Treatment of pneumonia in an adult
Diseases of the respiratory system have a high risk for humans. One such common pathology is pneumonia, which causes inflammation of the lung tissue and irreversible changes in it. To avoid oxygen starvation of tissues, the disease must necessarily start on time to treat.
How to treat pneumonia at home in adults
Pneumonia often has a viral nature, but even in other cases, it is joined by bacterial infection, so adults are required to perform antibiotic therapy, appointing 1-2 drugs Simultaneously. The treatment standards take into account several factors:
- type of pneumonia;
- volume of damage to lung tissue;
- state of health and age of the patient;
- concomitant diseases of the heart, kidneys or lungs.
Adults prescribe antibiotics for pneumonia, taking into account their age, and even with negligible the effectiveness of a single drug does not change it within 3 days or until a sputum test is decoded patient. For the treatment of pneumonia use modern popular drugs under the names:
- Ceftriaxone. As a form of release, white powders are used for the preparation of injections. The course of treatment of pneumonia is determined by the doctor depending on the degree of severity. For an adult, the dose is 1-2 g daily. A solution for injections is prepared from 500 mg of the drug and 2 ml of a 1% solution of lidocaine, and for the droppers 5 ml of sterile water are used. The price is from 25 rubles, it is sold by prescription.
- Sephpotek. Antibiotic, also allowed a child with 12 years. Effective in the treatment of pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. Adults need to take 200 mg - 1 tablet, with an interval of 12 hours. End the course of treatment is necessary in 2 weeks. Price from 120 rub.
- Sumamed. In addition to tablets, it is available as a powder or lyophilizate. It is indicated for infectious and inflammatory diseases, including respiratory tract. From pneumonia, you need to take 500 mg of the drug per day treatment course, equal to 3 days. The price from 520 r.
Folk treatment of pneumonia in adults is effective in combination with taking medications if therapy is done at home. To do this, you can use the following recipes:
- Decoction of raisins. Rinse, art. Dark raisins, pass it through the meat grinder. Gulf a glass of boiling water, soak under the lid for about 10 minutes. To treat inflammation of the lungs with such a decoction it is necessary, drinking on, art. daily.
- "Milk" milk. Prepare 3 dried white figs. Heat the milk, pour the fruit, cook over a small fire for about half an hour. To treat pneumonia, drink 2 glasses a day until symptoms improve.
- Nastoy on the nuts. Take 500 ml of dry red wine. Fill them with 50 g of peeled nuts. Strew the remedy on a low heat for about a quarter of an hour. Eat 1 tbsp each. before each meal.
To begin with, it is recommended that you change your position frequently in bed and do not lie on your side, which hurts. After 3-4 days, when the acute period of the disease is already behind, you can begin respiratory gymnastics, for which you lie on your back and put your hands on your stomach. You need to exhale after a deep breath, but do it slowly, straining your abdominal muscles. Approaches should be at least 5 per day, each of which includes 15 reps. It is recommended to use LFK and for the prevention of pneumonia.
Features of treatment of pneumonia
Treatment of pneumonia in an adult depends on many factors, the first of which is the type of this disease. Therapy for the elderly is mandatory in the hospital, otherwise the decision is made by the doctor. The algorithm of treatment consists of several stages. First pneumonia is diagnosed, then the focus of inflammation is eliminated with antibiotics. Next, additional medications are prescribed for the remaining signs of the disease.
In adults this form arises more often than others and is divided into right-sided and left-sided. A particular species is bilateral, when lesions are present in both lungs. Treatment of pneumonia in an adult is carried out permanently with the use of antibiotics, physiotherapy, inhalations and elimination of allergic reactions. With a one-sided or bilateral form, you need to ensure the correct position of the patient - semi-sitting to improve the performance of the lungs.
Viruses, bacteria or fungi and parasites lead to the viral form. The first two days for the treatment of pneumonia for an adult are prescribed to take antiviral drugs, such as Tamiflu or Ingavirin in the influenza nature and Acyclovir in the causative agent causing varicella. In addition to these medicines, the patient is prescribed antipyretic, analgesic and cough suppressants that help to sputum. Antibiotics are prescribed only with the addition of bacterial infection.
This type of pneumonia is also called focal. It develops against the background of bronchitis, therefore it is especially dangerous due to its consequences - pleuropneumonia, abscess and even gangrene, therefore the methods of treatment are chosen only by a doctor. Antibiotics become mandatory in therapy, and they are chosen according to the degree of influence on the intestinal microflora. Ecoantibiotics are often used. In addition, adults are treated with drugs that dilute, excrete phlegm and restore the immune system.
The most serious of all is the atypical form, because it is caused by atypical pathogens and often there is such pneumonia in an adult without temperature. The insidious disease is also due to the fact that it has a latent period when the symptoms are practically absent. Antibiotics are often unable to cope with the manifestations of this type of pneumonia, so an adult is prescribed immunoglobulins and special procedures for sucking out fluid in the lungs. Treatment is complemented by a complex of vitamins and antipyretic.
Another complex form of pneumonia is the radical one. It is difficult to diagnose, because the symptoms are similar to tuberculosis and central lung cancer. Drugs for treatment are prescribed immediately after diagnosis, with several drugs at the same time, that the condition was relieved in 2-3 days and the patient could be prescribed heating and exercise therapy.
Treatment of pneumonia in the hospital
Indications for hospitalization are deterioration of the patient's condition or inability to apply the necessary drugs at home. With timely treatment, relief comes in 2-4 days, but possible complications increase the duration of stay in the hospital to 10 days, and often up to 4 weeks. The patient is given injections or drips with antibiotics, then physiological saline is injected in the same way to detoxify the body. In combination with these drugs, adults are prescribed expectorant and antipyretic agents.
How much is pneumonia treated?
Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults is done at home and takes 7 to 10 days. It adds a period for the restoration of the body, which can take from 1 to several months. The same amount can be used to fight chronic pneumonia. The duration of treatment depends on the timeliness of therapy. In addition, the effectiveness of the selected drugs is also important. Inpatient therapy has an average duration of 9-10 days with severe form. Stagnant pneumonia can be cured in 20-25 days.
Video about respiratory gymnastics with pneumonia
How to treat pneumonia in adults
Inflammation of the lungs (pneumonia) in both adults and children and the elderly requires timely adequate treatment, because otherwise it can lead to the development of severe complications. Correct treatment of this disease can be prescribed only by a doctor, after examining the patient and conducting the necessary studies.
