Flattening in children: causes, symptoms, complications and treatment


  • 1Flattening in children: causes, treatment and prevention
    • 1.1How is the baby's foot formed?
    • 1.2Causes of flatfoot
    • 1.3Symptoms of flat feet
    • 1.4What are the consequences of flatfoot?
    • 1.5Treatment
    • 1.6Prevention of flat feet
    • 1.7Resume for parents
    • 1.8To which doctor to apply
  • 2Flattening in children: symptoms, treatment, prevention
    • 2.1Causes of flat feet in children
    • 2.2Symptoms of flat feet
    • 2.3Treatment of flat feet in children
    • 2.4Prophylaxis of flat feet in children
  • 3Flat feet in children
    • 3.1Classification of flat feet in children
    • 3.2Symptoms of flat feet in children
    • 3.3Treatment of flat feet in children
    • 3.4Prognosis and prevention of flat feet in children
  • 4Flattening in children is the best way to diagnose and treat
    • 4.1Flattening in children - reasons
    • 4.2Types of flat feet in children
    • 4.3Transverse flat feet in children
    • 4.4Longitudinal flat feet in children
    • 4.5Valgus platypodia in children
    • 4.6Degrees of flat feet in children
    • 4.7What is dangerous flatfoot?
    • 4.8How to determine the flat feet of a child?
    • 4.9How to treat flat feet in children?
    • 4.10Exercises for flat feet in children
    • 4.11Massage with flat feet in children
    • 4.12Orthopedic mat-puzzle for children from flat feet
    • 4.13Orthopedic insoles for children with flat feet
    • 4.14Methods of preventing flat feet in children

Flattening in children: causes, treatment and prevention

Flattening - one of the most common diseases of the osteo-ligament apparatus in children. This is the deformation of the foot, at which its arch is flattened, and the flat sole touches the floor with its entire surface.

Many parents perceive this disease only as a cosmetic defect or as a guarantee of unfitness for service in the army for sons.

But this disease requires more close attention and timely treatment of children.

Despite local changes in the osseous support apparatus, flat feet are fraught with the appearance of subsequent diseases of the shins, knee joints, spine and even internal organs.

How is the baby's foot formed?

Young children have physiological flat feet.

Normally, in all children up to 2 years, the arch of the foot is absent, ie, physiological flat feet are noted.

This is due to the fact that the bone tissue in babies is not sufficiently formed, contains insufficient mineral substances. Weakly developed ligaments and muscles.

On the plantar surface of the foot in place of the arch, the child at this age has a fat pad. It is the function of the shock absorber (instead of the arch of the foot), when the child begins to walk.

After the baby reaches 2-3 years of age, the bones, muscles and ligaments become more durable, and from that age until about 6 years the process of forming the correct form of the foot continues. Therefore, only by the age of six can you determine whether there is a flatfoot in the child.

But during the period when the baby's foot is formed, it is necessary to consult an orthopedist who can control the process annually.

Approximately in 3% of children with flat feet it is a congenital malformation, which is immediately apparent at birth.

And in other cases, flat feet acquired, it is formed in the development of the child.

The arch of the foot is formed from bones and ligaments. It allows you to distribute the body weight on the support evenly and provides shock absorption during running and walking.

With a normally formed foot there are only 3 points of contact between the foot and the floor: the heel, the "cushion" at the base of the thumb and the outer edge of the foot (part of the foot from the little finger to the heel).

Everyone knows that on the plantar surface of the foot there are biologically active points ("representations" of various organs and systems). Constant irritation of these points with flat feet can cause various pathological conditions from the muscles, joints, internal organs.

Causes of flatfoot

The only reason for the development of flat feet can not be called. There is a sufficiently large number of factors contributing to the development of this pathology.

Factors contributing to the development of flatfoot:

  • hereditary factor: predisposition of the child to this pathology, if the family has cases of flat feet in close relatives;
  • increased stress on the legs (increased body weight, barbell work in adolescents, etc.);
  • congenital weakness of the musculoskeletal system of the foot;
  • paralysis of the muscular-ligamentous apparatus of the foot (due to cerebral palsy or poliomyelitis);
  • rickets;
  • trauma to the foot.

Scientists have established that in children living in the city, flat feet develops 3 times more often than in rural children who have the opportunity and habit of walking barefoot.

