- The life cycle of the pathogen
- Features of infection
- What are the symptoms of the appointment for enterobiosis?
- How important is it to make an analysis on enterobiosis for some healthy people?
- How is the analysis done for enterobiasis?
- How are the results of the survey assessed?
- Do you need special preparation before taking the material?
- Recommendations for parents on measures to prevent enterobiasis
- Related Videos
Enterobiosis is a disease caused by the ingress of a pinworm into the human body. More often it is found in preschool children. The disease is accompanied by painful symptoms. Therefore scraping for enterobiasis, as a method of diagnosis, is so important for the beginning of the treatment of the child. It must be handed over to the kids who attend the kindergarten. At an older age, the study is included in the compulsory list when registered in a summer camp.
The analysis on enterobiosis in adults is carried out either according to clinical indications (in the presence of symptoms) or to employees of children's institutions in preventive order to prevent spread.
In fact, the name of the method "scraping for enterobiasis" does not correspond to the actual fence of the material. It is an entrenched expression of an obsolete way. In children's polyclinics, cotton swabs, sticky tape and other materials have long been used.
The life cycle of the pathogen
Pinworms belong to the worms of the class of nematodes. The whole cycle of transformations takes 30 days. Infection occurs when the worms of mature worms survive on the products, in water, on dirty laundry, and the dishes that the sick person used. In laboratories they are called "egg-swans".
In the stomach are not destroyed and reach the intestine. Here, a larva hatches from eggs and grows into an adult. Pinworms have females and males. They freely move through the intestines. Maximum concentrated in the large intestine.
To lay eggs, the female crawls out through the anus at night, at which time the muscular sphincter is relaxed. Small transparent eggs are deposited in the folds of the skin around the anus. Female after masonry perish.
Collecting material and checking the analysis of feces for enterobiasis does not make sense, because eggs are absent in the bowel movements. Therefore, the most common diagnosis of enterobiosis is to identify the eggs of the worms around the anus.
Features of infection
Rarer larvae hatch in the anus zone, crawl into the intestine and continue to live there. More often they are carried by the child's hands on toys, linen, in a pot, on the floor, carpeting. These items become dangerous for infecting other children and adults.
The fecal-oral route of infection is the ingestion of pathogens into the hands, then into the mouth
Children do not have sanitary skills, they do not wash their hands by themselves, they do not observe the rules of behavior and protection. Therefore, it is in the children's team that the disease spreads quickly. Duration of the disease contributes to the possibility of repeated self-infection with the resumption of the cycle of parasite development.
In adults and adolescents, helminthic invasion is caused by:
- violation of personal hygiene;
- the use of unwashed berries and vegetables as food;
- a bad habit to nibble your nails.
What are the symptoms of the appointment for enterobiosis?
Among diseases from the helminthiosis group, enterobiosis ranks first in the world in terms of population affection. The most vivid signs of the disease are found in children. Adults have a minimum of symptoms, so they can become a hidden source of infection.
A study for enterobiasis is recommended if:
- the child complains of itching in the anus, especially when expressed in the night (the female comes out), can spread to the genitals, the perineum;
- the baby does not sleep well, becomes irritable, crying;
- on the skin around the anus during the examination reveal traces of scratching, dying scratches, possible areas of inflammation and suppuration;
- A small patient experiences pain in places of itching, which intensify in a sitting position.
Parents pay attention that the child:
- the belly is constantly swollen, there is a frequent rumbling;
- occasionally there are pains such as intestinal colic;
- nausea and vomiting are possible;
- disrupted the process of bowel movement (constipation is replaced by diarrhea);
- there was incontinence at night.
In severe cases, weakened children are able to:
- seizures, like epilepsy.
Enterobiosis is able to mask under attacks of appendicitis, which shows the penetration of worms into the zone of the appendix:
- pain localizes in the lower abdomen on the right;
- the temperature rises;
- there is vomiting, nausea.
Differential diagnostics is carried out. Positive results of scraping on enterobiosis are possible and with a combined pathology. But the doctor can start a specific conservative treatment with antihelminthics and do without surgery.
Licking your fingers, the child becomes infected with worms and other pathogens
Sometimes a child is examined for a long time because of a good or even increased appetite. Among other analyzes, scraping on enterobiasis is indicated. Increased consumption of nutrients for contained helminths must be taken into account in the algorithm for eliminating various diseases.
Adults should remember that helminths play a major role in reducing overall immunity. A child can often get colds, do not cope with physical exertion in physical education classes. Lack of informing parents about how and why they take scraping for enterobiasis leads to unnecessary use of antibacterial drugs, even more suppression of the body's defenses.
How important is it to make an analysis on enterobiosis for some healthy people?
Studies on enterobiasis are carried out by healthy people:
- when referring to a planned hospitalization or to a sanatorium;
- registration for work in children's institutions on specialties that require a medical book (workers of food units, teachers, educators);
- visiting the swimming pool;
- collection of medical records before entering the school, a kindergarten, after a long (how many days the pediatrician or the school doctor tells) school passes for various reasons.
