- What is this disease and by whom is it caused?
- What are the symptoms of the diagnosis?
- Preparation and rules for collecting the analysis
- What you need to know about the analysis
- When it is necessary to collect feces for hymenolepiasis
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Helminths are not so rare in people of different ages, so there is no way to 100% protect yourself from parasites. You can get infected through dirty food, water, hands, toys, even while swimming in the pool.
That is why before going to water procedures, every person is obliged to hand over feces to helminthiases. But how to take the analysis for hymenolepiasis and enterobiosis? And how can you try to protect yourself from parasites, knowing the path of infection.
What is this disease and by whom is it caused?
Hymenolepiasis is a parasitic disease caused by a dwarf or rat chain (in rare cases). This helminth settles in the small intestine of its host, causing an unpleasant disease. Dwarf tseleen is a tapeworm, whose length does not exceed 5 cm, and the width is 0.7 mm.
The mechanism of disease transmission is fecal-oral. Eggs of the parasite enter the human body during ingestion of eggs with water, food, as well as in contact with dirty hands and objects of common use. Once in the small intestine, the larva emerges from the egg and penetrates into the villi of the mucous membrane.
After almost 3 weeks, the larva grows to a mature worm, which causes a number of unpleasant symptoms: inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, reproduction of opportunistic microflora, an upset of enzymatic activity.
The head has the shape of a ball, there is a neck and a ribbon-shaped body, part of which is filled with eggs and can be separated from the main worm
What are the symptoms of the diagnosis?
The clinical picture of hymenolepiasis is able to confuse even an experienced specialist, as it is similar to many diseases of the Gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). In almost 30% of patients, the disease may not manifest at all.
The main complaints of patients are:
- on drawing pains in the abdomen;
- nausea and vomiting;
- headache, malaise, fatigue;
- Diarrhea with a lot of mucus or blood streaks;
- decreased body weight;
- apathetic condition, nervousness, increased irritability.
If the patient has been infected quite a long time ago, he may have more serious symptoms of the disease, manifested in the form of seizures, frequent calls for vomiting, dizziness and loss of consciousness, memory impairment, insomnia, spastic abdominal pain and impaired all functions of the digestive organs.
Preparation and rules for collecting the analysis
To identify a dwarf chain, it is necessary to examine the stool of the putative patient for the presence of the eggs of the worm or its segments in it. The most effective are the coprological methods of Kato, Kalantaryan and Füleleborn. The reliability of the results is 92%.
Kato's method is based on the study of a thick stool smear, enlightened with glycerin and tinted with malachite green.
The method of Kalantaryan and Fulleborne is based on the principle of floating eggs of parasites on the surface of a saturated salt (flotation) solution, which has a greater density than eggs of helminths.
In addition to analyzing the feces, you can explore the blood. In detecting hymenolepiasis, there will be an increase in ESR, leukocytes and eosinophils, the content of bilirubin and aminotransferases will also be higher than normal. Some people ask doctors how and where to take the biomaterial for analysis.
There are general rules for collecting feces for conduction on hymenolipidosis:
- the feces are collected no later than 8 hours after the last meal;
- Any drinks, except for ordinary water, on the eve of the surrender of stool are prohibited;
- It is not recommended to take alcohol and change the usual diet for 2-3 days before the test;
- It is necessary to exclude strong physical activity and stress;
- be sure to follow all the rules of personal hygiene before and after taking feces for research.
To determine helminth eggs in stool, several methods are used
In the event that the doctor allows you to take the analysis at home, it will be necessary to adhere to certain mandatory rules:
- The analytical container must be clean. In such cases, a special tube with a cotton swab is used, which is located inside the container. To properly take a smear, you need to get a stick from the tube, rub her skin near the anus and the anus itself and put it back in the container, tightly closing.
- A clean slide and scotch are used. A small piece of adhesive transparent tape is applied to the skin of the anus for several seconds and is glued onto the slide.
What you need to know about the analysis
That the expert could correctly establish the diagnosis, he preliminary leans against the anamnesis of the patient (complaints of the patient) and results of the received analyzes. Microscopic examination of feces three times at intervals of 2 weeks.
Biomaterial sampling is carried out in the morning using a native smear. This method will be effective in the presence of a large number of eggs of parasites. The method of enrichment involves the study of feces with the use of Fenasal with low dosage before surrender in the morning.
The method has a number of contraindications, therefore it is necessary to consult with a doctor before conducting it. The examination itself is divided into a specific (study of feces for the presence of helminth eggs) and nonspecific (examination of blood, examination by a specialist).
When it is necessary to collect feces for hymenolepiasis
In order to completely pass the medical commission, it is necessary to make an analysis of feces for hymenolopidosis. Obtaining results is required in the following cases:
- when enrolling in a kindergarten, school or other general education organizations;
- before employment of any adult in a children's institution;
- before a planned hospitalization in any department of the hospital;
- at delivery of analyzes for rest in sanatoria;
- when there are unpleasant symptoms from the digestive tract.
Since the dwarf tartar can be transmitted directly from person to person, to visit the pool it is necessary to have a certificate of the absence of helminths in the human body
Preventive measures are aimed not only at preventing the disease, but also at re-infection of ill persons. This is due to the fact that the immune system does not form a stable defense against hymenolepiasis.