Therefore, for the correct formation of the foot, it is recommended, at least occasionally, to allow the child to walk barefoot on grass, sand, small gravel (pebbles). At home it is possible to train a developing foot by walking a toddler in socks over strewn peas.

For proper formation of the foot, the load on it is important: with a small motor activity of the child, the probability of flatfoot development is higher.

This is especially important now, when children from a small age "get attached" to a computer, a TV set and spend very little time on the street.

As a result, not only a flat foot is formed, but also a violation of posture.

Equally important for the prevention of flat feet is the child's shoes: she should have a small heel (, cm), soft instep and hard back.

The child should not wear the shoes of other children, since in mixed footwear the load on the foot is not correctly distributed.

"Wrong" is not only a very flat (completely without heels) shoes, but too narrow or too wide shoes.

To prevent flat feet, it is important that the child's nutrition is adequate, with enough calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D.

Even if the baby has correctly formed a foot, the child is not guaranteed the lack of flat feet in the future. In some cases, the disease is not detected at preschool age and continues to progress; reveal it in adolescence and even later.

Symptoms of flat feet

There are the following types of flatfoot:

By the time of the onset of foot pathology:

  1. congenital flat feet due to genetic disorders or connective tissue dysplasia;
  2. acquired flat feet as a consequence of diseases or pathology of the musculoskeletal system of the foot.

Due to the occurrence of:

  • traumatic;
  • paralytic (in children with cerebral palsy);
  • Rachitic (due to a violation of vitamin and mineral metabolism);
  • Static (as a result of muscle weakness of the foot, regardless of its cause).

In the direction of spreading:

  1. transverse (an increase in the lateral size of the foot, the most frequent variant in the early age of the child);
  2. longitudinal (the longitudinal size of the foot increases);
  3. longitudinal-transverse (with an increase in both longitudinal and transverse dimensions of the foot, in children is extremely rare).

Parents may suspect the development of flat feet in the child by such signs:

  • when walking, the child "slips the feet wrap inwards, while the feet should be located in the child while walking in parallel;
  • the child comes when walking on the inner edges of the feet;
  • complaints of the child for fatigue while walking, back and leg pain, refusal to walk for a long time; the severity of complaints increases with the child's age;
  • uneven stomping of the heels of shoes (more on the inside) in children after 5 years.

If any of these manifestations are found in the child, an orthopedic consultation should be obtained.

A more obvious test is a flat foot: the sole surface of the child's feet is smeared with paint or oil and put on a piece of paper (the legs should be straight and closed).

Then raise the child and look at the printed pattern. If it has the shape of a string bean - the arch of the foot is correct, if the entire foot is widely printed, you should consult an orthopedist.

This test is applicable only to children older than 5-6 years, when the foot is already formed.

When a child reaches the age of 5, a mandatory examination of the orthopedist is necessary, even if there are no complaints.

What are the consequences of flatfoot?

Many parents mistakenly think that flat feet do not pose a serious threat to the health of the child, and do not even consider him a disease.

Such parents do not take seriously the complaints of the baby for fatigue and pain in the legs or back, consider them just whims, do not consider it necessary to show the child to the orthopedist.

Such an attitude is unacceptable, since it can lead to untimely treatment and development of a number of complications and the consequences of flatfoot.

The foot performs the function of "spring" when walking or running. With flatfoot, there is practically no depreciation due to the foot.

Therefore, when walking or running, "giving or shaking, falls on the lower leg, the hip joint and the spine, which contributes to the development of arthrosis (dystrophic joint damage due to destruction of the intraarticular cartilage).

"Harmless" flatfoot can lead not only to deformation of the foot bones, limp and clubfoot of the child, increased fatigue at walking, but also cause a vertebral hernia, obstinate radiculitis, arthritis (inflammation of the joints) and osteochondrosis in future.

To delay with the reference to the doctor and treatment it is impossible, because timely treatment provides an opportunity to prevent further progression of the disease and the development of complications. In itself, the flat feet will not pass.


Regular sessions of physiotherapy will help to cope with the problem.

Orthopedic treatment helps to strengthen the muscles of the foot, improve its blood supply, soft impact on the ligaments and joints to correct the existing deformation of the foot and ankle the joint.