How is the analysis done for enterobiasis?
Decide how to pass the analysis on enterobiosis to a specific patient, can be given the age, remoteness from the medical institution and the difficulties of delivery to the laboratory. The fence of the material can be made both in the infectious surgery of the polyclinic, and in more comfortable and quiet home conditions. But then it is necessary to provide delivery to the laboratory within two hours.
Previously, scraping was done with a special sterile loop. At the same time, pain is not felt, just a feeling of touch remains. Now the problem of how to take a material is solved in two ways.
With the help of Scotch tape
For home selection, tape with a sticky surface or a narrow Scotch tape is more suitable. From it cut a piece up to 6 cm. The sticky surface is pressed several times against the skin around the anus. In this case, a child or an adult should be in bed, in a position on the side.
Then it must be glued to a flat glass surface (a piece of glass, a can). Always rinse well with soap and rinse with boiling water. If you want to pass the analysis in a private clinic, then there is a special container or tube with a stopper. The bank with scotch tape and direction form should be delivered to the laboratory as soon as possible.
Using standard cotton buds
To moisten one end of a cotton swab with Vaseline or glycerin. The patient's buttocks are slightly moved apart and several times are carried by a stick on the skin around the anus. This is how the smear for enterobiasis is prepared. Then the stick should be placed in a test tube, a clean jar with a lid, some mothers use empty and washed probes, where there were perfumes.
The standard swab picking kit is convenient and does not require any adaptation
Transport analysis must be carried out within 2 hours, a violation of this requirement devalues the results of the study. Since the current rules for the collection of material can be violated intentionally, persons who are subject to medical examination on a professional basis, the material is collected only in the infectious room under control.
How are the results of the survey assessed?
For conducting the microscopy of the material, it's enough to have a working day. The next day the result is given on hands or it is transferred to the directing doctor.
If the patient has no signs of infection and the result is negative, then he is not infected and is not a peddler of enterobiasis. But, if the patient has any symptoms, and the analysis showed a negative result, to avoid errors in the collection of material, it is recommended to repeat it three times.
Control checks established that the probability of detecting pinworms in a single analysis is 50%. It is recommended to conduct the study consistently for three days or at intervals of up to two weeks. Then the reliability increases to 90%. The five-fold delivery of the test increases the detectability up to 99%.
The certificate issued with the signature of the person conducting the analysis and the stamp of the institution should be filled with a clear handwriting and contain an answer to the question whether the worms
When receiving positive data about the presence of worms, the patient is not allowed to work, the child is in kindergarten and school for the duration of the course of anthelmintic therapy and control study. It is necessary to examine family members and contact persons. When the recovery from worms is achieved (according to the results of the analysis), tolerance is given.
Another option is to send a patient to a commercial institution to conduct a polymerase chain reaction from the blood plasma. It consists in revealing the genetic material of pinworms in any part of the body. It is considered the most sensitive way. But it refers to expensive research.
Do you need special preparation before taking the material?
Research on eggs of worms is interested, on the contrary, in the absence of any preparation. Washing removes part of the material, so at home it is recommended to use a sticky tape and a smear early in the morning.
It is better to refrain from defecation, to women and from urination to prevent flushing of the material. If it is not possible to deliver the sample to the laboratory, it is allowed to store in the refrigerator at a temperature of +8 ° C for no longer than eight hours.
For persons conducting a survey by a certain date (hospitalization, processing of documents in a kindergarten, departure to a sanatorium), it is necessary to take into account that the duration of the analysis for enterobiasis is limited to ten days. On the eleventh day, it is recognized as invalid and will require re-surrender. This is due to the possibility of infection during this period.
Recommendations for parents on measures to prevent enterobiasis
Parents of small children know perfectly well that their child drags everything that he finds on the street (sticks, stones, sand, other people's toys) without permission. Licking his fingers, the child takes inward all the infections with which he has contacted.
Gradually it is necessary to instill in the child skills on washing hands
- Sadic age requires constant monitoring of the baby. From relatives one can expect obligatory own observance of the hygienic regime after going to the toilet, washing.
- Do not give unwashed vegetables and fruits to your child, even from your garden. Above them, enough flies have worked.
- To school it is required to wean the child to gnaw nails, to suck a finger.
- An indispensable condition is an examination of the anus of the baby. The appearance of scratching is the reason for contacting the pediatrician.
- Some mothers unnecessarily give children antihistamines. We emphasize that they are not a means of preventing enterobiasis.
- The best thing to do is conduct an analysis on enterobiasis quarterly. And when there are signs - as needed. Course treatment is harmless enough.
In order to prevent the effects of enterobiasis, it is recommended to check the tests for revealing the eggs of worms (scraping for enterobiasis). The collection of material is simple for parents. The result helps to grow a healthy heir.