1Meniscus of the knee joint - symptoms and treatment of pathologies and injuries
- 1.1Number of meniscuses in the musculoskeletal system
- 1.2Anatomical structure of the knee
- 1.4Causes of problems with meniscus
- 1.5Types of mechanical injuries meniscus
- 1.6Symptoms of the Meniscus
- 1.7Diagnosis of meniscus damage
- 1.8Treatment of the knee meniscus
- 1.9Emergency treatment
- 1.10Phytotherapy plus alternative medicine
2Meniscus of the knee joint - symptoms of rupture and treatment of injuries, surgery for trauma and rehabilitation
- 2.1What is the knee joint meniscus?
- 2.2Rupture of the knee joint meniscus
- 2.3Symptoms of a knee joint meniscus rupture
- 2.4How does the meniscus hurt?
- 2.5Treatment of a meniscus
- 2.6Treatment of rupture of the knee joint meniscus without surgery
- 2.9Operation to remove the knee joint meniscus
- 2.10Treatment of the meniscus with folk remedies
- 2.11The price of the operation for a meniscus
3Meniscus of the knee: causes, symptoms of injury and treatment
- 3.1Causes of problems with meniscus
- 3.2Symptoms of damage
- 3.3Treatment of a meniscus
- 3.6Folk methods
4Damage to the knee joint meniscus - symptoms and treatment
- 4.1What are the injuries of the knee joint meniscus?
- 4.2Symptoms of knee meniscus damage
- 4.3Treatment of knee joint meniscus damage
5Damage meniscus knee joint
- 5.2Causes of meniscus damage
- 5.3Symptoms of a meniscus rupture
Meniscus of the knee joint - symptoms and treatment of pathologies and injuries
Meniscus is a strong and fairly thick cartilaginous lining installed on one of the bones that enters the structure of the joint.
Direct purpose is to improve the quality of sliding of the joint bone structure when moving the joint under a variety of degrees of stress, that is, under physical stress.
In other words, the meniscus is a shock-absorbing part that excludes a mechanical or other kind of trauma of bones. Plus, he tightly connects the structure, stabilizing all the components of the joints, not giving them, diverges during movement or at rest.
Number of meniscuses in the musculoskeletal system
In the human skeleton, the menisci are located between the acromion of the scapula and the clavicle (acromioclavicular joint), the sternum and clavicle (sternoclavicular joint), temporal bone and lower jaw (temporomandibular joint), in the hip joint and meniscus of the knee the joint.
Injuries cause a rupture of the pads and ligaments, as a result of which the components of the joint lose stability and integrity. They may diverge, or a dislocation or fracture of bones may occur.
The knee meniscus is often exposed to traumatic risk. The actual confirmation is the statistics of the number of falls and mechanical injuries of the lower limbs.
Breaking meniscuses is the result of physical vertical loads and sharp falls. Injury to the knee plate is characteristic of athletes, miners and loaders.
This group is joined by ballerinas and elderly people.
Anatomical structure of the knee
What is a meniscus and why it is needed in the joint, the explanation is simple: it is a strong elastic lining between bones, which does not allow bones to abrade and diverges, contributing to their sliding, on each other without damage.
Thanks to the laying, the person easily and painlessly strides, runs and jumps, and also performs circular and flexion-extensor movements.
For the feet, this is a very important detail, because they are constantly in motion and are constantly subjected to stress.
The knee joint consists of the femoral and tibia and the patella. Their epiphyses are covered with a layer of cartilage. The joint is fixed by muscles and tendons.
What is the knee joint meniscus? These are mobile and elastic round (sickle-shaped) plates of connective tissue nature located inside the articular space. Between them are cruciform tendons.
In the structure of the knee joints there are two types of meniscus: external (lateral) and internal (medial). The information on the meniscus of the knee joint is briefly presented and what it is from the anatomical point of view.
Meniscus, more precisely the knee menisci (lateral and medial), can be deformed during movement, as a result of inhibition of the tibia.
In addition, menisci equally distribute the vertical load over the entire surface of the joint, which contributes to excellent damping during jumping, running and sharp turns.
They warn cartilaginous plates from abrasion and trauma.
The connective tissue pads fit closely to the tibia, on which the process of flexion, extension and rotation depends. The mobility of the meniscuses allows the joint to carry out the most extreme movements without hindrance, without injuring the epiphyses of bones.
The knee, bending, moves the menisci back, unbending, directing them forward. Rotation of the knee joint results in rotational movement of intraarticular pads, they follow the condyles of the femur.
The lateral rotation of the knee pulls the outer meniscus forward to the lateral condyle of the bone, and the inner rotation pulls the meniscus back. Thus, biomechanical movements of menisci occur, with free movement of the knee joints.
In the case of trauma, the biomechanics is disrupted, and the meniscus in the knee can not retain the integrity of the joint while limiting its movement.