It is easier to achieve success precisely in childhood, when the full ossification of the skeleton has not yet come. Treatment should be carried out even with a minimum degree of flatfoot. The later treatment begins, the more difficult it is to correct the existing disorders.

Treatment of flat feet in children is carried out by different methods:

  • therapeutic physical training: a set of special exercises, individually tailored to each child, depending on the degree of change;
  • physiotherapy methods: in the polyclinic - iontophoresis, electrophoresis; houses - baths with sea salt, herbal decoctions;
  • massotherapy;
  • manual therapy;
  • reflexology;
  • wearing special shoes: selected strictly in size, made of natural material, with a small heel and a hard back; individually Stitches-arch supports are also selected; Shoes and insoles not only help to correct the formation of the foot, but also reduce discomfort during walking;
  • If necessary, treatment in a sanatorium is recommended.
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During treatment, the orthopedist will determine the frequency of visits to the doctor to monitor the treatment and correct it (if necessary).

Prevention of flat feet

Diagnosis of flat feet in a child can be no earlier than 5-6 years, but prevention should be done from the very birth of the child.

  1. To timely notice problems with the foot, you must regularly visit an orthopedic doctor. It should be visited at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months, so as not to miss the appearance of signs of rickets, contributing to the development of flat feet. After a year, the baby should be shown to the orthopedist at least once a year.
  2. From birth, the baby needs to have a foot massage every day.
  3. Use the walking of the child on uneven surfaces barefoot (on grass, sand, pebbles or a special massage mat).
  4. Daily do a special set of exercises (see. below).
  5. Provide the child with properly selected footwear (in size, from natural material, with a hard back, flexible sole and a small heel). The main criterion for choosing shoes should be not its beauty, but compliance with the above requirements. For the child, the shoes should be as comfortable and comfortable as possible: to keep the fingers free and the heel securely fixed.
  6. Do not wear worn, heavily worn shoes.
  7. For the purpose of tempering and improving blood circulation, pour your feet with cool water.
  8. Correctly to dose physical exercises, walking, mobile games, for the harm to the child will cause both insufficient and excessive loads.

A complex of special gymnastics for strengthening the ligaments and muscles of the foot and preventing flat feet includes such exercises:

in the sitting position on the stool:

  • - Extension and flexion of toes;
  • - alternately lifting from the floor of socks and heels;
  • - Circular motion of each foot;
  • - Drawing of socks from themselves and to themselves;
  • - maximum dilution to the sides of the heels without tearing the socks off the floor;
  • - To rise on socks;
  • - stand on the ribs of the outside of the feet;
  • - sit-ups without taking off the heels off the floor;
  • - alternate walking on socks, on the heels, on the outer ribs of the feet.

All exercises should be clearly shown to the child, and each child should repeat it several times. Perform exercises should be daily. The more often a child will engage in them, the less will be the risk of flat feet.

Children's shoes and flat feet - Dr. Komarovsky's school

Resume for parents

Parents should not be mistaken about the low importance of flat feet in a child. The sad consequences of such an attitude towards the disease will not be long in coming and can complicate the child's entire further life: they will limit the choice of profession, cause suffering and pain.

Only adequate and timely therapy can help restore the child's health. The main thing is not to be late with treatment with the development of flat feet!

To which doctor to apply

To diagnose a flatfoot in a child, it is necessary to consult a pediatric orthopedist.

Usually in the early stages of the disease surgical treatment is not required, so parents will be helped in the treatment of a baby physician-physiotherapist, masseur, manual therapist.

In older children, with the formation of scoliosis and neurological disorders, the neurologist takes part in the treatment.

A source: https://myfamilydoctor.ru/ploskostopie-u-detej-prichiny-vozniknoveniya-lechenie-i-profilaktika/

Flattening in children: symptoms, treatment, prevention

Under flat feet, children are deformed in the foot, accompanied by a flattening of its longitudinal arch, resulting in a flat sole.

This is one of the most common diseases of the musculoskeletal system.

Children's flatfoot is diagnosed only at the age of five to six years, since the bone apparatus in the child is not yet sufficiently strong, and therefore the foot represents a cartilaginous connection with very weak muscles and ligaments easily exposed stretching.

