ear diseases, and this indicates its wide prevalence. Most often this disease occurs in children under 5 years old, a good proportion of otitis occurs in the elderly and in adolescents under 14 years. The acute otitis media is caused by pathogenic microorganisms of various species, including microbes, fungal flora and viruses. A trigger mechanism in the development of otitis becomes an acute respiratory-viral infection, influenza.
Acute purulent otitis media
Purulent acute otitis is an acute purulent inflammation located on the mucous membrane of the tympanic cavity, and if it rapidly develops and no treatment occurs, other parts of the middle ear begin to be involved in catarrhal inflammation. This disease is the most common disease of the middle ear, which proceeds in a mild or acute form and causes a severe inflammatory reaction of the whole organism. But with any form of the disease, the otitis leaves after itself an adhesive process, which is accompanied by an almost incurable hearing loss, can go to a chronic form and quite often into a progressive form that leads to deafness, and can also lead to very serious complications. For the most part, acute purulent otitis occurs in children under 3 years of age. Its distinctive feature at the present time is not an acute onset and a lingering course, in childhood there is a tendency to be re-coded.
Acute Otitis in Children
This disease is an inflammation of the middle ear, it is the auditory tube, the tympanum and the air-bearing cell systems in the mastoid process. Acute otitis has become the most common disease in pediatrics, since it accounts for one-fourth of all ear diseases. The most common acute otitis patients are 1-2 years old, and in children up to 3 years old otitis occur up to 90% of cases. Moreover, many children with secondary otitis have been ill repeatedly, for example, 20% of children during the first year of their lives have already transferred otitis media. It should be noted that this disease can be of bacterial origin.
Therefore, the correct orientation in the origin of this middle ear disease is very important. And when prescribing drugs for treatment, you need to know the activity of different antibacterial drugs, relative to the most common pathogens. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the frequent sowing of strains that are resistant to antibiotics. After all, the microflora with the average otitis is very diverse, but the cocci flora prevails in this respect.
Acute catarrhal otitis
Acute catarrhal otitis is an acute inflammation of the middle ear, which is not limited to the drum cavity, but begins involve in the inflammatory process the auditory tube and all the cells of the mastoid process, that is, the whole cavity of the middle ear. The causative agents of this disease are streptococci, staphylococci, pneumococci and other microorganisms. The main reasons for its development are reduced resistance of the body, that is, reduced immunity, cooling of the body, kidney disease, infectious diseases, rickets, beriberi, diabetes mellitus and so on.
In most cases, bacteria enter the middle ear from the nasal cavity through the auditory tube during the appearance acute otitis or during exacerbation of chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane, it is influenza, SARS, and so on. The main factors that contribute to the spread of infection are improper blowing, coughing, sneezing, increased pressure in the nasopharynx from which the infected mucus overcomes the barrier, which becomes the auditory tube. All pathological processes of the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx and nose, these are adenoid glands that cover the mouth of the auditory tubes, begin to support inflammation in the middle ear and this they promote frequent relapses, as well as the transition of the disease to the chronic form, which is most common in children.
Treatment of acute otitis media
The most important thing in the treatment of otitis is the restoration of the patency of the auditory tube, which can be easily achieved by applying sosudosuzhivayuschih drugs in the nose, as well as using standard physiotherapy procedures. And if this does not work, then a simple blowing of the ears through the nose is prescribed. This procedure can be started from 3-4 years, for older children with a unilateral process, a catheterization of the auditory tube is prescribed. When catarrhal acute otitis antibiotics are not used. As for the medical treatment of acute otitis media, antibiotics are usually prescribed, which manifest their activity against pneumococcus, hemophilic rods. In addition, drugs should have the ability to overcome the resistance of pathogens to antibiotics. The concentration of the antibiotic is determined by the doctor, taking into account the stage of inflammation.
Treatment of otitis in adults. Effective treatment of otitis
Otitis is an inflammatory ear disease. In order to understand why the disease occurs and what processes are taking place, consider the anatomical structure of the hearing organ and the process by which it perceives information.
