Do I need to get a flu shot?
The flu is so dangerous for people that it is on the third place among the most treacherous diseases of our time. Therefore, doctors recommend that you vaccinate to avoid the flu and its complications. Meanwhile, up to 80% of US residents prefer to vaccinate, about 10% of the population of Russia, and in Ukraine - up to 1%. There are a lot of rumors about vaccinations - true and not so. Do I need to get a flu shot?
Who needs flu vaccination?
WHO argues that although everyone is sick with the flu, not everyone needs vaccinations. But there are groups of people who need flu shots. It:
- Children from six months who have not yet acquired immunity to colds and whose immune system is still very weak
- People with chronic diseases of the respiratory system (but not in an acute state and without temperature)
- Those who have immunodeficiency
- People who have crossed the threshold of 50 years
Why is it so difficult to get a flu shot?
In the composition of the influenza virus, there are special antigens, the formula and form of which forms varieties of the same viruses. These varieties, to our regret, change their composition every year, because of what it is quite difficult to find an effective vaccine against the flu.
In order for the vaccine to be developed correctly and, accordingly, it is necessary to rely on the doctors' forecasts regarding the likely changes in the structure of the virus. This is quite difficult, so if the vaccine is not properly selected, you can not guess and not protect the person from the flu completely. The fact is that if scientists have not guessed with the vaccine, then it will not have enough antimatter to withstand the flu. With an incorrectly selected vaccine, its effectiveness is reduced by a factor of three - this explains the inefficiency of vaccinations.
What is the composition of the flu vaccine?
As part of the vaccination against influenza viruses are contained, but not alive, but already killed. These viruses, getting into the human body, increase its immunity and cause it to fight with the infection. Having trained on weak viruses, the body instantly recognizes influenza viruses that get to it from the external environment. And easily copes with them. In this - the essence of the vaccine against the flu.
The vaccine differs from the present influenza virus in that it contains too weak viruses or inactivated viruses (generally without virus content). These are inactivated viruses and can give most complications after the flu. After the vaccination, two weeks pass from the flu, and this is the time when the body fully adapts to this type of flu. Therefore, it is better to vaccinate against influenza not during epidemics, but before their onset - beginning in October.
Pros of vaccination against influenza
Vaccination against influenza helps reduce the incidence of influenza in a rather impressive scale - this is a fact. For example, among the elderly people who were vaccinated against the flu, up to 60% later they are not sick with acute respiratory diseases in general. Vaccination from the flu makes it possible not to ache more than 80% of people of all ages who have been vaccinated. Children who were vaccinated against influenza cease to be ill in more than 92% of cases. Vaccination against influenza also reduces the likelihood of complications by more than a third - one of them is a painful otitis for children.
Cons of vaccination against influenza
There are also side effects of flu vaccination. They are related to:
- Incorrect use of the vaccine (not corresponding to the influenza strain)
- Vaccination in those conditions that are prohibited for vaccinations - pregnancy in the first trimester, high fever, acute disease during vaccination
- A negative reaction to vaccine substances that were not taken into account
Consequences of the negative reaction of the body to the vaccine - weakness of the body, redness at the injection site, fever and flu symptoms in mild form - headache, lethargy and so on. With a normal reaction of the body to the vaccine, these symptoms disappear within two days after the vaccination, and when complications - a person's condition deteriorates sharply after 6-12 hours from the time of vaccination.
It is worth knowing that, in addition to vaccination against influenza, there are other methods of prevention: more abundant drinking with vitamins (decoction of rose hips, sea buckthorn, tea with lemon and honey), wearing an antiviral mask, taking multivitamin preparations to maintain immunity, frequent washing hands. They should be used, because in the cold season, a person loses a lot of vitamins - up to 70% of what is needed!
Therefore, using a vaccine against influenza as the only means is wrong. But you do not need to give it up. Especially if you find yourself on the list of people who need flu shots.
Who does not have a flu vaccine?
There are people who do not get a flu shot, because it can cause a number of complications.
- These are people with chronic diseases of the nervous system
- Those who have problems with the genitourinary system (ureter, bladder, kidneys and so on)
- People suffering from diseases of the endocrine organs (thyroid, adrenal, pituitary)
- Those who have heart failure, and clearly expressed
- People with bronchial asthma
- Patients with blood diseases of any age
- Pregnant women before the third trimester of pregnancy
- Those who have an allergy to chicken protein
Vaccination against influenza, introducing viruses into the body, can cause an adverse reaction even in healthy people who do not suffer from the above contraindications.