Causes of problems with meniscus
It leads to the rupture of the meniscus mainly mechanical shocks in the knee area.
As for the rupture zone, its depth and scale, it all depends directly on the impact force and on the area of injury (lateral, the medial part of the knee, the calyx or the posterior region of the foot), as well as the type of motion of the joint during the impact (turn, flexion or extension joint). The type of injury depends on the impact surface that the knee (or knees) has hit.
And so, the main reasons for the trauma of intraarticular menisci include:
- Falling from height.
- The blow is a blunt object.
- Constant vertical loads.
- Sharp lifting of weights.
- Jumps in height and from height.
- Incorrect rotation of the joint.
- Associated diseases of the musculoskeletal system.
- Repeated trauma.
- Postoperative complications.
- Destructive or degenerative process in the bone apparatus.
- Diseases associated with impaired metabolism, innervation and blood supply.
- Arthrosis, arthritis, gout, cancer, rheumatism and diabetes.
- Age changes.
Concomitant chronic diseases like rheumatism, diabetes mellitus, hormonal imbalance and cancer lead to the destruction of the meniscus and its complete rupture. All of the above set of pathological processes lead to deforming arthrosis and disability.
According to statistical data, the meniscus pathology often affects athletes (namely, football players) and elderly people.
They primarily damage the meniscus of the knee, the symptoms of which is the immobility of the joint and a strong pain syndrome (read about the features of the treatment of the meniscus at home).
Repeated injury to the limb, which has been rehabilitated and has been in satisfactory condition for many years, is aggravated by a blow and a sharp knee turn inside or out. This fact immediately leads to a rupture of the meniscus.
In addition to these factors, there is a list of provocative causes of trauma meniscus, as:
- forcing extensor movements;
- overweight and abrupt movements;
- increased load on the knee joint;
- unnatural rotation of the knee joint, walking at the fingertips;
- weak ligamentous apparatus (congenital or acquired character);
- trauma when falling or when striking with a sharp object right in the area of the meniscus projection.
Traumatization of medial plates occurs with extensor movements, and damage to the lateral meniscus - during internal rotation of the shin.
Types of mechanical injuries meniscus
In terms of localization and degree of damage to the meniscus, injuries differ from each other, so traumatologists divided the gaps into certain types of ruptures of the inner and outer menisci.
Types of cartilage damage:
Pinching the meniscus
According to the statistics of injuries, 40% of them are a knee joint meniscus injury, the treatment of which requires immediate help. When the meniscus is caught, the joint is blocked. Treatment consists in a closed insertion of the meniscus, if it is not possible to fix it, a quick operation is recommended.
Partial damage (rupture of certain parts of the meniscus)
About 50% of patients who applied to an ambulance suffer a partial rupture of the meniscus. Often, the crack damages the horn, rarely the middle, and even less often the front horn. Cracks are longitudinal, oblique, transverse, horizontal and internal.
Full rupture of connective tissue plate
A complete rupture is the detachment of the meniscus as a whole from its attachment point. There is also a gap in the form of a "handle of the watering can when the severed part is held by the body of the plate.
Symptoms of the Meniscus
On what grounds is the diagnosis of a knee joint meniscus injury? Symptoms are the main evidence of this disease.
But you do not need to confuse the meniscus injury with other knee joint diseases like fractures, joint degeneration, synovitis, bursitis and arthritis arthritis.
In differential diagnostics instrumental research will help: X-ray, MTP and computed tomography.
Symptomatic trauma of the knee meniscus is as follows:
- Severe pain syndrome: unbearable pain during a fall or stroke, followed by a click of a rupture. It has a diffuse character, then it is localized in the lateral or medial region of the knee. After a while, the pain disappears or dulls, the movement of the joint is limited, it hurts, and when bending the knee, there is a sharp pain. In a state of rest, the pain disappears.
- Difficult or constrained movement: moving, walking and squatting is almost impossible, if the gap is partial walking is given with a large work, and climbing or going down the stairs is difficult or impossible (this concerns a full break meniscus).
- Knee Blocking: occurs when the meniscus is caught.
- Inflammatory swelling: edema begins on day 3 after trauma, it is caused by the accumulation of synovial fluid and inflammation of traumatized soft tissues.
- Manifestation of hemarthrosis of the knee: blood accumulates in the internal space of the joint. This symptom is characteristic for the rupture of the red zone of the plate, it is in this area that the meniscus is intensively blood-filled.
- Temperature increase: occurs on the 2-3 day after injury, the temperature can vary from 38-40 degrees.
Diagnosis of meniscus damage
Diagnosis is based on external examination and instrumental examination of the injured limb.
To diagnose a meniscus injury, you can perform an x-ray of the knee (to exclude fracture and bone fracture), ultrasound, MRI, computed tomography and endoscopic arthroscopy.
