SARS in children
Acute respiratory viral infections of ARVI in children occur in about 75% of all childhood diseases. Infections of the upper respiratory tract (acute respiratory infection (ARI), acute respiratory infections (ARI), acute respiratory infections) - a group of acute infectious and inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract of different localization, etiology and symptomatology.
ARVI - the most common infection on the globe. It is impossible to take full account of the true morbidity. Almost every person several times (from 4-8 to 15 times or more) in the year transfers ARVI mainly in the form of light and subclinical forms. Especially often ARVI are observed in young children. Children of the first months of life are seldom ill, because they are in relative isolation and many of them retain passive immunity received from the mother transplacentally in the form of IgG for 6-10 months. However, children of the first months of life can also be sick with ARI, especially if they are in close contact with patients. The reasons for this may be unstrained transplacental immunity or its complete absence, prematurity, primary forms of immunodeficiency, etc.
Epidemiology of ARVI
According to statistics, a child can get sick from 1 to 8 times a year. This is due to the fact that the immunity produced in a child's body against a single virus is powerless before another infection. And the viruses that cause ARVI, hundreds. These are influenza viruses, parainfluenza, adenoviruses, enteroviruses and other microorganisms. And since parents often have to deal with ARVI, they should know as much as possible about this disease, about the mechanisms of its development and methods of combating viral infection in childhood.
The greatest incidence falls on children from 2 to 5 years of life, which is usually due to their visit to children's institutions, a significant increase in the number of contacts. A child who visits a kindergarten during the first year can get sick with ARI up to 10-15 times, in the second year 5-7 times, in subsequent years 3-5 times a year. The decrease in the incidence is due to the acquisition of specific immunity as a result of the acute respiratory viral infection.
Such a high incidence of SARS in childhood makes this problem one of the most urgent in pediatrics. Repeated diseases significantly affect the development of the child. They lead to a weakening of the defenses of the body, contribute to the formation of chronic foci of infection, cause allergization, prevent carrying out preventive vaccinations, weighed down the premorbid background and delayed the physical and psychomotor development of children. In many cases, frequent ARVI are pathogenetically associated with asthmatic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, chronic pyelonephritis, polyarthritis, chronic diseases of the nasopharynx and many other diseases.
Causes of ARVI in children
Factors contributing to the emergence of SARS, pursue the child everywhere. To such reasons it is possible to carry:
- hypothermia, drafts, wet shoes;
- communication with other children, patients with ARI;
- a sharp change of weather, off-season (autumn-winter, winter-spring);
- lowering of the body's defenses;
- hypovitaminosis, anemia, weakened organism;
- reduced physical activity of the child, inactivity;
- improper hardening of the body.
All these factors are factors that weaken the body and contribute to the unhindered spread of the virus.
The causes of frequent ARVI in children - is the high sensitivity of the child's organism at any age, including the newborn baby. At the child frequent ORVI begin from the moment of receipt in a day nursery, a kindergarten or school. Diseases can be repeated by turns. This happens because the immune defense after a viral infection is produced from one type of virus. Penetration into the body of a new virus provokes a new disease, even if a short amount of time has passed after the previous one.
How long does it last for a child?
How long can a baby be infectious and how long does it last for a child?
As a rule, the more time passed from the moment of appearance of the first symptoms, the less likely that the child is infectious. That time interval when the diseased is capable to infect others, usually begins from occurrence of the first symptoms of disease or simultaneously with them. In some cases, the baby may still look "healthy", but the disease process can already be started. It depends on many factors, including the resistance of children's immunity.
The initial moment of the incubation period (when the virus has already entered the children's body, but the disease has not yet manifested itself "in all its glory") is the moment of communication with an already infectious patient. Such a moment can be contact with a sick child in a kindergarten, or accidentally caught "sneeze" in a trolleybus. The final stage of the incubation period is completed with the appearance of the first signs of the disease (when complaints appear).
Laboratory tests can already indicate the presence of the virus in the body already during the incubation period.