Treatment of pneumonia with antibiotics
Antibiotic therapy is prescribed taking into account the conducted microscopic studies. In the event that microscopy or sowing were not performed, the patient is selected antibiotics, focusing on his age, epidemiological factors and severity of the disease.
In adults, this disease is treated in accordance with the concept of the so-called "stepwise therapy which implies a two-stage application of antibiotics. At the same time, as soon as possible, there is a transition of the introduction of the drug from the parenteral to the non-parenteral route (usually oral, ie through the mouth).
If a patient has pneumonia, the doctor, before giving him treatment, will determine the severity of his condition. As a rule, all people who have symptoms of pneumonia are divided into several groups.
- The first group includes patients younger than 60 years who do not have severe concomitant pathologies, and the disease proceeds without complications. Their treatment takes place at home under the supervision of a local doctor. Of antibiotics, they are usually prescribed drugs from the group of penicillins or macrolides.
- The second group includes patients older than 60 years who have comorbid pathologies (hypertension, diabetes, chronic alcoholism, renal or heart failure, etc.). To treat pneumonia in such patients is accepted antibiotics, belonging to the group of protected aminopenicillins, as well as third generation cephalosporins. It is best to treat not at home, but in the hospital, to avoid the development of complications.
- The third group includes people of any age in whom the disease is severe and there is a high risk of complications. In order to assess the severity of the patient's condition, the doctor draws attention to the following symptoms: shortness of breath, cyanosis, confusion, tachycardia, hypotension and a temperature above 39 degrees.
Regardless of whether the out-of-hospital or nosocomial pneumonia is involved, the patient should be hospitalized or transferred to the pulmonology department. For therapy, drugs belonging to the group of fluoroquinolones (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin) are used. It is necessary to identify the pathogen that caused pneumonia.
Pathogenetic and symptomatic treatment
Symptomatic therapy of pneumonia in adults is aimed at alleviating and eliminating its main symptoms. So, when the temperature rises above 3 degrees, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nimesil, aspirin, indomethacin, Nurofen) are used. Used thinning sputum and facilitating her expectoration of the drug (marshmallow, licorice, ambroxol, lazolvan, solvine, fluimitsil, fluditik, haliksol, ATSTS, Mukaltin and bromhexine).
For the purpose of detoxification therapy, the patient, if necessary, may be given intravenous fluid injection, for example, haemodesis. Also, the patient may be prescribed antihistamines, drugs that simulate local and general immunity, ascorbic acid and B vitamins. In severe cases, cardiac glycosides, analeptics, etc. are used.
Physiotherapy, which is performed in adult patients, can reduce inflammation, as well as restore the ventilation function of the lungs. This treatment promotes the acceleration of resorption of the inflammatory infiltrate, reduction of the bronchial obstruction, activation of alveolar-capillary transport and increase in the level of nonspecific resistance organism.
With pneumonia, you need to be treated not only with medication, but also with the help of physiotherapy exercises. Simple exercises are a good prevention of complications. Beginning to practice is recommended already from the first days of illness. At first the patient should change position in bed more often.
Do not lie on the side that hurts, it is better to change position more often, lying down on a healthy side and on the back. For 3-4 days you need to begin respiratory gymnastics. For this, the patient must lie down, put his hands on his stomach and take a deep breath. Exhale should be slow, while pulling the abdominal muscles. Repeat this exercise should be 15 times 5 times a day. It is possible to supplement such breathing exercises with other movements, for example, with tilts and rotation of the trunk.
Care and NutritionIf the patient is at home, then he should be carefully looked after. If he sweats, you need to change the bed linen and bed linen. It is worthwhile to provide the patient with a special spittoon where he will expectorate sputum.
The room in which it is located should be regularly ventilated and held in it by wet cleaning. The person should have personal hygiene items and cutlery. If he has signs of complications, it is worthwhile again to see a doctor.
The food should be high in calories, but it is necessary to exclude from the diet difficult to digest products (for example, too fatty). Every day you need to eat fruits and vegetables. Abundant drink will help to increase the excretion of phlegm and prevent the development of dehydration against the background of high temperatures. The patient should drink about three liters a day, alkaline mineral water, fruit juices and various fruit drinks will suit.
Those who are treated at home often use various folk remedies, having consulted their doctor in advance. You can use, for example, a decoction of raisins. For its preparation, half a glass of dark raisins are passed through a meat grinder, poured a glass of boiling water and pressed on fire for 10 minutes. Then decoction is filtered, squeezed and drunk three times a day until recovery.
And also the treatment with folk remedies often includes the use of a decoction of figs. To make it, you need to pour a couple of dried figs with a glass of cold milk and boil on low heat for 15 minutes. The received drink should be taken a glass a couple of times a day. Folk remedies for poorly departing sputum are hazelnuts, which the patient can eat in large quantities.
Duration of treatment
Many patients are interested in the question of how long the treatment lasts. In each case, the duration of therapy is determined by the doctor individually. If there are no complications, then taking antibiotics continues for another three days after the temperature normalization.
Pneumonia - treatment of folk remedies at home | Folk recipes for the treatment of pneumonia
An acute infectious disease of predominantly bacterial etiology, characterized by focal lung involvement, is called pneumonia. Phytotherapy for this disease can be carried out only with strict adherence to the regime and adequate care for the patient.
Folk recipes for the treatment of pneumonia
After an accurate diagnosis of the doctor, you can try phytotherapy. From coughing, heaviness in the chest, mucus and sputum in the lungs can get rid of folk medicine. Here are the most effective folk remedies.Yandex. Direct
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1. Infusion of herbs
Mix the root and leaves of mother-and-stepmother with oregano. Pour boiling water and let stand for about an hour. Take in a strained form half the glass twice a day before eating.
2. Medicinal Decoction
In the same doses take the roots of the althea, sage leaves and licorice, pine buds, fruits of anise. Pour hot with boiled water. Drink a week for one-quarter cup every three hours.
After folk treatment, you will necessarily feel lightness in the lungs, get rid of pain in the chest and cough, as herbal infusions clean the respiratory tract.
3. Honey infusion
Bring to a boiling state a mixture of a teaspoon of honey, a tablespoon of anise seeds and salt. Drink folk remedies every 2 hours.