Influenza in Figures
Today the flu is a real plague of the century. In terms of complications and mortality, influenza is in third place after cardiovascular diseases and cancer. And the flu together with ARVI occupy 95% of infectious diseases. These viruses each year strike up to 500 million people on the planet. Of these people, up to 2 million people die. To reduce these deaths, scientists recommend vaccination.
Vaccination, according to WHO, should protect people from the flu and prevent complications after the flu, not to mention the mortality, which is significantly reduced. The vaccine works, strengthening primarily the immune system.
But, unfortunately, this protection does not always work. As a minus, it is not always right for physicians to select a vaccine, but as a plus, even if the vaccine does not fully protect against infection with the virus, but it makes it possible to weaken its influence on the body.
More on the influenza virus
The flu virus is far from alone. There are at least three of them - the influenza virus A, B, C - as the first letters in the English alphabet. The most dangerous is considered to be influenza type A, epidemics and pandemics are associated with it. Influenza type B is also not a gift - it causes damage to the body in many people, but affects people more locally. The most mild in its impact is the influenza C virus, although it is undesirable to suffer from none of the three types of influenza.
Do I need to be vaccinated against the flu every fall?
With the onset of cold weather, medical institutions offer people to get a flu shot. Some companies, on their own initiative, purchase vaccines for their employees. Many schools also often provide pupils with the opportunity to undergo such a procedure. This is repeated every fall, and it is not clear to everyone why the vaccine is in effect for such a short period of time.
Why should I get vaccinated?
Perhaps, many people will have a friend or acquaintance of a friend who vaccinated against the flu, but still had the disease. It is reasonable that the question arises: if the disease can still knock anyone off, what is the need for vaccination. About half a million people die each year during the flu epidemic. This is due to various complications, the development of which provokes the disease. It can be a pneumonia of a viral or bacterial nature, muscle inflammation, pericarditis and myocarditis, disorders of the heart and central nervous system. Such conditions pose a great danger to the weakened by the disease of the organism. First of all, the vaccination is designed to prevent the development of complications and death of a person. Grafted people can be sick, however, the disease proceeds more easily than without vaccination. In addition, often the symptoms of influenza are confused with ARVI, from which the vaccine does not help.
It is important to vaccinate against influenza children whose immunity is still weak. Complications for small patients can be very dangerous.
Why the vaccine should be repeated every year
From a number of diseases a person is inoculated once in a lifetime or repeated in ten to twenty years. With the influenza virus, the situation is different. This is due to the fact that in the world there are a huge number of strains of the virus. It is impossible to develop immunity for everything - if you enter with such a quantity of virions, a person will simply have an anaphylactic shock. Therefore, doctors every year recommend to their patients different vaccines designed to create immunity from those strains that will threaten the population this year. However, the vaccine against the flu in any case will give you immunity for 8-10 months, after which it will be lost, and in the fall, all will have to be repeated anew.
Influenza epidemics in the northern and southern hemispheres occur at different times, but the main strains of pathogens are the same. Analyzing the situation in the opposite hemisphere, doctors create effective vaccines.
Who should be vaccinated
Ideally, all people should be vaccinated, but you can identify the groups most at risk of complications. These are children and elderly people, as well as suffering from chronic heart, joint, kidney, lung, diabetes. It is very important for them to avoid the flu or, at least, to make it proceed in an easy form.
Vaccination against influenza: contraindications. Do I need a flu vaccine?
Seasonal flu is a disease that affects millions of citizens annually. The most favorable time for the disease is autumn and winter, when human immunity is weakened and can not cope with viruses so effectively. Different strains of viruses can cause the development of an acute respiratory disease, but, despite the nature of the pathogen, the symptoms are very similar in all cases. The patient has a fever, a sore throat, a cold, a cough and a headache.
Inoculation against influenza
To prevent the onset of many infectious diseases, vaccination is given. After the opening of the first vaccine, doctors saved hundreds of millions of lives. Against the flu every year, millions of people are vaccinated, because the vaccine is today considered to be the main preventive method in the fight against infections.
Sometimes potential patients have a question: do I need a flu vaccine? The vaccine is a weakened viral material that can not reproduce in the body. When a vaccine material is introduced to a person whose set of proteins is identical to the active virus, his immune system starts producing antibodies against the virus.