The incubation period of ARVI in children can last from several hours to 2 weeks. This applies to pathogens such as rhinovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza, paracoloss, adenovirus, reovirus, as well as a respiratory syncytial virus.
The period during which the child is contagious can begin 1-2 days before the first signs of the disease appear.
How long does it last for a child? If counted from the moment of appearance of the first symptoms, the period of the disease can last up to 10 days (on average - a week). In this case, depending on the type of virus, the child can continue to be contagious for another 3 weeks after recovery (disappearance of symptoms).
Symptoms of ARVI in children
Whichever type of virus is caused by ARVI, with the classical form of the disease, there are some common symptoms:
- "General infectious" syndrome (the child is shivering, can disturb the pain in the muscles, in the head, there is weakness, the temperature rises, the submandibular lymph nodes increase);
- defeat of the respiratory system (nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, cough dry or with sputum);
- damage to the mucous membranes (rubbing and redness in the eye area, lacrimation, conjunctivitis).
The first signs of acute respiratory viral infection in a child are often characterized by a sudden onset with a clearly marked "general infection" syndrome. With parainfluenza or adenovirus, the first signs are the defeat of the respiratory system (throat, nasopharynx), as well as the reddening and itching of the conjunctiva of the eye.
Of course, it would be easier for both parents and doctors if the ARVI period in children has always been classic. However, the children's organism is a very complex system, and its response to the penetration of a particular virus can not be predicted by one hundred percent. Each organism is individual, so the course of ARVI can be erased, asymptomatic, atypical or even extremely severe.
Since it is unlikely that the parents will be able to guess and predict the course of the disease, it is necessary to know about the conditions under which one will have to consult a doctor in the most urgent way.
Symptoms of acute respiratory viral infection in children requiring urgent medical attention:
- Temperature indicators have exceeded 38 ° C and little or no response to antipyretic drugs.
- The child is disturbed by consciousness, he is confused, indifferent, can faint.
- The child complains of a severe headache, as well as the inability to turn the neck or make an inclination anteriorly.
- On the skin appear vascular sprouts, rashes.
- There is pain in the chest, the child starts to choke, it is hard for him to breathe.
- There is a multicolored sputum (green, brown or pink).
- Appear edema on the body.
- Cramps appear.
Do not self-medicate, especially if it's about your child. Pay attention also to other organs and systems of the baby, so as not to miss the beginning inflammation.
Temperature in children with ARVI
Children are sensitive enough to an increase in body temperature: an excessively high temperature contributes to the occurrence of seizures in the child. Because of this, do not allow a temperature increase of more than 38-38.5 ° C.
The temperature should not be brought down to 38 ° C, as it is not necessary to interfere with the body to perform its work - to fight the penetration of the virus. This can provoke the appearance of complications. What you need to do:
- do not panic;
- monitor the state of the child - usually after 3-4 days the temperature should stabilize.
Prolonged ARI in a child with a non-decreasing temperature may indicate the attachment of a bacterial infection. It also happens that when the temperature after the virus infection dropped, the kid seemed to be on the mend, but after a few days he got worse again, and a fever appeared. In such a situation, do not hesitate to call a doctor.
In the classical course of acute respiratory viral infection, the temperature can not last more than 2-3 days, maximum - five days. During this time, the body must overcome the virus, having developed its own antibodies to it. It is important: do not specifically knock down the temperature to normal, you can only lower it, so that the body continues to fight with the infection.
Cough with ARVI in children
Cough for ARVI in children is a fairly common symptom. Usually it is present against a background of fever, a cold and other signs of the disease. With the onset of the disease, a dry cough (without sputum) is observed. Such a cough doctors call unproductive: it is hard to tolerate by the child, can disturb the calm of his sleep, negatively affect the appetite.
In the classical course of acute respiratory viral infection, after 3-4 days the cough passes into the productive stage - sputum appears. But it should be borne in mind that not all babies can cough it out. For this reason, the child needs help: regular chest massage, light gymnastics, and when a coughing fit the baby should be given a vertical position.
