General characteristics of the H3N2 flu and treatment of the disease
H3N2 influenza is a relatively young strain.It is dangerous because of insufficient knowledge. In addition, this variety of the strain of the virus can provoke a person to develop complications with hemorrhagic lesions.
General information about varieties of the influenza virus
The influenza virus belongs to the family Ortomyxoviridae, which also includes Influenza A, B, C. The affiliation of the virus to one of them is determined by the antigenic properties of the virion proteins. More detailed division of different types of viruses is carried out in accordance with the subtypes existing on the surface of the virus of proteins - hemagglutin (NA) and neuraminidase (NA). At the moment, 16 subtypes of HA and 9 subtypes of NA are known.
Specific epidemics for humans are viruses of three types of HA. These subtypes include H1, H2 and H3. Viruses A and B contain NA and HA, which play the role of the main structural components of the virus. The influenza C virus does not have neuraminidase. The viral particle of influenza C contains haemagglutinin-esterase (penetrating) protein.
The strand of RNA, which is a part of the virus, is surrounded by a protein and packed into a membrane consisting of lipoproteins. Virions have the ability to agglutinate erythrocytes and enter into them with the help of virus-specific enzymes.
Influenza A H3N2 is a subtype of influenza A virus.
The name of the species of the virus is based on the names of the recombination of genes.
The influenza virus has a spherical shape, having a diameter of 80-120 nm. At the center of the viral particle are eight fragments of RNA. Each of the available RNA fragments is encapsulated in a separate capsule of lipoproteins, the surface of which has spines. Antibodies produced by the body in response to hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N), are the basis of the body's immunity against a particular type of virus.
Viral particles have an unusual property, which is uncharacteristic for viral particles, fragmentation of the genetic material and high protein variability. The proteins that make up the virus particles can dramatically change their properties. This phenomenon is called antigenic shift. It leads to the appearance of varieties of virus particles causing a pandemic.
The new form of the virus particle undergoes a slow change in properties, called antigenic drift. This phenomenon contributes to the extension of the emerging epidemic.
Susceptible to influenza virus are all age groups of the population. The source of infection in society becomes a sick person with a pronounced form of the disease.
Symptoms of the H3N2 Influenza Virus
Most often, the clinical picture of the disease manifests itself 12-48 hours after the moment of infection. This strain of the virus is characterized by a very rapid process of reproduction of viral particles in the body in the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. The disease develops very quickly, literally for several days.
The most vivid symptoms manifested with the development of influenza H3N2 in the body are the following:
- development of chills;
- the occurrence of severe headaches;
- the appearance in the body of a patient of a strong general weakness;
- the appearance of lacrimation;
- development of muscle pain;
- the appearance of aches in the joints;
- increased sweat production;
- absence or sharp decrease in appetite;
- appearance of dryness in the nasal cavity and pharynx;
- the appearance of a feeling of perspiration in the throat;
- the appearance of a dry cough;
- pain in the chest;
- development of photophobia.
Sometimes during the development of the disease there is a runny nose. In addition to the characteristic symptoms of influenza in the body when you join the influenza infection of colds, the symptoms of a cold develop.
Carrying out treatment for influenza
The first vaccination against influenza was carried out in the early forties of the last century. Almost until the last period, the treatment of influenza infection was carried out by relieving the emerging symptoms. Treatment is carried out by taking antipyretic, expectorant and antitussive drugs. In addition, to strengthen the immune system is used to take vitamins.
When performing treatment procedures, patients are recommended complete rest, and during the treatment requires the use of a large amount of fluid. During the period of illness, you should stop smoking and drinking alcohol. With the development of a cold that is not complicated by a cold, it is not treated with antibiotics.
Used in the treatment of antiviral drugs affect a certain phase of the development of viral infection of the body. For effective exposure, treatment is required before the onset of the first clinical symptoms of infection in the human body. Late reception of antiviral medications is practically inactive and not effective.
To treat the influenza state, two types of medicines have been developed, which are inhibitors of neuraminidase and inhibitors of M2. A separate group of drugs - means based on interferon, which have antiviral, anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, these medications show immunomodulatory activity.