Time for vaccination
To be vaccinated against the flu is best in the fall (from September to November), because the epidemic of the disease at this time is becoming a massive one. Inflammation is administered to children and adults. It is not recommended to vaccinate the vaccine in the spring or summer, as the amount of antibodies decreases with time, and the effect from it is not so strong.
You can get a vaccine against the flu even after the epidemic begins. If the vaccination was carried out and the next day the person was infected, the vaccine will not worsen the course of the disease. Much worse the flu will leak if such vaccinations are not done, even there is a risk of serious complications.
Who needs an inoculation
To date, inoculations are already done by infants from 6 months of age. There is a category of people who need a vaccination against the flu in the first place. In the high-risk zone, there are elderly people, patients who are on inpatient treatment, pregnant women. It is necessary to vaccinate children and adolescents (from 6 months to 18 years), especially if they have been using aspirin for a long time for the purpose of treatment. Such patients may have severe complications after the flu. This category includes people with kidney, lung, heart problems, metabolic disorders, patients with immunodeficiency, with hemoglobulinopathies, with staphylococcal infection, as well as students and schoolchildren, who are constantly in the community.
Vaccination against influenza: contraindications
The main material for the manufacture of the vaccine is chicken embryos. Not every organism is susceptible to them, and there are a number of cases when a flu vaccine is not recommended. Contraindications are primarily to those patients who suffer from an allergic reaction to chicken protein. It is not necessary to vaccinate people during the period of exacerbation of chronic diseases. Vaccination is undesirable for two weeks after the final recovery, because the body is weakened and may react incorrectly.
It is not necessary to inoculate patients with progressive forms of neurological diseases, as well as with an allergy to influenza vaccines.
What is the flu?
The disease belongs to the category of acute viral infections, is accompanied by a general infectious syndrome in severe form and affects the respiratory tract. Not all patients realize the full danger of this disease. In some cases, the flu begins with a cough, fever and a runny nose, and can end with the death of the patient. Statistics show that annually about 40 thousand people from developed countries die from the flu and complications caused by it.
Types of the causative agent of influenza
The causative agent of the virus is divided into three independent types: A, B and C. The constant mutation of the virus, which leads to a change in its antigenic structure, leads to the fact that qualitatively new varieties of the influenza virus actively appear and multiply. The danger for the population is that the immunity to them in the human body has not yet developed, so the virus affects the patient and can cause unpredictable complications. The transmission of the influenza virus from a sick person is carried out by airborne droplets, which allows it to spread to all categories of the population.
Influenza A type instantly spreads over vast areas and is pandemic or epidemic in nature. Local spread of the influenza B virus type allows recording its individual outbreaks and taking timely measures. Sporadic outbreaks of infections cause influenza type C.
Benefits of Inoculation
The vaccine helps the body develop a permanent immunity, which will help to avoid getting infected with the flu. If even a vaccinated person has taken up an infection, then the disease goes on without complications and in a lighter form than those who refused to vaccinate. Specific prophylaxis is carried out by live and inactivated vaccines. The vaccine against influenza for children over three years old is of domestic origin. Imported vaccines, which have all the necessary licenses, are intended for children between the ages of 6 to 12 months.
The maximum amount of antibody is reached 14 days after vaccination. The annual vaccination is explained by the fact that the vaccine provides the body with short-term immunity (6-12 months). Vaccination should be carried out before and during the epidemic season.
Vaccines against influenza
Vaccines aimed at fighting the flu are divided into several types. The first is live vaccines. They are made from strains of the virus that are safe for humans. With intranasal administration, they contribute to the development of local immunity. Vaccination before the beginning of the epidemic period. Live vaccines vary depending on who they are intended for - children or adults.
People who are older than 7 years are assigned inactivated vaccines. It is a concentrated and purified influenza virus, grown on chick embryos and inactivated by UV radiation and formalin. Inactivated vaccines include flu-like liquid chromatographic, centrifugal and eluate-centrifugal.
Subunit and split vaccines have domestic and imported varieties. These include drugs such as Grippol, Agrippal, Begrivac, Vaxigrip, Inffluvac, Fluarix.
Refusal of vaccination
Increasingly, people refuse to vaccinate. This is explained by the fact that often after vaccination against influenza, unwanted reactions of the organism to the material occur. Illiterate introduction, poor quality of the vaccine or non-compliance with the rules after vaccination leads to complications. Another reason for not taking vaccinations is that parents think this is harmful to the health of their child.