4. Balm from the century
A few leaves of aloe pour Cahors with liquid honey, insist for 14 days. To eat before eating food three times.
5. Plantain Compress
Ask someone from the relatives before going to bed to put clean leaves of plantain on your back and on your chest. Top with a towel and wrapped in a cellophane bag. Wear a woolen sweater or take cover with a warm blanket. The next morning all the unpleasant symptoms of pneumonia will disappear.
6. Excellent help herbal teas. These are linden, sage, elecampane, raspberry, oregano, willow, turn, elder and many others. They are taken in hot form, you can add honey.
7. You can take propolis, which serves as an excellent way against infectious diseases. Honey water also eliminates the symptoms of the disease and greatly facilitates breathing.
8. Home remedy, which very well restores the lungs, is prepared on the basis of one tablespoon of St. John's wort and three tablespoons of elecampane, this collection should be poured, a lira of boiling water. All this is left for 30 minutes, then cool the broth, drain. In the already cooled broth add two glasses of liquid honey and two hundred milliliters of olive oil. Mix thoroughly until a homogeneous mass is obtained and leave to infuse in the refrigerator for two weeks, after which the pneumonia remedy is ready for use. To treat pneumonia, you need to use one teaspoon for thirty minutes before eating five times a day.
9. Actual and most important is the treatment with balsam. It is prepared on the basis of 250 grams of aloe, half a liter of Cahors, 350 grams of liquid honey. Leaves scarlet need to be thoroughly wiped, in no case wash. After that, they need to be crushed and put in a jar, pour honey mixed with Cahors. The resulting mixture is insisted in a dark cool place for two weeks. Then the filtered mass must be squeezed. Taking this balm three times a day for one tablespoon will relieve all kinds of lung diseases, and will act as a general restorative.
10. Elder - also an effective remedy for pneumonia, we take four preferably big umbrella of elderberry fill, we insist on liters of vodka for fourteen days and everything is ready. You should take one hour before eating one tablespoon.
11. It is very important to do inhalation. A bandage rubbed with onions should be placed in a mug and try to breathe over it for ten minutes at least seven times a day. This type of inhalation is very effective in the treatment of any even the most advanced stage of the disease, as well as bronchitis and angina.
Effective ways to treat pneumonia with charges
1. Grass of a lungwort, a plantain of a large, sage medicinal, an auricle of an umbelliferous, a wormwood for the treatment of pneumonia is equally divided.
2. Grass grass, anise fruits, dill fruits, pine buds, herb thyme, licorice root (crushed) - equally.
3. Althaea root, birch leaves or buds, elecampane root, St. John's wort, grass of the moth, grass of the turn, leaves eucalyptus, angelica root, motherwort grass, sweet clover grass, mullein flowers, cyanosis grass, dill fruits - equally.
4. Grassy grass, clover flowers, raspberry leaves, coltsfoot leaves, chamomile flowers, yarrow herb, thyme herb, herb clearweed, Ledum sprouts, three-color violet grass - equally.
5. Grass of oregano, bilberry bilberry, leaves of spray, leaves of coltsfoot, mint leaves, dandelion root, leaves plantain, licorice root, rose hips, herbage grass, root of the primrose, leaves cuffs - equally.
6. Calendula flowers, clover flowers, plantain leaves, pine buds, sage leaves, rose hips, gravel root, grass motherwort, veronica grass, cyanosis grass, dill fruits, hawthorn fruit - equally for the treatment of pneumonia with folk remedies .
7. Birch buds, elecampane root, bark or berries of viburnum, raspberry leaves, sage leaves, lilac flowers, root of althea, grass of wormwood, herbage of motherwort, shoots of ledum, mullein flowers, fruits of coriander - equally.
8. Fruits of dill, herb of oregano, nettle grass, leaves of coltsfoot, pine buds, eucalyptus leaves, yarrow, gravel root, violet grass, cuff leaves - equally.
9. Leaves or buds of birch, kalina bark, grass of the moth, mint grass, clearing grass, St. John's wort, calendula flowers, herb thyme, angelica root, cyanosis grass - equally.
10. Herb of oregano, chamomile flowers, rose hips, psyllium leaves, licorice root, herbage, herbs of thermopsis - equally.
Treatment of pediatric pneumonia with folk remedies
For children, it is recommended to prepare infusions and decoctions in the following daily dose of dry medicinal collection: up to 1 year - 1 / 2-1 hour. l., 1 to 3 years - 1 hour. l., from 3 to 6 years - 1 dess. l., from 6 to 10 years - 1 tbsp. l., older than 10 years - 2 tbsp. l.
Plants, previously shredded (in a coffee grinder or meat grinder), mix, 2 tbsp. l. collecting pour 1 liter of boiling water, bring to a boil, boil over low heat for 10 minutes in a sealed container, poured along with the grass in a thermos, insist the night.
Take during the day for 100-150 ml 30 minutes before eating. To improve the taste, you can add honey, sugar, jam. The course of treatment of pneumonia is 3-4 months.
The collection of herbs can be used in combination with other medicines. Before taking this or that collection, it is advisable to familiarize yourself with the contraindications to the herbs included in this collection.
We must not forget that if pneumonia with complications, then the phytotherapy can only serve as an addition to the basic forms of treatment and to the course of taking antibiotics. Categorically it is not recommended to engage in self-medication, this will only complicate the state of your health. With a sudden rise in body temperature, fainting and shortness of breath, immediately call for an ambulance. An accurate and correct diagnosis can be made only by an experienced doctor with the appointment of laboratory tests and X-rays.
After full recovery is recommended to rest in a sanatorium or dispensary, where there is adequate nutrition, inhalation, acupuncture, gymnastics, physical exercises and professional massage.
Rules of care for pneumonia in the home
A variety of measures can be taken for treatment:
1. Pleuric pain in the chest with pneumonia in adults can sometimes be weakened by applying an electric heating pad to it, wrapped in a pillow case from the pillow and superimposed over the underwear of the patient. Thus it is necessary to be cautious, if the patient is restless, immovable or his consciousness has become confused.
2. If the patient has a high temperature, then to maintain the hygiene of the body, bed linen and underwear made of cotton, as well as washing the patient and applying talcum if necessary.
3. Relief of the patient's condition is promoted by regular brushing of teeth, mouth rinsing, flushing of dentures (who they have), and sucking ice cubes.