Preparations with inhibitory properties
Preparations that have proven effective in treating influenza infection are oseltamivir and zanamivir. These neuraminidase inhibiting drugs are effective against most influenza strains, including avian and porcine strains. They help suppress the spread of the virus in the human body, while reducing the severity arising symptoms while reducing the duration of the disease and the incidence of secondary complications.
The use of these drugs, depending on the individual characteristics of the body, can provoke the occurrence of side effects in the body, such as the occurrence of vomiting, diarrhea. Sometimes it is possible to develop mental disorders, hallucinations and psychoses.
The inhibitors of M2 are preparations of amantadine and remantadine, which block proton pumps, which leads to preventing the virus from entering the cell.
Prevention of the occurrence of infection with influenza
The most traditional and one of the most common methods of counteraction is the implementation of vaccination.
The influenza vaccines used can provide moderate protection against the virologically confirmed influenza strain. The effectiveness of the use of vaccination proves its effectiveness for young children.
As a rule, the vaccines used contain antigens of three strains of the virus. Vaccination is considered desirable in at-risk groups, which include children, people in old age and patients with chronic heart and lung ailments. In addition, vaccination is recommended for doctors.
To prevent the spread of infection to strangers in the room where the patient is, regular wet cleaning is carried out using disinfectants.
To disinfect the air, ultraviolet irradiation and special air purifiers are used..
In the case of human infection with influenza in uncomplicated its course, the prognosis is favorable. With the development of complications in the body, there are cases of death for a person.
Fighting the influenza virus
Flu is the most common seasonal disease associated with lung damage.The cause of the disease is the influenza virus, which is characterized by a huge number of species and their characteristics.The degree of severity of the disease and the individual tolerability of it by a sick person directly depends on the state of the immune system. The greatest risk of the disease can be for young children, pregnant women and the elderly due to their vulnerability to this pathology. The seasonal flu gets a special breadth of development. The time of its activity comes in the autumn-winter period with the aggravation of the epidemiological situation in the region.
This viral disease is characterized by the fact that it has acquired the status of an annual phenomenon that mutates, complicated by new strains, so during the onset of colds it is necessary to clearly understand what is the flu and how with it fight.
Danger of influenza
Every year, a large number of people die from the flu. Most of them are children and elderly people with weakened immunity. The peculiarity of the disease is that it can cause significant harm to the human body, affecting its various organs and systems. The big threat is influenza at conception of the child, in view of the fact that spreading, he starts to develop toxic substances that adversely affect human organs. Influenza viruses destroy all the environment favorable for engraftment of the fetus and can cause a miscarriage. If the fetus nevertheless begins to develop, the heavy influence of the virus can cause a number of pathologies in the genital area, respiratory and other body systems. Therefore, the flu and conception are not compatible.In addition to the probability of getting an inflammatory process in the lungs (pneumonia), the flu is dangerous and the development of diseases such as otitis, pleurisy and bronchitis in a complicated form. Pleurisy is dangerous and insidious because it affects the shell, which covers the lungs.
Purulent inflammation of the middle ear - otitis, can cause not only inflammation in the ears, but also the neck and teeth. The flu that caused complications can cause this disease to be chronic, which is fraught with constant suppuration from the ears, frequent inflammation, and with severe form and partial loss of hearing. The greatest danger at any stage of the flu is the occurrence of an inflammatory process in the airways through which oxygen passes into the lungs. The bronchial mucosa is damaged, thereby creating conditions for the multiplication of bacteria. If the patient does all the recommendations for the flu, then the shell can recover. But in another course of circumstances, the ailment can cause serious pathological changes in the body.
Every year, doctors set a single indicator of the epidemiological threshold of influenza. Despite preventive measures against the disease, the epidemic threshold for influenza changes its indicators annually, and most of it is made up of children and the elderly.
The mechanism of development and origin of the disease is that the pathogenesis of influenza has a number of characteristics. At the beginning of the autumn-winter period, very often patients are confused with influenza and parainfluenza.These two states have a completely different picture of development. Influenza is an acute, sudden and severe disease that begins with a lung injury. Parainfluenza manifests itself gradually with headache, coughing, runny nose and changes in voice. The dominant influenza virus in the beginning of winter is seasonal, which gradually changes into a type A virus and all its subtypes.