To confirm the rupture of the knee joint meniscus, special tests or manipulations are used, which are confirmed symptoms of the author: Landau, Baikov, Perelman, McMurray, Steinman, Chaklin and Polyakov, as well as the main symptom - the knee "blockade".
Treatment of the knee meniscus
Treatment of the meniscus of the knee joint is divided into a conservative and surgical technique, but the entire medical process depends on the degree of severity.
In some cases, proceed immediately to the operation, or the removal of the articular blockade is performed, immobilization, administration of non-steroid drugs and chondroprotectors (this is the treatment of a meniscus without surgery).
When the meniscus is displaced or infringed, the trauma doctor directs the meniscus and puts the plaster for 3 weeks or a month. During this time, drug therapy is prescribed for the treatment of the meniscus, which consists in the appointment of:
- analgesics (Analgin, Baralgin or Promedol);
- non-steroid preparations with direct effect on selective inhibitors (COX1 and COX2): Orthofen, Diclofenac, Dicloberl, Movalis or Nimesil;
- vitamin therapy: vitamins C and vitamins of group B;
- antibiotic therapy: lincomycin;
- chondroprotectors (for restoration of a meniscus and the damaged cartilage of the epiphyses of bones): Chondroxide, Chondroitin sulfate and special bioadditive Collagen;
- performance of physiotherapy, knee massage and exercise therapy.
In the case when the pathology is accompanied by the crushing of the meniscus, its complete rupture, displacement, profuse hemorrhage and separation of cruciate ligaments, horns and the body of the meniscus - an urgent operation is required the joint.
An effective method of treatment is arthroscopy. By means of such a surgical technique, restoration, partial or complete removal of platinum is performed, and meniscus transplantation is also performed.
An artificial or donor meniscus takes root quickly, cases of rejection are isolated. After the operation on the meniscus, the medication is medicated (the scheme corresponds to the above).
Rehabilitation of the limb occurs within 4 months, and sometimes the restoration of physiological and biomechanical functions, lasts up to six months.
Rehabilitation depends on the age, the general condition of the body, the immune system and the concomitant diseases of the patient.
Phytotherapy plus alternative medicine
Medication and postoperative therapy is supplemented by nontraditional prescriptions for the treatment of lower limb joints.
Some recipes for local use are time-tested:
- honey tincture: 200g of honey for 200ml of vodka, insist for a week and apply in the form of compresses;
- bulbous compress for the night: a large onion (finely grated) mixed with a spoonful of honey or sugar;
- bile compress: gauze is impregnated with medical bile, it is wrapped around the knee;
- sea mud compress;
- bandage from burdock or cabbage leaves: the leaves are wrapped around the joint and left for the whole night.
Damage to the meniscus is a serious pathology, because menisci is the main component of depreciation and strength of knee joints. Our movement and a full life depend on it.
With trauma you do not need to refer to self-treatment with folk remedies, but quickly call an ambulance. Only traumatologists can determine the degree of damage and prescribe an effective treatment.
Otherwise, patients with meniscus ruptures are waiting for a wheelchair, so do not neglect useful information: "meniscus knee joint symptoms and treatment."
A source: http://zdorovue-systavi.ru/koleni/menisk-kolennogo-sustava-simptomy-i-lechenie/
Meniscus of the knee joint - symptoms of rupture and treatment of injuries, surgery for trauma and rehabilitation
During a run or a game of basketball with a sharp load, the knee meniscus may explode.
Such a trauma is a common phenomenon in our time, during which there may be degenerative joint changes that are associated with its wear.
The meniscus of the knee joint is also called the Achilles tendon, the rupture of which is susceptible to surgical or conservative treatment, depending on the degree of damage.
What is the knee joint meniscus?
A strong and thick cartilaginous lining on the bone, which is part of the knee structure, is called meniscus.
Its direct purpose lies in the good sliding of the bone articular structure when moving under tension.
In other words, the knee joint meniscus is a shock-absorbing part that excludes the traumatism of bones, preventing them from diverge at rest or motion.
Thanks to this laying, a person can safely and easily walk, jump, run, perform folds, bends and circular movements with his feet.
The meniscus itself is the elastic and mobile sickle-shaped plates of connective nature that are located inside the knee.
The structure of the knee joint includes the medial (inner) and outer (lateral) plate.
Epiphyses of the knee joint, which consists of the patella, tibia and femur, are covered with a layer of cartilage. It connects with tendons and muscles. The knee joint's meniscus is inside it.
The medial plate is characterized by a slight mobility. Its horn is connected to the lateral surface of the ligament, attached to the tibia.
The medial meniscus from the other side (the front horn) is fixed in several ways:
- three ligaments to the tibia;
- two bundles to the cruciform front connection;
- one ligament to the tibia.