4. It is very important in the treatment of pneumonia in the home to regularly give the patient to drink, because the high temperature is associated with dehydration of the body. (compotes from dried fruits, juices, fruit drinks, teas and decoctions of herbs, milk with honey, mineral water). At a fever to accept not less, than 3 liters of water. It's okay if the patient loses appetite during an acute attack of the disease - as soon as he gets better, the appetite will return.
5. During the period of pneumonia, bed rest should be strictly observed. Sometimes sit down for a cough of phlegm.
6. The room where the patient is to be kept must be kept in a constant clean, often ventilated. The air must be moist and clean. The room should be cool.
7. The food of the patient should be high-calorie, vitamin and containing trace elements. It's all kinds of vegetables, fruits. When the organism is intoxicated, it is recommended that the food be ground with a blender.
8. It is necessary to follow the intestines, not to allow constipation and the development of flatulence.
9. For a better separation of phlegm, mucus from the lungs make a special massage. With the help of relatives or a massage therapist massages the area of the chest and back, hands and feet with circular motions. There is a point (light stroking touch, pressing the sore point with your finger for ten minutes) and classic segmental massage. Also effective in the treatment of breathing exercises, which helps to eliminate respiratory failure. Physical exercises that facilitate breathing and the withdrawal of phlegm, activate blood circulation.
10. For ease of breathing, pneumonia in an adult is helped by saline and alkaline inhalations.
11. You can treat pneumonia at home, using cans, mustard plasters, make warming compresses, wraps. This contributes to sputum coughing.
It usually takes several weeks for a full recovery, although this depends on the individual characteristics of the patient. During the recovery period, often there are bouts of depression. All the above measures for caring for the patient can be applied in case of bronchitis.
Prevention of pneumonia with folk methods
Many doctors recommend for the prevention of pneumonia to strengthen the body and immunity herbal decoctions. Honey - a universal remedy for the prevention of disease 1-2 tablespoons with hot drink, the same norm with raspberry jam. Increase the consumption of onions and garlic. Recommended herbs: raspberry leaves, elderberry, mother-and-stepmother and other anti-inflammatory herbs.
But any disease can be prevented if you engage in your body and strengthen your immune system. First of all, this is hardening for the prevention of pneumonia. For young children, this process should become the norm. Patterned back and chest massage for improved circulation of blood and air. The preventive course of the vitamin complex for the prevention of pneumonia has not harmed anyone. And remember, warned - armed, and therefore ready! Your health and the health of your loved ones are in your hands!
Pneumonia in adults treatment and symptoms | How to treat pneumonia in an adult
It is an infectious disease in which the infiltration occurs in the lung parenchyma. Pneumonia captures lung tissue and proceeds when harmful bacteria and microorganisms enter the body. There are a number of main factors that directly affect the development of the disease in adults: alcohol, smoking, chronic diseases of the nasopharynx and lungs.Yandex. Direct
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Symptoms of developing pneumonia in adults
This disease in the people is called simply - pneumonia. This is a fairly common and dangerous disease, which has severe consequences for the body and sometimes for a person's life.
Symptoms of pneumonia at the initial stage can be misleading to any doctor. Often there are cases when a doctor makes a false diagnosis and after a couple of days changes his mind.
The first sign of the disease is a cough, which is wet and dry, at the beginning of the disease only dry. When you cough, there are sharp pains in the chest area, and this is already alarming, pneumonia is more likely to begin, and you need to urgently tackle the illness.
When rusty sputum appears, this indicates that the patient has croupous pneumonia. When there is blood sputum, you need to act immediately. To be engaged in a selftreatment in that case is contraindicated, as blood allocation appears, when the disease is caused by Friedlander's wand. To localize the rod, you need to take more serious methods of treatment.
Such bacteria as streptococci, cause purulent sputum, with a characteristic unpleasant smell of sputum is very important to know that there are purulent foci and the disease begins to progress. When a patient has severe pain in his side, it is a lung infarction, a sign of hemoptysis. Another symptom of the disease in adults is often chest pain, with a deep inspiration or a fit of coughing manifests itself at full strength. When a patient feels a sharp lack of air - this is a sign of shortness of breath. In some cases, with the disease, the temperature rises to 40 degrees, sometimes adheres to 3 degrees, and the patient feels a certain malaise, lethargy, chills. Sometimes there is vomiting and a decrease in appetite.
The main syndromes of pneumonia:
1. compaction of lung tissue,
3. general inflammatory,
6. bronchial discretion,
8. respiratory insufficiency.
Types of pneumonia in an adult and its manifestation
The source of infection is most often the bacteria, but sometimes there is a viral form of pneumonia. According to the nature of the current, acute and chronic pneumonia is distinguished. If the infection penetrates into the pulmonary lobes, then this disease is called lobar pneumonia, while bronchopneumonia is an inflammation of the smaller airways within the lung.
Pneumonia in an adult is divided into several types, which contributes to a different approach to treatment:
1. Non-hospital form of the disease, which occurs in an adult person outside the hospital walls.
2. Nosomial or hospital (hospital) - developing for 48 hours in connection with the stay of an adult at the hospital.
3. Aspiration - which is associated with the inhalation of foreign masses into the lungs (vomiting after surgery, loss of consciousness, facial trauma, nasopharynx).
4. Pneumonia associated with human immunodeficiency (HIV-infected, oncological, drug-dependent, diabetic).
Stages of pneumonia in the adult and their symptoms
Pneumonia is divided into three stages according to the severity of the disease. Symptoms of the disease at each stage are different.
1. an easy stage in which mild intoxication, fever, tachycardia, dyspnea;
2. for the average stage of pneumonia in adults characterized by signs of weakness, dry or wet cough, moderately severe intoxication;
3. with pneumonia of severe severity, there is an increase in temperature to 40 degrees, turbidity, shortness of breath, tachycardia more than 100 beats per minute.
When pneumonia is in the tidal stage, the deterioration of health in the form of chills, headaches, fever, dry cough, dyspnea, acute pain in the chest area is noted. By the end of the tidal phase, there is a cough with the release of "rusty" sputum and herpes.
When the disease is at the stage of densification, during coughing sputum with purulent sputum is discharged, dyspnea increases, severe pain in the chest with a fit of cough and inspiration, high body temperature, also observe nervous excitement and icterism sclera.