Complications of the diagnosis and the fact that the soles of the young child visually look flat, because the arches of the foot are smoothed with a fat pad, complicates the bone base. The normal form of the foot acquires only five to six years of age, and then in the event that the development of the foot goes without deviations. If there are any abnormalities in the development of children, a pathology appears, called flatfoot.

Causes of flat feet in children

Flattening in children can develop for many reasons, the most common of which are:

  • hereditary predisposition to flatfoot, and in this case, if someone had a flat foot in their relatives, the orthopedic child should be examined regularly.
  • Rachitis can be the cause of flatfoot development.
  • such pathologies as excessively flexible joints can become the causes of flatfoot development.
  • flat feet can begin to develop after the trauma.
  • with regular lifting of weights or with a serious excess of weight, when the legs and feet are in particular an excessive load, flat feet can develop.
  • flat feet can result from too narrow or wide shoes, incorrectly selected, as well as the constant wearing of shoes without a heel or without a instep.
  • flat feet can arise as a result of paralysis of the muscles of the foot and lower leg, which is the result of infantile cerebral palsy or polio.

Symptoms of flat feet

The main symptoms of flat feet in children are the following symptoms:

  1. feet are quickly tired
  2. by the end of the day, in contrast to the morning time, my legs are swelling in the feet
  3. When standing or walking in feet or legs, aching pains occur
  4. if we consider shoes, then we can note that the inner side of the sole wears out more quickly.
  5. if you observe the gait of a child, you can see that he widely places his feet when walking, while bending them slightly at the knees, and he turns the feet inside.
  6. the feet themselves take on an irregular shape, becoming wider.
  7. Nails grow into the skin on the fingers, and the toes themselves are bent
  8. Corns appear on the feet and fingers.

For the diagnosis of flat feet in children, a test is used: take a piece of paper, vegetable oil, and then put the child on a fox so that the body weight is distributed evenly to the entire foot. Consider the footprint, and if it is different from the norm, then we can talk about the beginning of flat feet.

Treatment of flat feet in children

Flattening in children must be treated, since the consequences of untreated flat feet can be most unfavorable.

Platypodia in neglected form can provoke not only the appearance of chronic pain in the legs and back, but even disabilities in the development of the skeleton, which in children is especially dangerous.

In addition, with flatfoot, the spring functions of the feet are violated, as a result of which depreciation practically disappears, and this means that the whole shake is transmitted to the shin, as well as to the hip joint, which results in arthrosis.

Treatment of flat feet in children should not be recommended, but mandatory.

Treatment most often involves both physiotherapeutic procedures, and special massages, a complex of physiotherapy exercises and manual therapy.

In some cases, medicines may also be prescribed, but doctors do not resort to it without extreme necessity.

Prophylaxis of flat feet in children

Flattening is very important to recognize at an early stage, as well as take all preventive measures to prevent its development.

One of such preventive measures is charging, which will help to strengthen the muscles, adding to them the everyday load in the form of gymnastic exercises.

The complex of such exercises includes warm-up, walking with a gradual acceleration, exercises for bending of the toes and rotation of the feet. As a preventive measure, allow the child to walk more barefoot during the summer, especially along the grass and along the sand, along the pebbles.

Write your child in a sports section that is suitable for him by age, however, it is important to remember that running or rhythmic to a child with a flat foot is not worth doing, as this can lead to injuries skeleton.

The best sport for preventing flat feet is swimming. There is also a special preventive massage, which is designed to stimulate blood circulation, and also to tone the muscles.

Before the child takes a bath in the evenings, his legs should be rubbed and kneaded, massaging and the very foot.

There is also a special massager in the form of wooden balls, which helps to knead legs. It is important to understand that special physiotherapy with flat feet can only be done by a specialist doctor.

In addition, special therapeutic baths are very popular as a prophylactic for flat feet in children. They are made with the addition of large sea salt.

It is also very important to wear the right footwear, which does not deform the foot, but maintains it in the correct physiological form.

It is very important to buy good orthopedic footwear for children, which protects the baby's leg from blows, at the same time it allows the leg to develop freely.

A source: http://lechenie-simptomy.ru/ploskostopie-u-detej

Flat feet in children

Flat feet in children- a change in the configuration of the skeleton of the foot, associated with the flattening of its arches and leading to a violation of the mechanics of walking.

