Thanks to intraocular pressure, our vision organs have a certain density, uniqueness. This parameter significantly affects the functions and operation of our eyes. In itself, it appears due to the difference in the rate of change in the amount of fluid in the eye chamber. Tonometry allows you to know what pressure the patient has inside the eye. Let's take a closer look at what this method represents.
1Diagnosis and determination of the method
- 1.1IOP rate
- 2When appointed
3How is the
- 3.1The Maklakov method
- 3.2Using air
- 3.4Measurement of daily pressure
- 4What is assessed by results
- 5Preparatory procedures
Diagnosis and determination of the method
Tonometry allows you to determine the level of intraocular pressure.The basis of this procedure is to control the measures of deformation of the eye with an external effect on it.The process itself is carried out using a tonometer, the result is indicated in millimeters of mercury.
There are several types of measurement of IOP by means of a tonometer, but you need to understand that these figures are approximate. In ophthalmology, there is only one method of accurately establishing this indicator - gauge. In this method, an invasive procedure is used, when a pressure gauge is inserted through the cornea into the anterior chamber and the measurement is made. Tonometry also refers to approximate diagnostics, but less traumatic, and therefore is used throughout the clinical practice.
IOP is measured in millimeters of mercury and a generally accepted norm of intraocular pressure is 22-23 mm. gt; Art.
Intraocular pressure is regulated by the rate of addition and decrease of moisture in the chambers of the eye.Addition is provided by the secretion of moisture by the ciliary body, the decrease is due to the resistance in the outflow systemIs a trabecular network located in the corner of the anterior chamber.
Most drugs from glaucoma are directed either to reduce the secretion of the ciliary body, or to regulate the outflow system.
Among the disorders, low and high blood pressure is released.
- Transient -arise during eye fatigue and are characterized by a single manifestation.
- Labile -the periodicity of pressure jumps is observed.
- Stable- slowly progressing.
Stably elevated - this is just the glaucoma.There are open-angle and closed-angle forms of the disease.Open-angle has its name for the fact that in her case, the drainage system of the eye can not cope with the outflow of fluid with the full functioning of the intake through the angle of the anterior chamber.
Open-angle form is the most common; difficult to diagnose at the initial stage of development. It has been asymptomatic for many years.
Closed-angle is characterized by both closing the angle of the anterior chamber and breaking the outflow.In this case, the ciliary body and then secrets. In this case, the accumulation of liquid is obtained without the possibility of escape.
There is also a normotensive glaucoma,which develops against a background of normal IOP. With this form of pressure indicators are in order, but atrophy of the optic nerve is progressing due to the imbalance of fluids inside the eyeball.
Occurs in the case of:
- eye trauma or after surgery;
- inflammatory processes in the eyes of a chronic form (iridocyclitis, uveitis);
- regular dehydration;
- kidney disease;
- congenital anomalies in the development of eyeballs.
With a reduced level of pressure, a gradual atrophy of the mucous membranes occurs. It can develop dry keratoconjunctivitis, corneal opacity and other diseases that develop against a background of nutrient deficiency are observed.
This procedure is most often issued in the following situations:
- When the disease is glaucoma.Once every three months, the patient is frozen.
- Glaucoma among loved ones.In order not to miss the development of glaucoma (if it will be), tonometry is performed once every few years.
- People whose age is above forty.This group is at greatest risk, so the measurement is recommended by doctors every year.
- In the presence of pathology in the work of the heart, blood vessels.
- Disruption of the endocrine system.
In the presence of glaucoma or suspected of it, the level of IOP is very important.
How is the
Below we will consider the most popular methods of IOP research.
The Maklakov method
Before the procedure, a local anesthetic is applied and a weight with a dye on the eye is placed.The trace is left on a sheet of paper and the measuring instrument measures the area of the paint that was removed from the eye. The level of pressure depends on the contact. DThe phenomenon is normal if there is almost no paint left in the eyes.
It is recognized as the most common technique in diagnosing IOP in preschool and primary school children with suspicion of early glaucoma.
The fastest procedure.The change in the cornea is checked due to reaction to air currents.The plus of this method is that there is no contact with the cornea, which means a minimal risk of infection.
The head is placed in special equipment. The eyes are open to a maximum, and the sight is directed at a certain object. PThe outflow of air distorts the shape of the cornea.The result is immediately displayed on the computer screen.
As in the first case, the patient drips special drops, and a strip of fluorescent paint is presented to the eyeball.The head is placed on the stand, at this moment the eye is under the microscope, and the specialist measures the parameters with the help of the device.
Measurement of daily pressure
It is used in the initial stages of glaucoma.Three times a day - in the morning, in the afternoon and in the evening with the help of a tonometer, pressure measurements are made. Conclusions are made on the basis of the difference in values and the magnitude of the differences in readings.
The ophthalmologist will select the most suitable way for you to measure the intraocular pressure.
What is assessed by results
Regardless of the method, the results indicate the state of intraocular pressure and the possibility of developing diseases associated with a violation of the subject of the study.
If the pressure is high, then this indicates the presence of glaucoma or a high probability of its appearance. The disease is detected in those patients whose index invariably does not fall below 37 millimeters and in the absence of correct and effective treatment.
Inform the specialist about the presence of glaucoma if you have it.Also tell me if your close relatives are suffering from this problem or not. Contact lenses should be removed and put on after a couple of hours after tonometry.
The pressure of the vein that passes through the neck can affect the final index.Clothes that press on the neck should be removed, and your condition is as free and relaxed as possible.
The following two rules will help you achieve the most accurate result:
- Do not drink a lot of fluids four hours before the procedure.
- Do not drink alcohol for 12 hours.
Preparing for this process is a significant step that can affect the accuracy of the measurements and the final result.
Tonometry is one of the most important procedures for diagnosing serious eye diseases. After all, during the measurements you can recognize the initial stages of severe ailments that can lead to significant health problems. Correctly chosen method, observance of all preparatory procedures are the guarantee of accurate indications of devices.