When the disease is at the final stage of resolution, then normalize the temperature, chest pain and shortness of breath pass, sputum is not significant, improve your well-being.
How to treat traditional methods of pneumonia in an adult?
Treatment of the disease is prescribed when the diagnosis is clearly established. And only after this, a qualified treatment is prescribed. The first step (in treatment) is to remove focal inflammation. In this case, prescribe a course of antibiotics. The second step is to lower the temperature of the body, relieve the exacerbation of cough and organize care for the sick person. Recall that pneumonia, a serious disease. To reduce the elevated body temperature (if above 39 degrees), prescribe antipyretic drugs. Assign mucolytic agents for better separation of sputum. Particular attention should be paid to general toxication manifestations, the output of sputum, the disappearance of infiltrates. It is necessary to conduct an X-ray examination while establishing the inflammatory process. In medical practice, there are pneumonia with a changed immunological reactivity, especially in military hospitals. Pneumonia in adults is characterized by an atypical onset and presents certain difficulties in treatment, since the body does not respond to pathogens.
Treatment of a disease of a mean and severe course is carried out in a hospital. Assign easily digestible, high-calorie diet with a high content of proteins and vitamins. Preferred ward mode.
How to treat pneumonia in a hospital?
A person who has contracted pneumonia often needs inpatient treatment. In this case, the doctor prescribes strong painkillers to relieve pain that occurs in the chest area during breathing and coughing or as a result of pleurisy. Physiotherapy procedures are designed to facilitate the allocation of sputum, which often has a rusty color.
If the patient is hospitalized, he is prescribed treatment in the form of intravenous infusion of antibiotics (droppers), so in this case a strict dosage is maintained. Oxygen can also be prescribed, either through a special mask or through thin hollow tubes inserted into the nostrils. This facilitates breathing and provides sufficient supply of all body tissues with oxygen. In addition, there is a regular record of the temperature and pulse rate of the patient.
When the acute form of the disease is under constant control, antibiotics can be taken in the form of tablets. It is very important to ensure that the course of treatment of pneumonia is carried out to the end, in order to prevent the occurrence of possible complications.
Also, a regular examination of his breathing is performed and all improvements and deterioration of this process are accurately recorded. With the help of a blood test, the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide present in it is determined, as well as the presence of bacteria in the body of the patient that caused pneumonia.
What drugs cure pneumonia?
When a symptom of pneumonia is detected, treatment is usually directed to the localization of the inflammatory process of the disease. Apply eryiotropic treatment, in which first of all antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action are appointed. After receiving laboratory tests (seeding on flora and sensitivity), correction of pneumonia treatment is performed.
Pathogenic treatment consists in improving the sputum production from the bronchial tree by reception mucolytics Bromheksin, Mukaltina, ATSTS) and bronchodilators (Berodual, Atrovent, Teopek, Eufillin). After the course of treatment of pneumonia, breathing improves, the infection is localized.
Symptomatic therapy includes antipyretic drugs. In the absence of contraindications, prescribe breathing exercises and physiotherapy.
Antibiotic therapy is carried out taking into account the results of microscopic studies. If sowing and microscopy are not performed or are non-indicative, antibiotic therapy is selected based on the patient's age, epidemiological factors and the severity of the disease. Treatment of pneumonia should be carried out in accordance with the concept of "stepwise therapy in which a two-stage application is proposed antibacterial drugs: the transition from the parenteral to the non-parenteral route (usually oral) antibiotics as soon as possible (under normal temperature, positive clinical, laboratory and X-ray dynamics).
In case of viral pneumonia (influenza viruses A, B), the drugs of choice are zanamivir, oseltamivir (therapy should begin no later than 48 hours after the onset of symptoms). Alternative drugs for influenza A - Remantadine or Amantadine. For community-acquired pneumonia, the drug of choice is Azithromycin (Clarithromycin). Fluoroquinolones (Levofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin) are used orally. Alternative drugs are second-generation cephalosporins or "protected" penicillins (Amoxicillin Clavulanate or Doxycycline). Finally, for community-acquired hospitalized pneumonia, the drugs of choice are fluoroquinolones (Levofloxacin, Ofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin), which are administered parenterally.
Cephalosporins of the third generation (Ceftriaxone, cefoperazone) are administered intravenously, in especially severe cases The parenteral use of carbapenems (meronem) or cephalosporins of the fourth generation (Cefepime).
In patients with "atypical" (including Legionella pneumonia) pneumonia, the use of antibiotics in the macrolide group is indicated. For the treatment of pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeroginosa, combined antibacterial therapy ("protected" penicillins, Tazocym and Gentamicin, Fluoroquinolone and Carbapenem, or the fourth generation Cephalosporin with an antibiotic from another group to which Pseudomonas is sensitive aeroginosa). Improvements in the elimination of secretions from the lower respiratory tract are achieved with the help of physiotherapeutic procedures and by the appointment of mucolytic drugs. Derivatives of carbocysteine normalize the rheological properties of the secretion, its viscosity and elasticity, secretory function of glandular cells of the respiratory tract, the ratio of sialomucins and fucomycins, accelerate mucociliary transport.
Derivatives of bromhexine improve the drainage function of the lungs, increase the secretion of glycoproteins (mukokinetic effect), increase the motor activity of the cilia of the ciliated epithelium, stimulate the synthesis of surfactant and prevent its decay.
Disintoxication therapy: abundant warm drink, if necessary - intravenous fluid (polarizing solution, Hemodeza). Symptomatic therapy:
1. antipyretic drugs;
2. drugs that suppress the irritant cough (antitussive), bronchodilator, antihistamines;
3. means, modulating the general and local immunity,
4. vitamins of group B, ascorbic acid,
5. analgesics for pain.
In the treatment of severe or complicated cases of pneumonia, correction of microcirculatory disorders and dysproteinemia, oxygen therapy, glucocorticoid, antioxidant therapy, etc. depending on the clinical course of the disease.
Until now, Ampicillin in combination with Clavuanic acid has been used to treat pneumonia. However, in practice, it has been proven that the antibiotic is highly resistant to this type of antibiotic. Severe course of the disease requires hospitalization and the appointment of cephalosporins or Ampiox with Synthomycin. Monitor the treatment after 3 days.
How to be treated by home methods for pneumonia?