The lateral knee meniscus is located close to its outer zone. This part of the knee joint is very moving, so her injury is rare.
The anterior horn of the lateral plate is attached to the medial cartilage and the tibia by two ligaments. Sometimes fastening is carried out to the large femur by one ligament.
The blood supply of both plates is limited, since the blood vessels are located only in the area of the anterior and posterior horns.
Primary damage to the meniscus can occur due to a fall on the edge of the patella, a sharp knee hit by a heavy object or injury, accompanied by a sharp turn of the shin.
This leads to rupture of collagen fibers and the impossibility of the knee joint to fulfill its purpose. Repeated bruises are secondary causes of meniscus problems.
As a result of gout, microtraumas, rheumatism, degenerative changes of the meniscus are formed.
Plate ceases to perform its functions, becoming for the body an alien body that destroys the joint surface.
An untreated trauma eventually passes into arthrosis, and then disability occurs, when a person can only move with crutches. A meniscus injury can be caused due to:
- age changes;
- oncological diseases, diabetes mellitus;
- metabolic disorders, blood supply, innervation;
- degenerative or destructive process in the bone apparatus;
- complications after surgery;
- incorrect rotation of the joint;
- jumping / falling from height;
- sharp lifting of gravity;
- regular vertical loads;
- blow with a blunt object.
Rupture of the knee joint meniscus
Damage to cartilage often happens in dancers and athletes, but often ordinary people get into unpleasant situations. As a rule, men 20-40 years old turn to a traumatologist.
Cartilaginous tissue in children is well stretched and more plastic, so injuries among younger age are very rare.
The rupture of the knee joint meniscus occurs for the following reasons:
- standing work;
- chronic intoxication of the body;
- arthrosis, arthritis;
- chronic knee injury.
Symptoms of a knee joint meniscus rupture
After the meniscus is damaged in the knee, the victim feels a sharp pain in the joint. The leg becomes swollen, and if a rupture occurred on the site with blood vessels, then hemarthrosis develops (the accumulation of blood inside).
With a slight rupture, the main symptoms of a knee joint meniscus tear are painful clicks inside the knee, but the patient can move himself. In case of severe damage, the joint is completely blocked, becomes immovable.
Sometimes breaks are accompanied only by painful syndromes during descent from the stairs.
How does the meniscus hurt?
The defeat of the joint is immediately manifested by pain. At first it is sharp and does not allow a person to move. Then the knee gradually adapts to the trauma, the pain senses weaken, and then completely go away.
The meniscus hurts during an intense load, exceeding the strength of the structure or during physical exercises. If a person spends the whole day on his legs, then by the evening the knee pain is always worse.
The degree of the disease can be determined by the nature of the pain:
- piercing - acute stage of the disease;
- noisy, periodically manifested - a chronic meniscus.
Treatment of a meniscus
Without medical assistance, damage to the knee cartilage can not be avoided. How to treat a meniscus? There are different methods of therapy - from non-traditional to surgical.
What kind of treatment for a meniscus is a personal matter for everyone, but with a strong rupture or complete separation of the plate, you can not give up the operation. When pinching the cartilage, you need to contact a manual therapist or traumatologist.
The doctor will reposition, due to which the patient will forget about his problem for a long time. In other cases, non-surgical, gentle treatment with medications is recommended.
Treatment of rupture of the knee joint meniscus without surgery
Experts argue that if you ignore the injury is likely to develop chronic pathology. This eventually leads to the destruction of cartilaginous tissue, degeneration of neighboring cartilage and even bone tissue.
As a result of the defeat of the meniscus, arthrosis develops, which leads to disability.
Treatment of rupture of the knee joint meniscus without surgery is anesthesia, the application of an elastic bandage to the injured leg, inside of anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy procedures, lifting of joint blockade, use of creams and ointments for anesthesia.
Therapy depends on the symptoms, because there are patchwork, degenerative, horizontal, radial lesions of the cartilage.
In general, drug treatment includes the use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of capsules, tablets or ointments: Ibuprofen, Ketorolac, Diclofenac, Indomethacin.
When choosing medicines, doctors take into account interactions with other medicines and contraindications. This is especially important for elderly patients. When swelling is used intraarticular injections of corticosteroids: Prednisolone, Dexamethasone and others.
The defeat of the connective cartilage is accompanied by pain, swelling, muscle spasms. Physiotherapy helps to speed up the rehabilitation process.
The procedures allow to reduce painful sensations, to eliminate muscle atrophy, to remove puffiness, to give tone to the muscles.
Physiotherapy refers to passive rehabilitation, that is, the patient does not have any efforts in therapeutic treatment. Physiotherapeutic procedures include a number of various manipulations:
- hirudotherapy and others.
Operation to remove the knee joint meniscus
A surgery for a meniscus for partial removal or stitching of the cartilage is prescribed.