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Flattening in children is manifested by fatigue, pain in the legs during movement and static load, edema and deformity of the foot, change in gait, difficulty walking.

The diagnosis of flat feet in children is established on the basis of clinical examination, data of planktonography, podometry and radiography of the feet.

For the treatment of flat feet in children conservative methods are used (massage, therapeutic gymnastics, physiotherapy, the imposition of plaster casts and orthoses); operative intervention is carried out in the extreme cases.

Flat feet in children - the most common orthopedic pathology in pediatrics, manifested by a decrease in the height of the arches of the foot.

Flattening can be detected in the child from birth (in 3% of cases); to 2-4 years it is observed in 24-32% of children, by 7 years - in 40%, by 12 years - in 50% of adolescents.

The active formation of the arches of the foot in children occurs gradually, with the appearance and increase in the load on the legs.

The critical moment in the development of flat feet is the age period from 8 months to, years, when the child begins to get up and learn to walk.

At an early age, all children have a physiological flat foot caused by age anatomical and functional features: a cartilaginous structure of bones, more elastic and extensible ligaments, weak muscles.

With the right development with increasing strength and endurance of muscles, this condition in children independently normalizes to 5-6 years.

With certain violations, children develop flat feet, leading to a sharp decrease in the damping potential of the foot, an increase in the load on other elements of the musculoskeletal system with knee and hip joint injuries, spinal deformity, disruption of internal bodies.

Classification of flat feet in children

The foot has a longitudinal and transverse vaults supporting the muscles and ligaments that ensure the balance of the body, distribution and mitigation of shock load during walking, running and jumping, as well as increasing endurance to the axial load. According to the anatomical sign in orthopedics, longitudinal, transverse and combined flat feet are distinguished. Children often encounter longitudinal flat feet with a flattening of the longitudinal arch and an elongation of the foot that touches the floor with the entire surface of the sole. With transverse flat feet in children, the length of the foot decreases, its front section rests on the heads of all metatarsal bones.

Flattening in children can be congenital and acquired. The congenital form is rare enough and is associated with malformations of the bone structures and the musculoskeletal apparatus of the foot.

Acquired platypodia in children depending on their origin can be static, traumatic, rachitic, paralytic.

The most common static flatfoot is more common in school-age children when there is a discrepancy between static and dynamic load on the foot and muscle tone.

Flattening in children can develop for various reasons. Congenital flat feet in children is observed in utero underdevelopment of the bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons of the shins and feet.

Acquired flat feet in children also develops against a background of congenital insufficiency connective tissue and can be combined with an additional chord in the heart, the bend of the gallbladder, shortsightedness, etc.

In the formation of flat feet in children, the hereditary factor is of great importance - the presence of this pathology in close relatives.

Flattening in children can be caused by the weakness of the musculoskeletal apparatus of the foot, which does not withstand heavy loads; defeat of the musculoskeletal system in rickets; wrong fused fractures of the ankles, metatarsals, heel and talus bones; paralysis or paresis of the muscles of the lower leg and foot (including after poliomyelitis); neurological pathology (encephalopathy).

The occurrence of static flat feet in children is promoted by wearing incorrectly picked up shoes (cramped, frayed, on a thick sole), overweight and obesity, prolonged continuous walking or standing. Often flat feet develop in children with flat-foot deformities of the feet.

Symptoms of flat feet in children

In most cases of congenital flatfoot, one foot is affected in children, which looks like a rocking chair or a "paperweight" with a convex sole and a flattened, even concave, back side. There is heel instigation of the foot, a sharp pronation with the removal of the fingers outwards. With the advent of static load, congenital flat feet are aggravated and fixed.

In children 6-7 years of age, flat feet are manifested by rapid fatigue when walking and standing, by trampling the shoe along the inner edge of the sole and heel.

Clinical symptoms of acquired flat feet in children are aching pains in the foot area, which increase after a long stay on the legs; puffiness of the feet in the evening, fatigue when walking.

There are three degrees of longitudinal flat feet in children, determined by the degree of deformation of the foot. At I degree, the height of the arch of the foot is 25-35 mm, there is no visible deformation of the foot.