Most people who have pneumonia (up to eighty percent) can be treated at home. The patient needs to arrange appropriate care, appropriate care. This is done in order to improve the effectiveness of treatment of pneumonia in adults and accelerate its recovery. As with most diseases, it is necessary to include as much vegetables and fruits as possible in the patient's diet. As little as possible to eat fatty foods and hard to digest food. It is recommended to the patient abundant, warm drink.
1. First, fluid in pneumonia helps to sputum.
2. Secondly, it prevents dehydration of the body during elevated body temperature.
3. You can drink: milk, alkaline mineral water, juices. A person who has become sick with pneumonia needs complete rest and a bed rest.
4. A positive result will give therapeutic gymnastics. It can accelerate the recovery of a person. It must be done from the first days. From the second day of illness, it is necessary to carry out respiratory gymnastics (lying in bed). Also, during the illness it is necessary to perform tilting (forward, sideways), rotate the body. Such exercises are useful for the chest.
5. Treatment with antibiotics is strictly individual. To prescribe antibiotics, it is necessary to establish the degree of development of the disease, determine at what stage the disease, and what form of pneumonia. From the correct diagnosis depends on the purpose of antibiotics. The duration of treatment for pneumonia is also strictly individual.
6. Give up smoking, go in for sports, change your diet so that this disease will pass you by.
Causes and prevention of pneumonia in adults
Typical pathogens of primary out-of-hospital pneumonia are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Chlamidia pneumoniae. In 20-30% of patients, the etiology of the disease can not be established. Some microorganisms are normally rare in the composition of the microflora of the upper respiratory tract and can cause development of pneumonia in older age groups with concomitant severe chronic diseases of other organs and systems.
Acute respiratory viral infections, primarily influenza, are certainly the main risk factor, but most scientists say that they rarely cause pneumonia in adults. At the same time, in infants, viruses can cause pneumonia.
In secondary (hospital) pneumonia in adults, the role of gram-negative microorganisms and conditionally pathogenic flora is great: Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Esche-richia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomo-nas aeroginosa, Legionella pneumoniae. The etiology of aspiration pneumonia is characterized by the involvement of nonclostridial anaerobes (Bacteroides spp., Micoplasma spp., Candida spp.), Often in combination with an aerobic graffiti microflora (Hae-mophilus influenzae, Enterobacterio-ceae). In the development of the disease in persons with severe immunological disorders, cytomegalovirus infection, Pneumocystis cari-nii, pathogenic fungi, mycobacterium tuberculosis, along with other microorganisms encountered in other pneumonia.
The causative agent of the disease is epithelial dysfunction and mucociliary clearance disorder. Thus, pathogens search for the receptor field, adhesion on it and colonization. The use of antibiotics gives results only at the stage of colonization of microorganisms.
Mucociliary transport is the main factor of lung protection, which is disrupted in acute pneumonia. Disturbance of pulmonary ventilation is an obligatory factor of acute pneumonia.
The age of the patient influences the development of the disease. The disease also depends on the time of the year, most often a high percentage of the disease occurs during the cold season, a severe illness is observed in people who have come from the regions of the far north. A major role in the disease is chlamydia pneumonia, which affects young people. The main pathogens of pneumonia: in winter - streptococci, in autumn - mycoplasma, for summer is characteristic - legionella. The advantage is led by streptococcus, the etiology of the disease has not yet been established.
According to the European Society of Pulmonology, the number of pneumonias does not include diseases of pulmonary tissue of non-infectious nature; caused by physical, chemical factors; having allergic or vascular origin; caused by highly contagious infectious agents (plague, measles, rubella, abdominal typhus, influenza; such diseases are considered in the context of an appropriate infectious disease); diseases caused by a viral infection (in the first place with the flu).
Prevention of pneumonia in adults
In the future, it is necessary to temper and observe common sanitary and hygienic factors (do not smoke, avoid dust, airing rooms or cabinets, full nutrition and much more). Be careful to your health! Take care of yourself!
In medicine, the term pneumonia refers to an acute infectious disease, predominantly bacterial etiology, with focal lesions of the respiratory departments lungs and mandatory presence of intraalveolar exudation, which is detected during physical and / or instrumental examination, with general inflammatory and toxic changes.
Inflammation of the lungs: the main measures of treatment at home
Inflammation of the lungs or pneumonia is a serious and dangerous disease. It has an infectious nature, with improper treatment or lack of it can lead to serious complications, up to a lethal outcome, and, of course, requires consultation with a physician in the process treatment.
Pneumonia in children and people over 65 requires mandatory hospitalization.If you refused to go to the hospital and plan to be treated at home, then you need to know some rules that will help to successfully cope with this disease.
Treatment at home of pneumonia in adults lasts approximately10-14 days,a severe form will require at least 21 days of treatment.A similar situation with treatment in children. Consultation with a doctor is still necessary, because pneumonia requires complex treatment, primarily with antibiotics, correctly pick up which, given your condition, age, individual sensitivity to the drugs, the causative agent that caused the inflammation, can only specialist.
How to treat pneumonia in the home with folk remedies
Folk remedies are very effective as an additional treatment for pneumonia in the home, and we will dwell on them in more detail.
- Bed rest, regular airing of the room.
Clearing the respiratory tract from sputum. This is a very important aspect, contributing to a speedy recovery.
The main drug that can be used at home is inhalationwith pneumonia. In this case, you can use either a special inhaler purchased at a pharmacy, or use a saucepan or kettle by making a paper funnel on it.
Very effective inhalation with decoction of leaves of eucalyptus, sage, mint, chamomile, calendula, essential oils. You can alternate them with saline-alkaline inhalations (salt and soda in equal proportions).
However, inhalation should be used with caution: they are not recommended for high temperature and the presence of cardiovascular diseases.
For expectoration use the juice of black radish with honey, onion juice with sugar.
A well-proven cough remedy is boiled milk with butter and honey.
- To relieve the symptoms of intoxication (which often accompanies pneumonia) are well suitedtea from a dogrose, broth of mother-and-stepmother(2 spoons of leaves on a glass of water).
- Gorciniks with pneumonia and cans- their use promotes warming of tissues, resorption of inflammatory processes, strengthening of protective mechanisms of the immune system. However, it should be remembered that their use is contraindicated at high temperature and within 24 hours after its normalization, skin diseases, oncology, pregnancy.