The human ear has a very complex structure, which can be divided into three sections: the outer, middle and inner ear. The outer ear is the auricle, which perceives sound waves, directing them into the external auditory canal. The outer and middle ear are separated by a tympanic membrane, which conditionally represents a hymen or a film.
The middle ear is a cavity, a space in the temporal bone with three hearing bones located in it - a hammer, an anvil and a staple. It should be noted that the middle ear is closely related to the nasopharynx. Functionally, bones strengthen the received sound vibrations and transmit them to the inner ear. The inner ear is a labyrinth of membranes in the stony section of the temporal bone with many bends filled with liquid. The vibrations coming from the middle ear are transferred to a liquid that already affects the receptors. So information is transmitted to the brain in the form of nerve impulses.
The concept, types of otitis. Causes
Otitis is a disease that can develop in any of the three parts of the ear, depending on the place in which the inflammatory process occurs, distinguish:
- Otitis of the external ear.
- Otitis of the middle ear.
- Inflammation of the inner ear (or labyrinthitis).
Causes that contribute to the onset of the disease or aggravate its course, many, but the main ones include:
- diseases of the nasopharynx, leading to swelling and inflammation of the mucous membranes of the middle ear;
- diseases that suppress and weaken the immune system (influenza, measles);
- getting into the ear of cold water;
- trauma and various injuries of the tympanic membrane, which may cause infection in the middle ear cavity;
- genetic predisposition.
By nature, the causative agent causing the disease, otitis is divided into:
Let us consider in more detail the inflammatory processes that occur in each of the three parts of the human ear, the symptoms and possible complications of otitis.
External otitis media. Classification. Symptoms
External otitis is an inflammation of the skin of the auricle along with the external auditory canal, which is caused by a bacterial or fungal infection. There are two types of external otitis media: limited and diffuse.
In most cases, limited inflammation is represented by furunculosis - the formation of boils. Furuncle - acute purulent process of the sebaceous gland or hair follicle, caused by pyogenic bacteria. If there are favorable factors in the human body, including chronic infection, diabetes, local trauma and skin contamination, insect bites, staphylococcal microflora begins to actively provoke the inflammatory process.Sometimes the disease is a complication of a previous flu or may be caused by an allergic reaction to medications. Signs of external otitis are itching; pain that occurs when touching an inflamed ear; redness and swelling of the skin of the external auditory canal, or auricle; sometimes the body temperature may rise. Hearing, as a rule, while not suffering.
Spilled otitis externa is an inflammation of the external ear, which very often can spread to the eardrum.
According to the duration of the disease, the external otitis is classified into acute and chronic. The latter is a consequence of the lack of treatment or incorrect treatment of the acute form of the disease.
Otitis of the outer ear is considered the easiest type of disease in comparison with otitis media of the middle ear and internal otitis and often does not lead to serious complications, although sometimes it can cause an increase in the nodes of the lymphatic system. Inflammation of the mucosa grows into a malignant form (tissue necrosis) in the presence of a person associated with severe functional diseases (diabetes) or the virus of immunodeficiency. But such cases, fortunately, are rare.
Otitis media. Classification and symptoms
Of all forms of otitis, both in children and adults, inflammation of the middle ear is most common. As noted earlier, the nature of the disease can be bacterial and viral. Among the bacteria, the main pathogens are streptococci or a hemophilic rod. To viruses that cause inflammation, you can include rhinovirus, influenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus.
The first signs of inflammation of the middle ear are pulsating, shooting or aching pains in the organ, which are intensified by swallowing, sneezing or coughing. Characteristic for this disease is also noise in the ear, weakness, sleep disorder, lack of appetite, severe deterioration of hearing.
In general, the inflammation of the middle ear is the result of a previous cold or flu, in which the immunity decreases and the number of bacteria in the nasal cavity increases. The nasal cavity is connected with the middle ear by the auditory tube, in which liquid and various microorganisms accumulate, which trigger the onset of the inflammatory process. The tympanic membrane undergoes pressure and expands in volumes to the outside, which causes pain.
The course of the disease can be different in speed of development, as well as in duration, according to what distinguish:
- Acute otitis media (the ear accumulates fluid). This is the reason for the audibility of your own voice in your head.
- Chronic otitis (the ear is filled with pus).