Refuse can be from all vaccinations or from some specific. Refusal to vaccinate against influenza should be argued and notified about this decision of employees of the polyclinic.
There are a number of cases when medical workers confirm that it is undesirable to vaccinate against influenza. Contraindications relate primarily to the health of the child, when he suffered a trauma or is ill. But after the state of the baby is normalized, the vaccine still has to be done.
To refuse the vaccination, you must write a special application in two copies (one for yourself, and the second for a school, kindergarten or polyclinic). The application must be registered in the institution's documents journal, it must contain: a deciphered signature, a number, a document number, a seal. It is also worth remembering that the refusal of vaccinations is a decision to take responsibility for the diseases against which vaccination is carried out.
Consequences of refusal of vaccinations
Not always refusing to vaccinate the flu (sample - below) is the right decision by the parents. Preventive vaccinations are protected by law, and their absence makes life difficult for citizens. Thus, they are prohibited from traveling to countries that require specific vaccinations. Citizens may be temporarily denied admission to health or educational institutions, especially if there is a threat of epidemics or infectious diseases. In the absence of the necessary vaccinations, citizens have problems in hiring, where there is a risk of contracting infectious diseases. In other words, non-vaccinated children and adults are not allowed into the collective if there are suspicions of an epidemic.
Effects of flu vaccination
Vaccination against influenza, contraindications to which have already been thoroughly studied, may also negatively affect human health. It is about the occurrence of side effects. Before you do the vaccination, you need to go through the examination and consult with your doctor. The maximum caution should be exercised in the case of vaccination of children, pregnant women and elderly people. Vaccination does not save from all diseases (in this case from influenza) at all, but it at times reduces the possibility of infection. Untimely vaccination can lead to flu. But even then, the disease will be much easier to transfer than by giving up the vaccine.
After vaccination, allergic reactions and chronic illnesses can become aggravated. To avoid this, you need to warn the doctor about their availability. Children should be vaccinated only healthy, because even a slight runny nose during vaccination can turn into a child's insomnia, loss of concentration and reduced immunity. Also, you must follow the rules of care for the vaccination, in order to avoid local problems on the skin. If the organism somehow reacted to previous vaccinations, then the following should be abandoned.
Do I need a flu vaccine?
Vaccination against influenza, prevention of the disease - this is a very important point. Warnings are always more important than healing later. To date, there is no panacea for influenza, there is not a single miracle drug that guarantees a quick and complete cure, so vaccinations against influenza act as prevention of the disease. It is very important to prevent the disease by vaccinating on time. Every year more and more people are grafted from this dangerous disease.
However, there are both opponents and supporters of this procedure. There is no clear, concrete answer about the benefits or harm of vaccination against influenza. Vaccination should be carried out after studies and individually.
This vaccination is not included in the vaccination calendar and is paid for the adult, but for children it is still free of charge.
Vaccination against influenza in Russia occurs voluntarily, each person has the right to make his choice - for or against, and for the kids the choice is made by the parent.
The word "flu" came from the French "grab", "catch". The definition speaks of the suddenness and rapidity of the virus's entry into the body. Influenza is a dangerous infectious disease that is acute and usually affects the respiratory system and is expressed by the following symptoms:
- severe weakness;
- general deterioration of the condition;
- pain in the head;
- pain in the muscles;
- nausea, vomiting.
Dangerous influenza viruses, what is the danger, the testimonyThe flu can get sick at any time of the year. But usually people get sick all the same in the autumn and in the winter, because at this time the body lacks vitamins, the premises are not ventilated and temperature drops occur. In the autumn-winter period, the epidemic of the disease usually occurs. Small children, whose age is more than half a year, can get sick, as the antibodies transmitted by the mother cease to have a protective function. The disease is caused by influenza viruses A, B, C. The flu virus mutates easily, so the flu vaccine for children and adults should be given annually. Once the virus enters the upper respiratory tract, it immediately captures the mucosa and destroys its cells.