The classification of influenza has its own peculiarity: for many years infectious diseases have divided this disease into three types: influenza A, B and C. Of all forms, type C is the safest and easiest in its clinical development: it does not cause an epidemic and is characterized as a mild respiratory disease.
The type of influenza A virus has a variety of complicated forms. The reason for this was the mutation of influenza, which leads to completely different reactions of the patient to the same type of virus. As a result of such a feature, many people who have weak immunity, very hard to tolerate the flu. The first type of illness is classified as seasonal. Sometimes, especially at the first stages of manifestation, its symptoms can be confused with catarrhal diseases, its course looks like ARVI, ARI. This type of disease begins because people are infected with the virus as a result of being permanently in stuffy, enclosed spaces with a large number of those present. This type of influenza is characterized by a number of complications, including:
- the appearance of bacterial pneumonia;
- violation of water balance in the body;
- exacerbation of concomitant diseases;
- an inflammation of the ears.
Another subtype of virus A in medical practice was called avian influenza, in which the carriers of the virus are poultry. Symptoms of this disease are very similar to colds, but can be complicated by the appearance of pneumonia and heavy breathing. As a rule, if this type of infection occurs, patients die if treatment is not started at the earliest stages.
The third type is swine flu. It is very similar in its symptoms with seasonal, but it adds high body temperature, fever, cough, bowel disorder, lung damage. Treatment procedures are appointed depending on the patient's immunity and on what signs of the disease predominate.
This type of illness requires that the treatment be carried out at home. The patient needs bed rest with the doctor's therapy. With proper and timely treatment, the patient can count on recovery.
Types of disease
It is customary to distinguish between such types of influenza as:
- highly pathogenic;
Atypical flu begins very quickly and differs from seasonal flu with serious complications. He is very cunning, because a person can get sick in any season, even in the summer. His unexpected appearance indicates that the virus is in the air constantly, which causes danger.
Highly pathogenic influenza is a disease that occurs as a result of a specific strain of the virus, for example, avian flu, and poses a huge threat to human life.
No less dangerous is rotavirus influenza, which appears as a result of rotavirus intestinal infection.
In view of the fact that the incubation period of the disease is about five days, the patient becomes a carrier of the infection from the very first days. Although after an illness the body produces a permanent immunity to this type of virus, a person can get sick twice. In the course of the disease, the intestinal mucosa is affected, and its inflammation begins.Very often people confuse their flu-like condition with common colds. But there are features of the flu and it is necessary to clearly distinguish between its symptoms and cold symptoms, since improper treatment or neglected flu can lead to poor results. With the flu, the disease begins sharply, with a cold - sluggish. Colds are characterized by low temperature.
With flu, fever for several hours passes into a severe form and gives a high body temperature.
Characteristic for the common cold is the preservation of working capacity, there are no symptoms of intoxication, there is no severe headache. With the flu, there are symptoms such as photophobia, severe headache and temporal pain, dizziness, muscle aches. During the examination of the throat, a plaque is often observed in the tongue, which may indicate a strong toxicity of the body. Cough and a feeling of heaviness in the chest for a cold are observed almost immediately. With influenza, such symptoms can occur only on the second day.
Quite often, the flu causes reddening of the eyes. Even after two or three weeks after the treatment of the disease, the patient may experience rapid fatigue, loss of strength, sleep disturbance, irritability..
Historical epidemics of influenza
In the world medical practice cases are known when, during the pandemic (epidemic) of influenza, the most dangerous were varieties of the influenza virus, leading to mass deaths. Among such it is worth noting the deadly Spanish flu, which killed more than fifty million people. This is the most terrible epidemic in the history of mankind, which has gone into oblivion and today is not a threat to the world community.
At present, there is a so-called goat flu - fever Ku, which is spread by infected animals. A person can become infected with the virus of this flu only by close contact with the animal, or by eating his meat.When infected with goat flu, a person increases the size of the spleen and liver, a rash appears on the body, the pupils turn red and the symptoms of pneumonia develop. To date, cases of infection have been reported only in the Netherlands.
Today, the once dangerous Hong Kong flu, caused by the A (H3N2) virus, is a seasonal flu and spreads to South Korea and China. Its name was received because of the main distribution in Hong Kong in 1969.