Acute otitis media. Forms
If the inflammatory process is classified according to the nature of the course (clinical picture), then the otitis can be catarrhal or purulent, Thus, the development of the disease undergoes three stages - acute catarrhal otitis, acute purulent otitis and the stage of recovery.
Acute catarrhal otitis is an inflammatory process associated with the localization of fluid in the middle ear cavity. For this form of the disease, in addition to pain and increased body temperature (38-39 ° C), reddening and swelling of the tympanic membrane, ear congestion are characteristic. The patients note that they hear their own voice in the head during the conversation.The appearance of foci of pus and its accumulation in the cavity of the middle ear is acute purulent otitis. Treatment for the first 2-3 days is not carried out, because as usual during this period, the eardrum ruptures and the pus outward. In this case, the patient becomes better, the body temperature returns to normal, the pain stops. In addition to pus, blood and serous discharge can be observed. If the course of the disease passes without complications, then the third stage comes in - a recovery stage.
With the onset of the reconstructive stage, the inflammatory process decreases, the suppression stops and a progressive tightening of the damaged membrane occurs. If the treatment of otitis in adults passes in accordance with the appointments and under the supervision of a specialist, then recovery occurs in 2-3 weeks. By this time, the rumor, as a rule, is fully restored.
Chronic otitis media. Stages of
If untimely or insufficient treatment, acute otitis becomes chronic. Otitis chronic is an inflammatory process, which is characterized by a permanent or recurrent suppuration from the ear. This type of otitis, in addition to already known symptoms, such as: high fever, itching, worsening general condition, there are inherent complications in the form of hearing loss and persistent perforation of the tympanic membrane. Usually the chronic course of the disease is a consequence of previous sinusitis or acute purulent otitis media. In some cases, this form of otitis occurs as a result of rupture (or perforation) of the tympanic membrane or curvature of the nasal septum after the injury. Depending on the localization of the perforation, and also on its size, three stages of chronic otitis are distinguished:
- Tubotympanal otitis (mesotympanitis).
With tubotimponal form of otitis, the violation of the tympanic membrane occurs, as a rule, in the central part, and the pathology is manifested by inflammation of the mucous membranes of the tympanic cavity. Inflammation does not affect bone tissue.
Epimezotimpanit - a stage of chronic otitis, in which there is extensive perforation of the tympanic membrane, the damage affects its upper and middle divisions.
Epitimpanoanthral form of otitis is characterized by rupture of the upper, most pliable and fragile areas of the membrane. This stage of the disease, as well as epimezotimpanit, is dangerous by the occurrence of pathological processes associated with the formation of granulomas, polyps and cholesteatoma - a capsule filled and surrounded by purulent particles of the epidermis, which, constantly expanding, presses on the tympanic membrane, destroys the bone component of the middle ear and opens the "road" to the purulent process in the inner ear.
In addition, there is another form of inflammatory process - bilateral otitis - a disease that simultaneously affects the hearing organ from both sides.
If we consider the existing complications of the disease, the perforation of the tympanic membrane is the most common. With prolonged accumulation of pus there is an increase in pressure in the middle ear, resulting in the membrane becoming thinner. There is a risk of its rupture (perforation). To prevent the transition of the inflammatory process to the stage of internal otitis and to avoid subsequent development of serious pathologies, It is necessary to resort to the puncture of the tympanic membrane surgically, and not to wait for the moment when this happens spontaneously.
Inflammation of the inner ear. Symptoms
Internal otitis has another name - labyrinthitis is a disease that occurs less frequently in comparison with otitis media outer and middle ear, but is the most dangerous in terms of threat to human health and life. Purulent processes that affect bone tissue can cause severe complications, for example, meningitis (inflammatory process in the membranes of the brain) or sepsis (contamination of blood due to ingestion of pus). As a rule, the internal otitis media is the result of complications of previous otitis media, or the consequences of a serious infectious disease. High body temperature, severe headache and vomiting, loss of balance - these are all symptoms of internal otitis, in which it is necessary to seek help from a specialist as soon as possible. In addition, with such forms of the disease, there is a sharp deterioration of the hearing until its complete loss.