Cells are rejected and during coughing, sneezing, breathing enter the external environment, infecting others. Such infection is called in medicine "air-drop path". You can get into and through personal hygiene items, underwear. Once the virus has entered the body, the symptoms of the disease begin to manifest, there is a sharp weakness, up to 40 degrees the body temperature rises, the head turns, even convulsions may develop, the mucus, the throat pershit, are released from the nose. When a person has been ill with the flu, it acquires a kind of immunity to the disease, but the problem is that the virus mutates and the antibodies that are produced will not have any protection in the fight against the mutated virus.
Influenza is very dangerous, because it completely suppresses the human immune system. In addition, the flu provokes an aggravation of other diseases.
Complications after infection can be as follows:
- acute inflammation of the lungs;
- otitis media;
- changes in the work of the central nervous system;
- altered processes in the work of the heart and blood vessels.
- including children who are often ill with different infections;
- with the diagnosis "bronchial asthma";
- suffering from CNS diseases;
- with heart disease or vascular problems;
- with kidney disease;
- with blood diseases;
- who have diabetes mellitus;
- with deficiency of the body's defense system;
- who go to kindergartens and schools.
An effective influenza vaccine is improved every year, as the virus is constantly mutating. The experience of scientists allows creating an effective and safe vaccine. The vaccination with the drug that was made this year will be ineffective next year, and therefore the vaccination against the flu with the improved drug is carried out annually. As the statistics showed, the vaccine works, but can not guarantee 100% that the person will not get sick, however even in the case of infection, the disease will proceed in a lighter manner and severe consequences will not occur.
Best vaccine against influenza, vaccination scheme, when should be vaccinated against influenzaFor vaccination, live and inactivated vaccines are used today. Live vaccines are now used very rarely, as the development of live vaccines of the newest generation is underway. But the inactivated vaccine practically does not give serious consequences. This vaccine can be:
- whole cell;
The difference between drugs is that they differently split the virus into component particles. The whole cell vaccine causes complications, has contraindications, but at the same time creates a stable immunity to influenza. The most dangerous to date are the second and third type of vaccine. They practically do not give complications. These drugs do not harm even a child, actively stimulate the immune system and do not cause adverse reactions. Today, 11 influenza vaccines are used and allowed in Russia. Most often do vaccination with drugs:
How does the vaccine work?After the drug is administered to a person, the process of producing antibodies occurs. This creates a layered protection. 14 days after vaccination, the body accumulates a sufficient number of antibodies, and the body does not perceive the disease. Protective protein immediately recognizes the virus and eliminates it.
Immunity persists up to six months or throughout the year. The effectiveness of immunization reaches 90%. This means that the probability of catching the flu is, but it is negligible compared to if the vaccination was not done in time. Today there is a standard vaccination scheme. Vaccination begins in September or October, due to which by the winter the body develops immunity to influenza. It is very important to get vaccinated before the epidemic. Babies can be vaccinated after the age of six months. Babies who have not yet been vaccinated against influenza, it is recommended to vaccinate twice in half the dosage for an adult with an interval of 30 days. The inoculation is done intramuscularly or very deep under the skin.
Modern vaccines against influenza practically do not give a negative reaction after administration, occasionally vaccinated people may have a fever or a puffiness around the site of the injection. You can not vaccinate people who are allergic to a particular component of the drug, such as a protein or preservative. Do not administer the vaccine during the period of illness. You can only be vaccinated a month after the illness has passed. You can not get a flu shot if there were complications during the previous vaccination.
The vaccine must be taken in a licensed medical facility. Vaccination should be carried out by an experienced doctor. After the drug has been introduced, the doctor must issue a certificate, which will include all the data on the drug. You can not buy the vaccine alone. Science today has proven the high efficacy of anti-influenza drugs, especially for toddlers at risk. One should or should not be vaccinated - this should be discussed with the pediatrician and individually.
Implications after vaccination, vaccination rulesAfter vaccination, the following complications can not often occur:
- Inflammation of lungs bacterial type. If the temperature does not drop more than five days - this is a sign of pneumonia.
- Reduced immunity.
- Otitis of acute form.
- False groats.
- Exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases.
Vaccination can be free, paid and passive immunization. Schools, kindergartens and a polyclinic purchase the vaccine at the expense of money allocated by the municipality. This vaccine is issued in Russia. Some employers also provide free vaccination. Fee paid for vaccination in private clinics, and the price depends on the drug and on the cost of the service itself.
Attention! Acquired vaccines against influenza should be stored according to the rules prescribed in the instructions, otherwise the drug will lose its valuable properties. It is strictly forbidden to vaccinate independently.