Sometimes surgical intervention occurs for organ transplantation, when part of the cartilaginous disc is removed and replaced with an implant.
After such manipulation artificial or donor cartilages take root without problems. The disadvantage of this procedure is not very rapid recovery - about 3-4 months.
Most operations to remove the meniscus of the knee joint is performed by arthroscopy. The surgeon during the intervention sees all the structures inside the knee.
With the help of this method, you can identify many problems in the knee joint, withdraw liquid from its cavity. The procedure lasts no more than 2 hours.
After manipulations with the use of arthroscopic technique, the patient can fully move.
Treatment of the meniscus with folk remedies
The patient has the right to choose independently the methods of treatment of the affected knee joint. In case of trauma, warming compresses can be applied, which are applied to the diseased limb. They are made from honey and 96% alcohol in the ratio:.
The melted on pair the weight distribute on a sick surface, then from above cover with cellophane and a warm cloth. It is required to hold a compress every day for 2 hours. The course of treatment is one month.
Treatment of the meniscus with folk remedies includes other procedures:
- Remove the pain in the affected area will help the burdock leaf. Freshly picked plant must be applied at night in the form of a compress.
- To remove the discomfort after the first medical aid will help onion juice. It is required to grind 2 onions and 2 garlic, pour a mass of 6% apple cider vinegar (500 ml). The mixture should be insisted for a week, after which it should be rubbed into the knee 2 times / day. Massage movements should last at least 10 minutes.
- A major role in the rehabilitation of the knee joint elements is played by regular exercises with a rubber ball, which must be placed under the knee and squeezed for several minutes.
- Regardless of the mechanism of damage, the appearance of swelling and pain can be quickly removed by coniferous baths. For cooking, you need 500 g of needles, filled with 2 liters of water. The product boils for half an hour, filtered and poured into a warm bathroom. The procedure is carried out every other day for 30 minutes.
- With increasing pain, the necessary condition is not to straighten or bend your legs. For this, it is recommended to fix the knee during the loadings with an elastic bandage until complete healing.
The price of the operation for a meniscus
The cost of surgical intervention depends on the level of the clinic, the pricing policy of the medical institution, the amount of planned manipulations, the quality of the transplant.
In Moscow clinics, the price of an MRI of the knee joint starts at , 00 rubles. The cost of surgery for a meniscus (torn off) varies from , 00 to 8, 00 rubles.
The price in Israeli clinics for surgical intervention starts at $ 2, 00.
A source: http://sovets.net/11031-menisk-kolennogo-sustava.html
Meniscus of the knee: causes, symptoms of injury and treatment
Today, the medical terms "knee joint meniscus rupture" or "Achilles tendon rupture" in the sports section of the football news are repeated as often as a penalty and goal. Of course, football is a contact game, and without injuries to the lower limbs can not do, and during matches the risk of damage is much higher than in training.
And the cause of the injuries is obvious: great speed, rapid change of direction and sharp blows. Reduce the risk of injury, play without pain, fatigue, just comfortable to play, helps properly selected shoes, knee bandaging and accurate calculation of their strength.
The knee joint of a man is the most complex in structure, and for us the most important. Knees are under tremendous strain throughout their entire life.
But the person, and the sportsman in particular, demands from the knee joint at times impossible.
Here, and the desire to be the first, and big money, and prohibitive loads.
So, let's get acquainted with the problem more closely.
In the photo on the left - a healthy knee joint. Right - damage to the meniscus
Causes of problems with meniscus
In the cavity of the knee joint there are two cartilaginous formations - knee menisci. Their main purpose is depreciation during movement and protection of articular cartilage. They limit excess mobility and reduce friction in the knee joint.
Causes of rupture or tearing of the meniscus: a sharp sliding impact of a heavy object on the knee, a fall on the edge of the step with a patella or trauma, accompanied by a sharp turn of the lower leg or inside.
Repeated injuries or bruises lead to chronic meniscopathy, and subsequently to meniscus rupture. As a result of chronic microtrauma, gout, rheumatism, general intoxication of the body, degenerative changes of the meniscus develop.
During the injury, the meniscus tears and ceases to fulfill its basic purpose, becoming for the body a practically alien body. And this body will slowly destroy the joint surface.
An unhealed trauma turns into a deforming arthrosis, and a person often becomes an invalid.
This disease is more susceptible to players and sportsmen of game sports, people who spend most of their time on their feet.
It happens that the meniscus can be damaged and as a result of a combined injury, when a knee is hit hard and the shin sharply turns inside or out.
When injuries immediately apply ice (or something cold)
Symptoms of damage
Often at the initial stage, such a disease as the knee joint meniscus - the symptoms are similar in appearance with other diseases of the knee joint. Only after 2-3 weeks, when the reactive phenomena subsided, we can speak specifically about the breaking of the meniscus.