In order to make an accurate diagnosis and, consequently, to prescribe the correct treatment regimen for the patient, doctors resort to otorhinolaryngological examination and laboratory tests.
Diagnosis of otitis. Surveys and studies
Laboratory diagnostics is carried out mainly in order to establish the nature of the origin of otitis - bacteriological or virologic. With the serological reaction of blood serum and polymerase chain reaction, antibodies to pathogens are detected. Also, the results of a general blood test will show the presence or absence of an inflammatory process in the body.
The basic instrumental methods of otitis diagnosis:
- Tympanocenosis is the study of fluid obtained by surgical puncture of the membrane. The procedure allows you to determine the antibiotic needed to fight a particular type of infection, but in practice it is not often used.
- Tympanometry - checking the mobility of the tympanic membrane.
- Otoscopy - examination of the tympanic membrane and auditory passage by means of an otoscope.
- Audiometry is the definition of hearing acuity when suspected of reducing it.
- Computer tomography of the brain and skull structure (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - are used in cases of suspected purulent inflammatory processes and intracranial complications, help to diagnose the formation of various pathologies - polyps, cholesteanomas and so on.
Conservative treatment of otitis in adults
To avoid the development of complications and to achieve recovery with minimal waste of time and effort, otitis should be treated in a timely manner, in fact, like any other disease. For each form of the inflammatory process, a special treatment is provided, with its own procedures and medical preparations.
Otitis of the external ear is treated out-patient, with the use of drops, which contain an antibiotic. Sometimes antibiotics can be prescribed together with corticosteroids or antihistamines, if the disease is caused by an allergic reaction. There are also procedures for washing the ear canal with an antiseptic solution. If this therapy does not lead to recovery or is not possible due to severe edema of the ear canal and face cellulite, oral medications are prescribed. At elevated body temperature, antipyretic agents are used, as well as analgesics if pain syndrome is present. In rare cases, with the formation of purulent inflammation of the external ear tissues, surgical intervention can be indicated.
Elimination of inflammation in the middle ear in the normal course of the disease is outpatient. Treatment of otitis in adults is performed with the appointment of antibiotics, antiseptics and bed rest. To reduce the painful syndrome, a warm 96% alcohol is used as a drop (this procedure is contraindicated in suppuration). For topical administration, physiotherapy is prescribed, it is also possible to use a blue lamp. It will be superfluous and warming the compress in otitis (alcohol, vodka or based on camphor oil), which should be kept no more than 3-4 hours. It must also be remembered that you can not put a compress at an elevated body temperature.
If the disease does not go without complications, then the patient will show signs of acute otitis - the purulent otitis will develop. Treatment can be continued with the help of antibiotics or by surgical intervention.
Sometimes it happens that conservative treatment of otitis in adults does not lead to an improvement in the patient's condition. In such situations, a surgical dissection of the tympanostomy is performed. This manipulation allows you to avoid complications, as the puncture is done in a favorable and correct place, pus comes out outside through a specially installed tube, and the pain syndrome is reduced, and recovery is faster. In addition, the biomaterial (festering isolates) is subject to a laboratory bacteriological study for sensitivity to antibiotics. If, after the performed procedures, the acuity of hearing is not restored, purges and pneumatic massage can be prescribed.
There are cases when there is a natural rupture of the tympanic membrane. This is observed mainly with inflammation of the middle ear and requires immediate surgical intervention.
With tubotimponal form of otitis, the task of surgical treatment is restoring the integrity of the tympanoplasty using tympanoplasty using its own cartilage.
Epitimpanoanthral form of otitis is associated with destruction of bone tissue. In such a course of the disease, the goal of surgical intervention is to remove bone pathology and restore the tympanic membrane using prostheses made of inert materials (titanium).
Internal otitis is the result of ineffective treatment of otitis media and is dangerous due to purulent complications with damage to the membranes of the brain. Therefore, in such forms of the disease, hospitalization of the patient with further surgical care is necessary.
It should be remembered that prevention is always better than treatment. Prevention of otitis can be the timely elimination of foci of infection within the body (caries, sinusitis), as well as the elimination of hypothermia. When the first signs of the disease appear, it is important to immediately seek medical help from specialists.