At II degree - the height of the arch is from 25 to 17 mm, flattening of the foot is visible to the naked eye; flatfoot children is manifested by an increase in pain in the foot, ankle and calf muscles, difficulty walk.

The shape of the foot changes - its length increases, the middle part widens, the gait becomes heavy and clumsy; children have a rapid overall fatigue.

Flattening of the III degree is characterized by a pronounced deformation of the foot, a decrease in the height of the arch less than 17 mm, constant pain in the legs and lower back, headaches, inability to walk in the usual shoes.

Flat-footedness causes the bending of the toes of the foot, the appearance of calluses, the formation of the child's posture (scoliosis) and diseases of the spine (osteochondrosis, hernia of intervertebral discs), development of deforming arthrosis, meniscal inflammation, etc.

To establish flat feet in children up to 5-6 years of age is quite problematic.

The diagnosis of severe flat feet in children can be diagnosed by a pediatric orthopedic surgeon during a clinical examination, allowing to detect changes in length, width and volume of foot movements, disturbance of the state of its arches, wear characteristics shoes.

Objective methods of assessing flat feet in older children are planography - obtaining a footprint of a footprint on paper and a subgrade - measuring the "sub-metric index" of the arch of the foot. Clarify the diagnosis of flat feet in children I help the results of radiography of the feet with the load performed in 2 projections.

Treatment of flat feet in children

Flattening in children is a progressive disease, and the earlier treatment is begun, the more effective the results.

The treatment of congenital flat feet begins with the first weeks of the child's life, which allows eliminating all the components of the foot deformity.

With congenital flat feet, children undergo special therapeutic exercises, massage the muscles of the foot and lower leg; carried out holding the foot in the correct position with the help of bandaging, the imposition of stage plaster casts, night orthoses (from 6 months age). With aggravation of flat feet in children, a subartar arthroesis is performed.

Treatment of static flat feet in children, aimed at strengthening the muscular-ligamentous apparatus of the foot, includes massage, physiotherapy and exercise therapy.

Young children are excluded from soft shoes (felt boots, rubber boots, Czechs); It is recommended to wear shoes with a firm sole and a small heel, which fix the ankles well.

When flat feet in older children shows wearing orthopedic shoes with a foot-instep, raising the lowered arch and returning the foot to the correct position.

Hydropathy, contrasting foot baths, paraffin, ozocerite and mud applications on the foot area, magnetotherapy contribute to the elimination of flat feet in children.

In the absence of the correction effect, gypsum dressings and longi are used; in severe cases of combined flatfoot surgery is possible on the bones and soft tissues of the foot and lower leg.

The optimal age for surgical treatment of flat feet in children is 8-12 years.

Prognosis and prevention of flat feet in children

Weak and moderately pronounced flatness in children with timely correction is completely curable; The neglected cases are difficult to correct. In the absence of treatment, flat feet in children leads to severe deformation of the foot, joints and spine.

The prevention of flat feet in children is the wearing of properly selected shoes; physical education, game sports (basketball, football) and swimming; walking barefoot on uneven ground, sand, pebbles; normalization of calcium-phosphorus metabolism; control body weight.

A source: http://www.krasotaimedicina.ru/diseases/children/flat-feet

Flattening in children is the best way to diagnose and treat

Flattening in children is considered a common pathology and is diagnosed more and more, which can partly be explained by the worldwide trend towards a sedentary, "computer-television" lifestyle. With what other factors are linked this disease, how dangerous and how it is treated, we will consider further.

Flattening in children - reasons

Thanks to the correctly formed arches of the feet, their basic functions are carried out in terms of load sharing, impact mitigation, equilibrium, etc.

Flattening in the child is characterized by a flattening of the arches, in which the foot is devoid of hollows from the inside and almost completely adheres to the floor surface.

The front part gradually widens, and the heel is turned backward.

Congenital platypodia is rare, and it is associated with various intrauterine anomalies of fetal development, exposure to ionizing radiation, harmful habits of a pregnant woman.

In this case, the disease is often detected immediately after birth and is combined with other vices.

Often, this disease is acquired, formed as the development of the baby due to the following reasons:

  • increased body weight;
  • insufficient and monotonous motor activity;
  • frequent walking barefoot on an even hard surface;
  • unsuitable footwear (bought for growth, inherited, having a flat sole, too soft or hard);
  • paralysis of the musculoskeletal apparatus of the foot (due to infantile cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis);
  • leg injuries;
  • suffered rickets;
  • heredity, etc.
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It is worth knowing that flat feet in children up to 6-8 years old - in most cases a physiological phenomenon.