- Sharply expressed pain of diffuse nature, after a while it is located on the inner or outer surface of the knee.
- Difficulty in ascending and descending the stairs.
- Trophism of muscle tissue is sharply reduced.
- When bending the joint, a characteristic click occurs.
- The joint is enlarged in volume. With this symptom, treatment begins immediately.
- Pain in sports.
- Temperature rise in the joint area.
Symptoms of damage are often nonspecific, the same symptoms can occur with severe bruises, sprains, arthroses, so the doctor requires a thorough examination of the patient.
Depending on the injury, the meniscus can come off the capsule, break off transversely or longitudinally, may be squashed. The outer meniscus is mobile enough, so it is often squeezed, and ruptures occur at the meniscus, fixed in the cavity of the knee joint.
Naturally, if the knee joint is damaged, your movements are severely constrained
Treatment of a meniscus
As a result of a trauma, the meniscus can break or break completely. Depending on the severity of the condition, the age of the patient and his vital activity, the physician chooses a method of treating the knee meniscus: conservative or operative.
But first aid, regardless of the severity of the injury, the victim immediately have complete rest, a cold compress and the imposition of an elastic bandage on the knee joint area. To prevent or relieve swelling, the patient is placed slightly above the breast level.
The doctor at the clinic recommends that the patient take a picture to make sure the integrity of the bones. And to exclude the presence of internal damage, ultrasound is performed.
In the diagnosis of meniscus lesions, a special role is played by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
But a full picture of the damage allows us to see arthroscopy of the knee joint.
If there was only a displacement of the meniscus, then an experienced traumatologist can quickly cope with the problem. Then, for about three weeks, gypsum is applied, followed by a restorative therapy.
Traditional treatment of the disease includes non-steroid pain medications: Meloxicam, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac.
To restore cartilaginous tissue, the joint needs chondroprotectors, which improve the metabolism in the repair tissue and the intra-articular fluid - this is Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate. Biologically active additive Collagen Ultra prevents inflammation and participates in the restoration of cartilage, increases its moisture retention properties.
For grinding the joint, use ointments Alesan, Ketoral, Dolgit, Voltaren, balm Zabi stone.
With limited mobility and pain inside the joint bag, Ostenil is administered. Improvement occurs after the first injection. At the course of treatment requires at least five ampoules.
If possible, you can use stings of bees or cream Tentorium, which contains bee venom.
For complete restoration of the knee joint, the patient is prescribed therapeutic gymnastics with the LFK instructor, a course of physiotherapy and massage.
Myostimulation relaxes, strengthens the muscles of the thigh. Laser therapy and magnetotherapy improve microcirculation and metabolic processes in muscle cells.
Physiotherapy - one of the components of complex treatment
And at home you can do the exercises:
- Under the knee put a small rubber ball, bend the knee, squeezing the ball and straighten the knee, without dropping the ball.
- Walking on all fours, overcoming a small pain.
- Compress of honey and alcohol in the ratio: it is applied to the joint for two hours, fixed with an elastic bandage and covered with a warm kerchief.
- A pack of grated bulbs and a spoonful of sugar can be applied overnight, before wrapping it with a food film and a warm scarf.
- Within ten days, apply a compress of medical bile.
- Malakhov recommends making compresses from a child's urine, which removes the swelling well.
- Compress of burdock leaves is kept on the knee for up to 8 hours.
All folk methods, as well as physical exercises - you can apply at home.
If all conservative methods of treatment are tried, and there are no improvements, then we have to talk about surgery.
If you have a knee meniscus - is surgery really necessary?
Indications for surgical intervention are:
- Crushing the meniscus.
- Rupture and displacement of the meniscus.
- Hemorrhage into the joint cavity.
- Full separation of the horns and the body of the meniscus.
In the area of the meniscus body, insufficient blood circulation, therefore, the breaking of the body of the meniscus rarely heals, so in this case the patient has to complete or partial resection of the meniscus.
Arthroscopy is performed not only for the diagnosis of the joint condition, but also for the treatment of the knee joint meniscus.
The most common operations are stitching and removal of the meniscus, in exceptional cases, a meniscus transplantation is performed, i.e. remove the damaged part and replace it with a transplant.
Artificial or donor menisci take root well, only recovery of working capacity takes 3-4 months.
Operation by the method of arthroscopy has a number of advantages:
- Small cuts on the skin of the patient, after which no scars remain.
- Short duration of intervention, no more than two hours.
- Absence of plaster bandages.
- Fast postoperative rehabilitation.
- Shortened hospital stay
- The operation can be performed on an outpatient basis.
In patients of a young age, one can even save a meniscus torn to share. And after a month of sedentary and bed rest, you can start sports. For this purpose, exercise bikes and swimming are best. With proper treatment, there is complete recovery.