Modern infectious disease noted a few years ago the emergence of a new viral variety, which, despite a very small threat to the world, gained wide publicity and led to a world panic. This is a type of disease, like Chinese flu. After studying the molecular structure of the virus, scientists excluded him from the list of dangerous, giving him the status of Chinese seasonal flu.
One of the most important moments in the treatment of the disease is its prevention. People prone to catarrhal and viral diseases should prepare in advance to make the flu as easy as possible.
The basis of prevention includes several components that help to withstand the disease qualitatively. It is easier to survive the incidence of influenza due to a timely vaccination. To date, there are two types of vaccines: live and inactivated. Live vaccines have a group of non-contagious and weakened viruses, inactivated do not contain live viruses. Vaccines "Grippol "Microgen "Fluarix "Influvac" are very popular..
Strengthening the body in the fight against influenza plays an important role. The use of vitaminized foods in the daily diet will help replenish the supply of useful substances, strengthen the body. Particular attention should be paid to vitamin C and group B.
In a period of complicated epidemiological situation, it is better not to visit places with a large number of people. This will help protect yourself from infection. A good antiviral is washing the nose with a solution of sea salt. To prevent the drying out of the mucous membrane, it is necessary to keep the air humidified in the apartment. This will help to avoid the accumulation and penetration into the nasopharyngeal mucosa of pathogenic bacteria that cause the reproduction of a viral infection and lead to the spread of the disease with influenza. Do not forget that you have to begin to temper the body from the summer. Water procedures, cold wiping can be done at home and in winter..
Particularly dangerous is self-medication, the use of methods of traditional medicine, which can not only complicate the process of recovery, but also lead to serious consequences. Only strict adherence to medical recommendations can give a positive result in the treatment of the disease.
Influenza A - what is it? Influenza A and B: symptoms and treatment
Its name was given to the flu by the French word "grasp what is good characterizes its effect."
This disease develops rapidly. Since morning, a healthy person starts complaining about health at noon, and by midnight in some cases may no longer have a chance of recovery.
Influenza epidemics periodically cover the entire space of the globe and become a historical fact. For example, from such a type of flu as the Spanish, for 1918 and 1919 people died more than during the entire time of the First World War.
The causative agent, which is considered the cause of the flu, was discovered in 1933 and was subsequently called the virus A.
The year 1944 was marked by the discovery of the virus B, the next - the virus C - was discovered in 1949. Over time, it was determined that the viruses that cause influenza A, B, are heterogeneous, are constantly changing, and as a result of these transformations, a new modification of the flu can appear.
What is the flu
I wonder what the flu A or B. This is an acute infectious disease that begins almost instantaneously. Immediately viruses affect the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract. Because of this, a runny nose appears, the paranasal sinuses become inflamed, the larynx is affected, breathing is disrupted and a cough develops.
With blood, the virus moves through the body and, by poisoning it, disrupts vital functions:
- high fever, often accompanied by nausea and vomiting;
- there are headaches and muscle pains;
- and in some cases hallucinations may occur.
The most severe situations are characterized by intoxication, which leads to the destruction of small vessels and multiple hemorrhages. The consequences of influenza may be pneumonia and heart muscle diseases.
Influenza A and B are types of acute respiratory diseases. When a disease occurs, there is a violation of the human defense mechanism. Under the action of microbes that are in the upper respiratory tract, cells die on the trachea and bronchus, opens the way for infection in deeper tissues and the process of purification becomes more difficult bronchi. In this case, the function of the immune system is suppressed. Because of this, a short period is sufficient to initiate pneumonia or to awaken other respiratory viruses.
How is it transmitted
A person is susceptible to a disease such as influenza A and B. This means that the likelihood of getting sick in the second and third time, especially a new subspecies. The disease is transmitted as follows:
- during communication with a sick person, through his droplets of saliva, mucus, phlegm;
- together with food that has not been thermally treated;
- with a direct touch of the hands of the patient;
- through the air, through the dust.
The patient is enveloped by a zone consisting of infected particles, the size of which is from two to three meters. Through any items that were in his hands (for example, the phone, armrest arm, door handle) can catch the flu A.
