Deforming arthrosis of the ankle joint is called a pathology, accompanied by damage and premature destruction of the cartilaginous tissue. Pathological process can extend to bone and muscle tissue, ligamentous apparatus and capsule of the joint. They suffer from 12 to 15% of the world's population, but more often it occurs in women over the age of 45, especially those who prefer high-heeled shoes. This disease occupies one of the leading places in the severity of the development of disturbances in motor activity.
- 1Causes of development
2Types and clinical manifestations
- 2.0.1Clinical manifestations of arthrosis of the big toe
- 2.0.2Clinical manifestations on small joints
- 2.0.3Clinical manifestations of arthrosis of phalanges of fingers
- 2.0.4Clinical manifestations of arthrosis of metatarsal bones
- 2.0.5Clinical manifestations depending on the degree of development of the process
3The main methods of treatment of the disease
- 3.0.1Physiotherapy in treatment
- 3.0.2Methods of Traditional Medicine
Causes of development
The main reasons are:
- Congenital developmental dysplasia, which can lead to incorrect formation of the foot bones or shin form, wide foot, flatfoot development, change in the length of one limb.
- Change in the shape of the fingers - curving out the thumb, hammer-shaped form.
- High workload over a long period of time, associated with professional activities (weight transfer, constant stay in standing position, excess weight).
- Traumatic foot injuries are micro-traumas received during sports, bruises of different strength, stretching of tendons, cracks in the cartilaginous tissue, ruptures of the synovial bag.
- Chronic hypothermia of the foot.
- Disorders of the endocrine system (diabetes, acromegaly and thyroid disease), diseases associated with metabolic disorders (gout or obesity), chronic inflammatory processes.
- Degenerative and dystrophic foot diseases.
In addition to the main causes of the problem, there arefactors that provoke its progress, they include:
- professional dance classes or some sports (running, jumping, track and field athletics);
- hereditary predisposition;
- unbalanced diet and passive lifestyle;
- high growth and excess weight;
- wearing uncomfortable, narrow or unsuitable shoes;
- sudden discontinuation of sports, which can lead to muscle weakness and joint sprains.
Types and clinical manifestations
Depending on the site of the lesion, one can distinguish: arthrosis of the toe and phalanges of the fingers, small bones, ankle, metatarsal bones.
Clinical manifestations of arthrosis of the big toe
The cause is often longitudinal or transverse flat feet of varying severity, the factor causing the disease can be wearing a narrow uncomfortable shoes with high heels.
Clinically deforming arthrosis of the thumb is manifested by the following symptoms:
- the presence of deformation;
- the appearance of a feeling of stiffness;
- swelling in the area of injury;
- painful sensations of different severity;
- local hyperemia or hyperthermia of the skin.
Clinical manifestations on small joints
The first manifestation of the development of this form of the disease is the appearance in the region of the joints of the toes small, painless nodules (the so-called Heberden's nodules) around which hyperemia can occur skin. With the course of the disease, a painless deformation of the bones gradually develops.
Clinical manifestations of arthrosis of phalanges of fingers
Recently, this pathology began to occur more often. The development of the disease is equally affected by persons of both sexes. A feature of the defeat of the phalanx of the fingers is the simultaneous damage of several joints.
Clinical manifestations are:
- manifestation of rhythmic mechanical pain;
- the appearance of pain when loaded on the foot;
- increased pain in the event of the development of the inflammatory process.
Clinical manifestations of arthrosis of metatarsal bones
In the case of development of affection of metatarsal bones, any joint, This is accompanied by cases of severe pain attacks and mobility restriction (partial or complete).
Clinical manifestations depending on the degree of development of the process
Clinical manifestations of arthrosis depend on the stage of the disease:
- Initial degreeof the disease is manifested by the appearance of slightly pronounced pain in the foot after loading on it and rapid fatigue during movement.
- Second degreecharacterized by increased pain, development of limited motor activity, the appearance of a specific crunch during movement, the presence of growths and deformations in the bone articulation.
- At the third degreedisease in the patient there is a significant deformation of the joint and almost complete immobility.
The main methods of treatment of the disease
Complex therapy is aimed at eliminating the cause that caused the disease, stopping its symptoms, slowing the development of processes of destruction of joint tissues.
For treatment are used:
- Reducing the load on the foot with itsimmobilization, weight loss, temporary restriction of motor activity, ease of exercise with a walking stick or crutches.
- Medication Therapyprovides the use of drugs from the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, mexylocam, diclofenac) in the form of tablets, ointments or injections; chondroprotectors - drugs that restore the structural features of cartilaginous tissue; glucocorticoids - they are used in the form of intraarticular injections.
- In the third stage of the disease,surgical methods of treatment, allowing to restore the functional characteristics of the joint. Mechanical removal of altered tissues or endoprosthetics can be used, which is prescribed in extremely rare cases in foot lesions.
Physiotherapy in treatment
From physiotherapy methods can be used:
- UHF (ultrahigh-frequency therapy);
- laser treatment;
- electrophoresis with local anesthetics (analgin, novocaine, lidocaine);
- azokerite and warm paraffin;
Methods of Traditional Medicine
Treatment with the help of methods of traditional medicine is better to conduct as a concomitant traditional therapy and only after consultation with the attending physician.
To prevent the development of the disease, you need to monitor your weight, balance your diet, lead an active lifestyle, and prevent excessive stress on the joints of your feet. When the first manifestations of the disease appear, it is necessary to consult a doctor, since untimely started or wrong the treatment can lead to the progression of the destruction of the cartilaginous tissue and the development of complete restriction of movements.