Breathing exercises- it is necessary for bed rest to prevent the reduction of lung function. She needs to be engaged from the moment of temperature decrease and it is possible to do it directly in bed. The easiest and most effective way is to use an inflatable toy.
A good addition is a massage(nose area, thoracic region). Massage with pneumonia does not require special training, and it can be done by any of the family members of the patient: it is necessary to do stroking, rubbing the chest (immediately the front part from the bottom up, then from the back for 10-15 minutes daily, starting from 4-5 days after the start of treatment (ie, when the acute period of inflammation is already passed).
A very important component of successful treatment is adherence to the correct diet under pneumonia, water balance.
- A mandatory condition is the use of a large amount of liquid (at least two liters per day). This helps to remove toxic substances from the body.
- Useful broths of medicinal plants (mother-and-stepmother, chamomile, oregano, black elderberry, plantain leaves, pine buds) and their use as tea.
- The food should be light, diet. This is due to the fact that the organism spends a lot of energy during the period of illness to fight the pathogen, and digesting high-calorie food is additional energy expenditure.
How to treat pneumonia in the initial stage?The initial stage of the disease is often accompanied by a decrease in appetite. This is normal, do not overly "stuff" the patient, make him eat. In such periods it is best to confine yourself to fruit, fresh juices, compotes, in the initial stages recovery can be added to the diet of chicken broths, light soups, sour-milk products, boiled meat or fish, vegetables. Eat more often, but little by little.
Better to exclude from the diet until the recovery of products such as salt, sugar, fatty meat and dairy products, avoid fried foods, bakery and confectionery products, spicy sauces.
Also, you should take care of the intestinal microflora during antibiotic treatment and use sour-milk products - kefir, yoghurts.
Hygiene of the oral cavity.
During the period of the disease it is recommended, in addition to the standard procedure for cleaning teeth, rinse the mouth and throat with a solution of baking soda, decoctions of herbs (sage, chamomile, calendula).
Use of antipyretics.
It should be noted that viruses in the body die precisely at a high temperature (above 38 degrees), so antipyretic drugs should be given to patients only if fever is poorly tolerated, otherwise it is better to suffer - this is a guarantee of speedy recovery. Antipyretics, like antibiotics, should be taken as prescribed by the doctor.
Do not hurt.
A serious obstacle to a successful recovery may be a mistaken belief that with pneumonia it is necessary to steak properly. This in any case can not be done. Elevated body temperature is in itself a great test for the cardiovascular system, so do not create additional stresses for it.
Also, during the illness, pneumonia can not be smoked, drink alcohol, carry the disease on your feet, take a bath, shower in the presence of temperature.
Not for the benefit during the treatment of the sick heat and stuffiness in the room, dry air, dust - all this contributes to the drying up of phlegm and prevents the body from fighting infection.
Thus, in order to cope with the inflammation of the lungs at home, it is necessary to consult a doctor on time, take antibiotics prescribed by him, provide the patient with bed rest, proper care, diet and copious drinking, carefully monitor his condition to prevent complications..
Treatment of pneumonia in adults: principles and drugs
Pneumonia is the development of inflammatory changes in lung tissue. This is due to the ingress of microbes (mainly bacteria, but there may be viruses and fungi) in various ways. The danger of pneumonia is that the more or less extensive area of the lung turns off from the gas exchange process, which reduces the delivery of oxygen to the tissues. In addition, the body is poisoned by products of inflammation and destruction of the pulmonary parenchyma.Inflammation can develop:
- in out-of-hospital conditions (such pneumonia is called "non-hospital");
- a person undergoing treatment in a hospital for any other disease;
- arisen because of neurologic disorders (seizures, loss of consciousness), as a result of which the contents from the stomach got into the respiratory tract (aspiration pneumonia);
- in people with reduced immune defense.
Depending on which of the four species is observed in this case, and also considering age and the presence of chronic diseases, treatment of pneumonia in adults is prescribed.
How does a microbe enter the lungs?
1) On the bronchi:
- when they hit an aerosol, densely contaminated with pathogenic microbes. This is characteristic more for tuberculosis or viral pneumonia;
- by inhaling the contents of your mouth and throat. This process occurs almost always during deep sleep, increases when taking a sleeping pill or under the influence of alcohol. Normally, local immune defense of the lungs works, but when it is weakened by the action of the virus, when the microbes are too much or they are very aggressive, pneumonia arises.
2) Through the blood from another focus of inflammation. For example, from a bone - at an osteomyelitis, from valves of heart - at an endocarditis.
3) By contact:
- When pus comes from an adjacent organ, for example, with liver abscess;
- with penetrating chest injury.
Principles on which pneumonia is treated in adults
If a diagnosis of "pneumonia" is established, this implies the appointment of one or two antibiotics, since even if the cause was a virus (for example, the influenza virus), the bacterial flora joins in any the case.
In theory, an antibiotic should be prescribed after the microbial pathogen of inflammation is determined, and its sensitivity to the drugs is also obtained. But this requires mandatory coughing up of phlegm, which can not be done by every patient, as well as a 4-5 day wait for the result, which is unacceptable. The loss of time can lead to the death of the patient. Therefore, antibiotics are prescribed empirically, preferably after the person has given up sputum for bacteriological research, but in the same day and preferably at the same hour as the diagnosis was established (there is evidence that a loss of even 4 hours of time significantly worsens forecast).Treatment of pneumonia in adults is based on such criteria:
- Type of pneumonia: non-hospital, arisen inside the hospital or another.
- The volume of lesions of the lung tissue: segmental, lobar, polysegmentary, one- or two-sided.
- The patient's condition: takes into account his general state of health, shortness of breath, blood pressure level, degree of oxygen saturation of blood.
- Presence of concomitant pathology of the heart, lungs (eg, chronic bronchitis), kidney.
Treatment is carried out at home or in a hospital in the department of therapy or pulmonology. Sometimes hospitalization is required in the intensive care unit.
Pneumonia: DiagnosisThe classic symptoms of pneumonia are high (above 38 ° C) temperature, coughing with phlegm, deterioration in general condition (weakness, drowsiness, decreased appetite). But now there are often pneumonia with atypical course. Against the background of high or not very high temperature, diarrhea or impaired consciousness, delirium, hallucinations can appear. In this case, the cough may not be perfect.