When a child is born, his feet are flat, without obvious arches, which is explained by the cartilaginous structure of the bone tissues, muscle weakness, predominance of fatty tissue on the plantar surface, shock absorber.

The abundance of soft tissues in the feet is present until about three years of age, and then gradually decreases. At the same time the ligamentous apparatus develops, due to which the height of the arch is raised.

Thus, undergoing natural physiological changes, the foot vaults, as well as the shape of the legs and posture, "mature" to a maximum of ten years of age. If the development of the child is normal, correct vaults are formed.

Further, in adolescence, when there is increased growth and large-scale endocrine changes in the body, the skeletal-muscular system of children again becomes vulnerable, subject to deformities, the risk of development increases flatfoot.

Types of flat feet in children

The foot has two main arches - a transverse (between the bases of phalanges) and longitudinal (along the inner edge).

With this in mind, flat feet, whose species are determined depending on the affected arch, is divided into transverse and longitudinal. The combined form of the disease is less common.

In addition, there is a diagnosis of "valgus flatfoot when there is a deviation of the limb axis.

Transverse flat feet in children

With this type of pathology, the transverse arch falls, the anterior section resting on the heads of all metatarsal bones.

This flat feet develops with the genetic predisposition of the baby in combination with the action of external unfavorable factors.

Gradually, due to the fan-shaped divergence of the bones, the length of the sole decreases, its width increases, the thumb deviates from the outside, the middle finger undergoes deformations.

Longitudinal flat feet in children

If a "flatfoot longitudinal type" is diagnosed, the child experiences a flattening of the longitudinal arch of the foot.

As a result, the length of the foot increases, the entire surface touching the floor, gradually develops clubfoot.

A characteristic feature is the increased wear of the sole of the shoe along the inner edge. Ankle joint with this pathology is inactive.

Valgus platypodia in children

Quite often longitudinal flatfoot, the deformation of the foot at which it leads to the lowering of its middle part, causes valgus curvature.

In this case, there is a turn of the fingers and calcaneus outward and the curvature of the axis in the ankle (displacement inside).

The reason is sometimes the early setting of the baby on the legs, injuries, the wrong choice of shoes.

Degrees of flat feet in children

To diagnose the disease apply the data of the footprint. Depending on the intensity of deformation, several stages of the disease are distinguished:

  1. flat foot 1 degree- the height of the arch is close to normal, the symptoms are poorly expressed, but weakened ligaments and light pains in the evening;
  2. flatfoot 2 degrees- there is a "flattening" of the foot, visually visible, the child often aching legs (including in the ankle, knee), there is swelling of the feet, changing gait;
  3. flatfoot 3 degrees- is characterized by a strong deformation of the feet, fingers, the child is difficult and painful to walk, there is pain along the entire length of the lower extremities and in the spinal column, a strong puffiness.

What is dangerous flatfoot?

It is a mistake to think that the pathology under consideration does not pose a serious threat to the child's organism, being, rather, a cosmetic defect.

Even if this is a starting platypodia, its consequences in the future can be very unfavorable for different systems of the body.

The most common complications are:

  • development of dystrophic joint damage;
  • scoliosis;
  • hernia;
  • osteochondrosis;
  • heel spur;
  • varicosity;
  • the Morton neuroma.

These pathologies develop with flat feet in children due to increased load on the joints of the legs and spine in conditions of poor cushioning ability of the feet.

Such consequences are remote, but before that from constant pains in the legs and back, increased fatigue affects the quality of life of the baby, deteriorating his academic performance.

How to determine the flat feet of a child?

Parents should know how to identify flat feet in a child, so as not to miss precious time and get treatment in time. The following manifestations should be cautious:

  1. quick wear of the inside of the sole of the shoe and heels, deformation of the boot tops inside;
  2. frequent complaints of the baby for fatigue while walking, pain in the legs;
  3. presence of calluses, abrasions on the plantar part;
  4. unfolding the feet inside while walking;
  5. swelling of the feet.