Professional athletes often choose a cardinal solution - surgery. In order for the process of recovery to take place faster, it is necessary to strictly follow the doctor's prescriptions and eat right.
A source: http://SustavZdorov.ru/koleni/menisk.html
Damage to the knee joint meniscus - symptoms and treatment
The size of the cartilaginous layer in the knee joint is quite small, only 3-4 mm in thickness and 6-8 cm in length. It is very easy to injure, doing sports, dancing, or just working at the dacha.
Therefore, damage to the meniscus of the knee joint is so common - symptoms and treatment of this problem depend on the degree of injury and a kind of pathology, which can only be diagnosed by a specialist on the basis of X-ray studies or tomography.
What are the injuries of the knee joint meniscus?
First of all, it is necessary to find out which cartilaginous layer has been injured.
There are only two of them, respectively, damage the internal (lateral) meniscus of the knee joint and the outer (medial) one.
As a rule, therapy is better liable to a second type of pathology, since the outer layer of cartilaginous tissue is more accessible.
It is also necessary to determine the location of the injury. There is damage to the posterior horn of the medial or lateral meniscus, the body and the anterior horn.
The next method of classification involves an accurate diagnosis of the form of injury. Distinguish the following damage to cartilage layers in the knee:
- tearing or fracture;
- degeneration of the meniscus;
- cystic degeneration;
- rupture of intermenal ligaments;
- mixed injuries.
In most cases, the doctor may still differentiate the listed pathologies during the examination, but to determine the diagnosis, an instrumental examination - MRI, CT or X-ray - is always prescribed.
Symptoms of knee meniscus damage
Despite a rather extensive list of possible injuries, clinical manifestations of problems with menisci are approximately the same.
For the acute period of damage to the interlayers of cartilaginous tissue, the following symptoms are characteristic:
- severe pain in the area of injury;
- almost complete limitation of mobility of the joint, especially when trying to unbend the knee;
- marked swelling in the area of injury;
- presence of effusion (presence of a capsule with a liquid in the joint);
- palpable inflammation;
- increase in local temperature;
- sometimes - redness of the skin above the knee joint.
Over time, reactive symptoms subsided, followed by less pronounced but specific symptoms, among which the most frequent are the following:
- Landau - a sharp pain when trying to sit with crossed legs, "in Turkish
- Baikova - when the knee is bent, bent earlier at an angle of 90 degrees, and pressing on the joint space, there is pain;
- Polyakova - acute pain in the meniscus with support on the heel of the injured limb in a half-joint with a healthy leg extended upwards;
- Steinman - discomfort in the performance of rotational movements of the knee, bent by 90 degrees;
- Stairs Perelman - pain during descent on the steps.
The listed and other signs are used by traumatologists as tests for diagnosis.
With chronic damage to the cartilaginous layer in the knee joint, there are no severe symptoms, sometimes there are weak boles, a slight atrophy of the 4-hip femoral muscle, synovitis.
Treatment of knee joint meniscus damage
Therapy of any meniscus injuries is developed exclusively by a specialist, it depends on the variety and degree of damage. If the pathology is not too serious, a course of conservative treatment, physiotherapy procedures, massage and gymnastics sessions is sufficient.
In the case of tears and detachments of the meniscus, urgent surgical intervention is required, since such traumas can lead to irreversible degenerative changes in the joint and even disability.
Operation on the meniscus of the knee joint The meniscus is in different joints. But, as practice shows, the most common thing to suffer is a gasket located in the knee cap. There are different ways of treating meniscus. The most effective of them is an operation. The latter will be discussed in more detail in the article.
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A source: http://WomanAdvice.ru/povrezhdenie-meniska-kolennogo-sustava-simptomy-i-lechenie
Damage meniscus knee joint
Damage to meniscusoccupy the first place in terms of prevalence among all injuries of the knee joint. Most often meniscus lesions are the result of a sports injury. The internal meniscus is injured 4-7 times more often than the outer meniscus.
In an acute period of meniscus damage, the patient is concerned about knee pain and restriction of movements in it, joint blocking, puffiness, possibly the appearance of fluid in the joint or development hemarthrosis.
The diagnosis is established by the traumatologist on the basis of the data of the examination, the anamnesis, in some cases - the MRI of the knee joint. Treatment includes the elimination of blockade, ensuring complete rest, according to indications - puncture of the joint.
If it is impossible to eliminate the blockade, repeated blockades, the maintenance of pain syndrome requires surgery.
Damage to meniscusoccupy the first place in terms of prevalence among all injuries of the knee joint. Most often meniscus lesions are the result of a sports injury. The internal meniscus is injured 4-7 times more often than the outer meniscus.
Menisci called cartilaginous pads located inside the knee joint.
Two meniscus: the lateral (outer) and the medial (internal) are between the joint surfaces of the tibial and femur. The main functions of meniscuses are amortization during running and walking.
