Secondary glaucoma is a complication (consequence) of injuries of the eyeball, as well as a number of ophthalmic diseases. It is accompanied by excessive formation of intraocular fluid or a violation of its outflow, resulting in a marked increase in intraocular pressure. More details about the symptomatic picture of the disease, all the causes of its development and possible ways of treatment, read this material. Also in the article will be considered preventive measures that hamper the development of secondary glaucoma in patients with various pathologies in the anamnesis.
- 1Definition of disease
- 4Possible complications
- 5.2Laser treatment
Definition of disease
Glaucoma is a serious ophthalmic disease, the main signs of which are a strong increase in intraocular pressure, retinal degeneration and complete blindness.It develops as a complication of various ophthalmic diseases or eyeball injuries. Characteristic signs of secondary glaucoma - excessive formation of intraocular fluid or violation of its outflow.
In the absence of treatment, secondary glaucoma leads to degeneration of the retina and complete blindness.
Secondary glaucoma can occur for a number of reasons.Consider the main:
- Inflammatory processes in the anterior part of the choroid.They are accompanied by the formation of adhesions between the capsule of the lens and the iris until the pupil edge is in a circle. As a result, the flow of eye fluid is blocked, and intraocular pressure increases sharply.
- Fakomorphic changes - occur as a result of clouding the lens with age or with cataracts, as a result of eye injuries and lens damage.As in the first case, the corresponding changes block the function of the circulation of the liquid.
- Fakotopic factors - concern traumas and some diseases, as a result of which excessive stretchability of tissues develops.If the zinn ligaments are torn, the lens changes position, the ciliary body is irritated, and the volume of production of the intraocular fluid increases.
- Phacolithic cause - as a result of the general aging of the body and a gradual clouding of the lens, microscopic lesions are formed.Through them, a dense viscous substance of the lens begins to enter the eyeball and settle in the corner of the anterior chamber.
- Post-traumatic factors - burns, mechanical injuries, exposure to radiation factors.
- Neovascular causes - in this case, secondary glaucoma develops as a result of the growth of new vessels in the corner of the anterior chamber of the eye. Vessels block the way out of the fluid, and the pressure increases.
- Neoplastic factors - if the tumor grows in the eye, the pressure rises, and the outflow of the intraocular fluid becomes more difficult.The tumor is primarily located or sprouts into the tissues from the outside.
Perhaps the development of secondary glaucoma as a result of profuse hemorrhage in the anterior chamber of the eye (hyphema). After trauma, the disease does not appear until after a long time.
Secondary glaucoma usually does not make itself felt until the moment of persistent deterioration of vision.Symptoms of sharp exacerbations:
- Severe pain in the eye.
- Deterioration of vision.
- Vomiting, nausea.
- Photophobia, light.
- Increase the size of the eye and / or cornea.
The most dangerous complications of secondary glaucoma that develop in the absence of adequate treatment are retinal degeneration and complete blindness due to optic nerve atrophy.
For the treatment of glaucoma, three methods are used: conservative medical, surgical, laser.
Drug treatment of secondary glaucoma can be carried out in the following areas:
- decreased intraocular pressure;
- improvement of blood supply to the membranes of the eye and optic nerve;
- normalization of metabolic processes in the tissues of the eye.
The main goal of drug treatment is the normalization of intraocular pressure.
The main thing to remember is that only a doctor should prescribe anti-glaucoma drops, because the drugs differ in the principles of action and the speed of manifestation of the effect.During treatment, be sure to see an ophthalmologist.
Medicines are divided into two groups - drugs that improve the outflow of intraocular fluid, and drugs that depress the production of moisture.
Laser operations are performed to eliminate blocks that prevent normal outflow of liquid.They are guaranteed to restore it, they are carried out without general anesthesia (the surgeon instills local anesthetic into the eye), have a small rehabilitation period. In this case, the effect of surgery with time can decrease, often there is a development of a reactive syndrome, possibly damage to the epithelial cells of the corneal layer of the eye.
Surgical treatment of secondary glaucoma is carried out if the other methods do not bring the desired results.Some doctors believe that it is necessary to abandon operations in principle, while others prescribe their holding already at the initial stages glaucomatous process - that is, a single point of view on the effectiveness of surgical interventions in the treatment of pathology for a given there is no moment. Types of operations - penetrating, non-penetrating, normalizing moisture production, reducing the amount of formation of intraocular fluid.
The main ways to prevent secondary glaucoma:
- Timely treatment of ophthalmic diseases.
- Moderate physical activity.
- Proper nutrition.
- Regular examinations of the oculist.
- Correction of the way of life as a whole.
Constant visual tension, work with an inclined head, with poor illumination, extreme temperatures, constant stresses are the factors that provoke the development of secondary glaucoma.
Secondary glaucoma can develop under the influence of different factors and in the absence of proper treatment is fraught with serious complications right up to complete blindness. In the early stages of pathology, almost never makes itself felt. Methods of treatment - laser, surgical, medicamentous.