As a home test, you can apply a method with the imprinting of traces. To do this, you need to take a clean sheet of paper and, having smeared the plantar parts of the baby's feet with a fat cream, vegetable oil or watercolors, put it on this sheet.

And the legs should be brought together, the feet placed on one line parallel to each other, the back is even. On the prints in the area between the heel and the plus, the width of the isthmus is normally a maximum of one-third of the total width. Otherwise, there is a probability of pathology.

The final diagnosis is made by an orthopedist or a forgery.

How to treat flat feet in children?

When flat feet are found in children, treatment is prescribed at any age, it is complex and depends on the extent of the lesion.

For this, first of all, diagnostics is carried out through planotography, sub-metering, radiography of the foot.

Methods of treating flat feet in children are aimed at strengthening the muscular structures of the legs, improving blood circulation, correction of deformities of the foot and ankle by a soft physical effect on the ligaments and joints.

Exercises for flat feet in children

Depending on the extent of the changes, the child is recommended a set of leg exercises, which can be carried out at home.

Flat feet in children require regularity in treatment - only in this case, you can count on a positive result. Therefore, classes should be conducted daily, once or twice a day.

In the complex of exercise therapy with flat feet in children, exercises are often included.

In a sitting position on a chair:

  • flexion-extension of the toes;
  • circular movements of feet clockwise and counterclockwise;
  • stretching of socks from themselves and in the opposite direction;
  • alternately lifting the socks and heels from the floor surface;
  • gripping and moving small fingers (small balls, blocks, pencils) with your toes;
  • grip and lift between the feet of a small ball;
  • rolling the feet back and forth with a gymnastic stick, a ball with thorns;

In the standing position:

  1. raising and lowering on toes;
  2. squatting without taking off the heels off the floor;
  3. walking on socks, heels, ribs of the outer and inner parts of the sole;
  4. walking sideways to the left and to the right on a gymnastic stick.

Do it barefoot, repeating everything 10-12 times.

For preschool kids, all physical exercises can be performed in a playful form, clearly demonstrating the correctness of the exercises.

In addition, children with this diagnosis is useful to walk sideways on a log, climb a rope, engage in gymnastics, ride a bicycle, swim.

Massage with flat feet in children

If the child has a flatfoot, what to do to correct the situation, the doctor will tell.

In most cases, the prescribed therapeutic measures include professional foot massage, aimed at increasing muscle tone, improving metabolic processes.

Flat feet in children by means of massage is treated with periodic courses of 10 to 15 sessions performed by a professional. Applying kneading, stroking and rubbing, the foot is massaged from the heel to the toes, the drumstick is on the back side.

Orthopedic mat-puzzle for children from flat feet

At home, an excellent therapeutic and prophylactic method for flat feet is walking on a special A rug whose surface imitates pebble and gravel reliefs of various sizes and grasses, is covered with small massaging spines.

A flat mat for children made of foamed polymer is produced and is a a set of several square details that are connected in the form of a path, snake or in shape rectangle.

Orthopedic mat is quite capable of replacing the carpet in the children's room, which will ensure regular foot massage.

Similar accessories can be made and independently from a cut off of a carpet on which are attached:

  • flat pebbles;
  • chestnuts;
  • old pencils;
  • plastic caps;
  • buttons and the like.

Orthopedic insoles for children with flat feet

Undisturbed flat feet in children, treatment at home which is carried out taking into account all the recommendations of a doctor, is effectively corrected.

One of the purposes is often the wearing of special insoles designed to correctly distribute the load on the feet while walking, correct deformities and stop their progression.

These products, selected or manufactured individually, are recommended to be worn both on the street and at home.

Methods of preventing flat feet in children

Parents who are sensitive to the health of their child, can prevent the development of this ailment at an early stage. Prevention of flat feet in children is based on the observance of several simple recommendations:

  1. The child should walk regularly and run barefoot on an uneven surface (pebbles, grass, sand, massage mat).
  2. Shoes must be properly selected (new, appropriate measurements of the foot, well fixing the foot, with a folding sole and a small heel).
  3. Physical exertion should be regular and dosed (neither too little activity nor excessive sport is welcomed).

A source: http://WomanAdvice.ru/ploskostopie-u-detey-luchshie-sposoby-diagnostiki-i-lecheniya