What is a contagious disease, everyone should know - a person poses a danger to others even during the incubation period, even before he felt unwell. However, on the sixth day from the onset of the disease, he practically does not pose a threat to the health of others.
Influenza A virus
So, the type A flu - what is it? This is one of the most terrible varieties of this disease. Immunity, which is acquired by a person who has had type A influenza, lasts two years. Then it becomes dangerous again.
It is interesting that between human and animal viruses, hereditary materials can be exchanged, and viral hybrids may appear on contact. As a result, the flu can affect not only humans, but also animals.
Approximately, every 35 years, a virus that causes influenza type A also undergoes significant changes. What is it, it is better not to know. After all, mankind does not have this serotype of immunity, as a result of which the disease covers most of the world's population. It flows in a very severe form. And in this case they speak not of an epidemic, but of a pandemic.
Symptoms and peculiarities of percolation
It should be mentioned, telling about the type A flu, that this is a disease that is characterized by rapid spread. The incubation stage lasts from two to five days, and a period begins that is characterized by acute clinical manifestations.
For flu, taking place in mild form, it lasts from three to five days. And after 5-10 days a person recovers. But for another 20 days a person can feel tired, weak, have a headache, be irritable and suffer from insomnia.
Let's list what causes the flu A symptoms in children:
- the temperature rises to 40 ° C;
- the child is shivering;
- the kid stops playing, whines, becomes very weak;
- complains of headache and muscle pain;
- he has a sore throat;
- possible abdominal pain and vomiting;
- begins a dry cough.
Treatment includes recommendations not only on the intake of medications, but also on compliance with the regime. Since influenza A and B symptoms and treatment are the same, our advice is suitable for each of them.
During a period of elevated temperature, a person loses a lot of fluid that must be replenished. The first thing you need to do in the period of illness is to drink tea, drinks, decoctions of herbs abundantly. Chicken broth has a good effect on the course of the disease. By increasing the speed of mucus discharge, it reduces the swelling of the nose.
The use of coffee and alcohol causes dehydration of the body, which has already lost a lot of liquid, so it is better not to drink during illness.
What is dangerous about influenza A
What is it - the flu, know almost everything. But the opinion that this is a common disease, which everyone has been ill many times and without consequences, is mistaken. Its main danger is in the consequences that it can cause: pneumonia, rhinitis, sinusitis, bronchitis. It can exacerbate chronic diseases, provoke complications of the cardiovascular system, create problems from the muscular system.
By the way, the type A flu, unlike the disease caused by the B virus, is more dangerous. As a result of this disease, intoxication, hemorrhages into important organs, pulmonary complications, cardiac and pulmonary insufficiency can lead to death.
In order not to be among the infected, each of us needs to follow preventive measures that can prevent the flu. And what is it? First of all, you must follow the basic principles of a healthy lifestyle, such as proper nutrition and even physical exercise. It is also important to tempering.
Vaccination helps the body to form immunity to the most expected strain of the virus. The drug is administered 1-3 months before the expected onset of the epidemic.
A cotton-gauze dressing reduces the chance of getting infected through the respiratory tract. The bandage is changed several times a day to avoid getting infected from the bandage itself.
Here are some more tips for prevention:
- The intake of vitamin preparations increases the protective functions of the body.
- Garlic reduces the number of microorganisms in the mouth.
- Avoiding visits to crowded places during an epidemic lowers the likelihood of infection.
- During the epidemic it is desirable to conduct a wet cleaning of the room daily.
- Helps protect against microbes treatment of the nasal cavity with oxolin ointment.
- The use of antiviral drugs protects against the disease.
If the house is sick
Despite some differences, doctors still combine influenza A and B (symptoms and treatment). First of all it is recommended to give the body an opportunity to relax. Due to this, you will help the immune system. The necessary requirement - compliance with bed rest. And most importantly - calling a doctor at home, because it may not be the flu, and what it is - without a specialist's examination is impossible to say.
In order to reduce the possibility of infection of family members, the patient is placed in a separate room or fenced off from the main room. The patient is given separate utensils and hygiene items.
It is necessary and wet cleaning with disinfectants, because thanks to it more than twice the concentration of viruses. A good health effect gives ventilation at least 3 times a day.