In addition, menisci act as stabilizers of the knee joint. Menisci are elastic and can change their shape during movements in the knee joint.
The mobility of the meniscus is not the same. The inner meniscus is connected with the medial lateral ligament and is less mobile than the outer ligament, so its damage occurs more often.
At the edges of the meniscus fused with the capsule of the joint and blood supply due to the capsule vessels.
The internal parts of the meniscus do not have their own arteries and are fed from the intra-articular fluid.
This feature of nutrition causes a good fusion of menisci with marginal injuries and a complete lack of adhesion when internal parts are damaged.
Causes of meniscus damage
Usually the cause of meniscus rupture is the rotation (rotation) of a half-bent or bent shin at the time of the load on the leg (during a run on skates or skis, playing hockey or football). Damage to the inner meniscus occurs when the shin is rotated outward, external damage occurs when the tibia rotates internally.
Less often meniscus damage occurs as a result of falling on straightened legs (jumps in length and height, from the projectile) or a direct blow to the knee (strikes against the edge of the step, impacts by the moving object).
The probability of meniscus rupture increases with degeneration as a result of repeated traumas, chronic intoxications, gout or rheumatism. Meniscus lesions can be accompanied by traumas of other elements of the knee joint (ligaments, cartilage, fat body or capsule).
In traumatology, the following varieties of meniscus ruptures are distinguished:
- Detachment of the meniscus at the attachment site (a separation of the anterior and posterior horns and separation of the meniscus body in the zone adjacent to the joint capsule);
- ruptures of the internal part (far away from the joint capsule) of the body part, the anterior and posterior horns of the meniscus;
- a combination of internal and pericapsular injuries (located next to the joint capsule) of the meniscus zone;
- meniscopathy (changes in menisci due to degeneration or chronic trauma);
- cystic degeneration of the meniscus (usually the outer meniscus suffers).
There are incomplete, full, transverse, longitudinal ("handle of the watering can"), fragmented and flap-like tears of the meniscus. Possible meniscus lesions with displacement and without displacement of the torn part.
The longitudinal discontinuities of the meniscus are most often observed as the "handle of the watering can". Isolated lesions of the posterior (25-30%) and anterior (9%) horns are less common.
As a result of repeated blockages of the joint, tearing of the meniscus causes cartilage damage to the internal condyle of the femur (chondromalacia) and anterior cruciate ligament.
Symptoms of a meniscus rupture
There are acute and chronic periods of meniscus damage. The acute period begins immediately after the meniscus rupture.
The patient complains of severe pain in the knee joint area. Movement in the joint is severely limited. The shin is fixed in the flexion position.
At attempt of movements there is a feeling of jamming of a joint - blocking (blockade, block) of a joint.
Possible damage to the meniscus, not accompanied by blockage of the knee joint. In this case, the pain at first has a diffuse character, and, after the onset of edema and hemarthrosis (blood) or effusion (fluid) in the joint becomes strictly localized along the line of the joint gap.
In the absence of blocking, the diagnosis of a meniscus rupture in an acute period presents significant difficulties. The absence of characteristic symptoms leads to the fact that patients are often diagnosed with sprains or bruises of the knee joint.
Diagnosis of the meniscus rupture is more informative in the subacute period (2-3 weeks from the time of injury), when nonspecific trauma symptoms become less pronounced.
At this stage, the traumatologist can establish a diagnosis of a meniscus rupture based on local pain and infiltration in the area of the joint space, special pain tests (mediolateral test, compression symptoms, extension symptoms (Landa, Baikov, Roche) and rotational symptoms) and knee MRI data the joint.
Even if the meniscus damage is not diagnosed, as a result of the treatment, the pain, swelling and effusion in the joint disappear, however, subsequently reappear after minor trauma or awkward movement. If the symptoms of meniscus damage appear repeatedly, they talk about the chronic period of the disease, which is characterized by pain, a decrease in the volume of movements and inflammatory phenomena.
In the acute period, when the joint is blocked under local anesthesia, the blockade is performed, in the presence of fluid (hemarthrosis or effusion in the joint), joint puncture is performed. Then a gypsum log can be applied to the bent knee joint for a period of 3 weeks. In the future, the patient is prescribed exercise therapy and physiotherapy.
The operation is indicated if it is impossible to eliminate the blockade in the acute period, repeated blockades, pains and restriction of movements in the joint in the chronic period.
At present, when choosing the method of surgical treatment, preference is given to arthroscopic interventions that reduce the level of joint trauma and reduce the likelihood of developing complications.
Meniscus, if possible, try to preserve, since after its removal, wear of the articular surfaces is accelerated, leading to the rapid development of osteoarthritis.
A source: http://www.krasotaimedicina.ru/diseases/traumatology/meniscus-injury