Therefore, the diagnostic standard is to perform a chest X-ray, and computer tomography may also be needed.
Treatment of pneumonia in adults with antibiotics
For treatment, such antibiotics are used: Amoxiclav, Cefix, Sumamed, Levofloxacin, and Avelox. They are prescribed in tablets, often their combination is used. For example, with a medium flow, such a complex of drugs can be prescribed: Sumamed plus Avelox or Leflox. If the disease is caused by Klebsiella, pneumonia treatment is suggested in the hospital. In this case, intravenous and intramuscular drugs such as Amikacin, Gentamycin together with Lefloqin or Tavanik medicines are prescribed.
How much time is pneumonia treated?
Many people are interested in the actual question: how and how much is pneumonia treated? Such a disease, as pneumonia, is called inflammation of the lungs in another way. This disease has an infectious nature, and the lesion in this case concerns the lung tissue.
It can be noted that this disease is really serious and dangerous. According to statistics, approximately 5-6% of people who die with pneumonia die.
What are the symptoms of this disease?
The symptomatic of pneumonia consists in the similarity of the symptoms of pneumonia with other diseases, such as, for example, acute respiratory infections or bronchitis.Therefore, knowledge of the main symptoms for determining the onset of pneumonia is simply necessary.Such symptoms include:
- the appearance of dyspnea (is a constant sign of pneumonia);
- elevated body temperature (which indicates that inflammation has begun and the organism of the patient with pneumonia is exposed to intoxication);
- the appearance of a cough with the release of sputum (this sign appears with pneumonia almost always);
- chest pain (especially from the side);
- deterioration of the general condition of the patient, which can be severe or moderate.
According to these signs, you can independently note the symptoms of pneumonia, however, in order to correctly diagnose and start treating the disease, you need to contact clinic, where for accurate definition of inflammation the thorax is taped by a doctor, an x-ray is made to view the condition of the lungs, and special analyzes.
Treatment of pneumonia with symptomatic and pathogenetic means
Symptomatic way of treating pneumonia is used to eliminate and alleviate the main symptoms of the disease. With this type of treatment, usually the funds needed to reduce heat, and possibly the use of mucolytic drugs. The sickness of pneumonia needs to be lowered only in the case when there really is an acute necessity, that is, at a temperature that has risen above 39 degrees (in adults), or when the patient is in severe condition.
To withdraw phlegm from the bronchi, usually use mucolytic drugs. In addition, some mucolytic agents have the property of increasing the activity of antibiotics, which is important in the treatment of pneumonia. The use of mucolytics such as Ambroxol, ACS or Carbocysteine has an auxiliary effect against pneumonia, with the appointment of the attending physician and the time of taking these medications.
The basis of therapy for pneumonia is the treatment of pneumonia with antibiotics. Execution of gas exchange function in the body is taken away from the lung tissue. The air enters the tissues and organs through a complex system of tubes of different diameters and the overcoming of the alveolocapillary barrier.
Bacteria and viruses affect and affect the alveolar tissue in the event that the lung tissue is inflamed. Therefore, an accumulation of infiltrative fluid occurs in the lumen of the acini. This makes the gas exchange process more difficult, as a result of which a part of the tissue falls out of the respiratory process.
Pathogenetic is called treatment, aimed at eliminating those changes in the airways that triggered pneumonia.
There are several types of diseases that are classified in connection with the size of pathological foci:
- Focal (the process occurs in one or affects several alveoli);
- segmental (a lesion of the whole segment occurs, which in its composition has a large number of alveolar lobes);
- shared (with the inflammatory process of the whole pulmonary lobe);
- croupous (completely pulmonary fields from both sides are affected).
All these forms imply specific changes in lung tissue.
How long do they treat pneumonia?
Treatment of pneumonia can be carried out both in medical institutions and at home. With this disease, it is necessary to assess the severity of pneumonia. This is the determining factor in order to predict the duration of treatment, to prescribe the right drugs. Therefore, the period during which a patient with pneumonia will be treated in a hospital hospital is determined precisely by the severity of his illness.
There are many factors that may become the basis for hospitalization of the patient. For example, patients who for some reason do not have the opportunity to take medications as required by the scheme and schedule of treatment for pneumonia are hospitalized. Before hospitalization of a patient, the severity of pneumonia is usually established, for which a chest x-ray of a patient suffering from pneumonia is performed.
Immediately after radiography, the difference in physiological indications is considered, that is, the pressure, pulse state and breathing rate of the patient are checked. If an acute disturbance of consciousness occurs, hypoxemia, there is an infection that accompanies the disease (such infection may be symptoms meningitis or endocarditis), or if there are suspicions of concomitant diseases of the heart, liver, then mandatory hospitalization patient. Tumor formations also belong to the listed factors.
The duration of the general period of hospitalization is affected by the form of the disease, the fidelity of the selected medication and how the patient reacts with pneumonia to prescribed medications. On average, in the normal course of the disease, if treatment is given due attention, and with therapy that is successful helps the recovery, the length of time that the patient spends in the hospital ward is between two four days. But, nevertheless, under certain circumstances, the attending physician may not stop hospitalization, for in order to continue monitoring the course of the disease and to treat pneumonia more intensively course.
With mild forms of pneumonia, the patient usually stays in the hospital hospital for no more than two days, after which he leaves home on the third day and can continue to be treated independently. As for the forms of pneumonia, which are generally considered complicated, their treatment can be much longer, about nine to ten days..
The disease is treated taking into account the type of pneumonia and the original cause of the disease.
Prevention of pneumonia
In therapy, antibiotic preparations are mainly used, which are given in accordance with the age of the patient and his condition. If pneumonia does not take a complicated form, and the treatment was performed correctly and with the most suitable drugs, then the prognosis of the treatment of pneumonia is usually quite favorable. Most often, patients suffering pneumonia, full recovery occurs within three weeks, sometimes within a month.
To prevent a disease such as pneumonia, or more simply, for the prevention of pneumonia, medical experts usually recommend tempering the body in various ways, to stop taking alcohol and stop smoking tobacco products..
In addition, it is desirable to often ventilate the premises in which there is a lot of time, that is, a study and rooms in the house. It is necessary to carefully monitor the nutrition, which should be balanced, and lead a healthy lifestyle. Sport is also a good preventive tool to strengthen the immune system and prevent the onset of pneumonia.