Typically, cough with viral infections lasts up to 15-20 days, but if it lasts more than three weeks, you can suspect a chronic cough. In such cases, it is necessary to have a competent consultation of a children's pulmonologist and an allergist, as well as the appointment of a complex therapy.
Vomiting in a child with ARVI
Vomiting in a child with ARVI can occur simultaneously with the appearance of high fever and cough. With difficulty, the departing sputum, dense and viscous, irritates the respiratory system and provokes a fits of painful coughing in the child. The gag reflex works as a result of the transition of the excitatory signal from the cough centers to the vomiting centers. In some cases, vomiting can occur due to the accumulation of a large number of mucous secretions in the nasopharyngeal cavity, but in this case, vomiting appears without coughing. Most often, vomiting on the background of a cough is not abundant, the child does not seem to be relieved.
It is important to distinguish when vomiting is associated with the simultaneous excitation of cough and vomiting reflex, and when vomiting can be a sign of poisoning or a disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it is necessary to show the child to the doctor, otherwise it can provoke the appearance of unwanted and sometimes severe complications.
Rashes in children with ARVI
If there was a rash in the ARVI in a child - this is a direct reason to call a doctor. It is possible to list several variants of the causes of the appearance of rashes during the illness:
- intolerance to any of the medications taken by the baby;
- an allergic reaction to food that parents usually give the sick child (raspberries, oranges, lemons, garlic, ginger, etc.);
- high temperature, which contributes to increased vascular permeability - in such cases, the rash resembles a different hemorrhage on the skin.
There are also more serious causes of the rash. For example, this is the joining of meningococcal infection: such a rash is usually accompanied by hyperthermia and vomiting. In any of the options, if a rash is found on the child's body, all measures should be taken to deliver the baby to the infectious department as soon as possible. You can simply call an "ambulance" and describe the symptoms of the disease. To delay in this case it is impossible.
The abdomen is sick at an ORVI at the child
Quite often, parents are faced with a situation when the abdomen is sick during ARVI in a child. The pains are most often coelike and localized in the zone of projection of the large intestine. Doctors can explain this symptom by the combined reaction of the lymphatic system of the intestine and appendix. For the same reason, ARVI can be complicated by an attack of acute appendicitis. In this situation, the most competent act of parents can be a doctor's call to the house, and if the pain in the abdominal area increases, then it will be necessary to call for an emergency.
A large amount of acute respiratory viral infection, accompanied by abdominal pain, can also be accompanied by diarrhea. Diarrhea in ARVI in a child is caused by cramping spasms in the intestine - the reaction of the child's body to the disease. However, most often diarrhea and abdominal pain provoke drugs that the child is forced to take. For example, if a baby is prescribed antibiotics or antiviral drugs, then it can gradually lead to a violation of microflora intestine, or manifest as a reaction of the hypersensitivity of the digestive system to certain types of medications. In any case, a doctor's consultation is mandatory.
Conjunctivitis in children with ARVI
Unfortunately, conjunctivitis in ARVI in a child occurs in almost all cases of the disease, especially when attacking adenovirus infection. Signs of conjunctivitis become noticeable immediately. Initially, a viral infection that provoked ARVI affects one eye, but after one or two days another eye is affected. Both eyes of the child blush, itch, there is a feeling of "sand" in the eyes. The kid squints, rubs his eyelids, constantly cries. Eyes can be covered with crusts, and in the corners can collect light discharge.
Such conjunctivitis gradually passes and independently, as the child recovers from ARVI. Nevertheless, to alleviate the condition of the baby and eliminate itching and discharge from the eyes faster can help special children medicines - an antiviral ophthalmic ointment or drops that can be easily purchased at pharmacies.
However, in some cases, conjunctivitis can be the result of an allergic reaction in the child. In this state, the baby not only has lachrymation and reddening of the eyes, but swollen lower eyelids. It is characteristic that allergies affect both eyes simultaneously. If this happens, urgent medical consultation is needed, identification and elimination of contact with a potential allergen, prescription of antihistamine eye drops and medications.
Features of ARVI in children
Children at different ages may respond differently to the appearance of signs of ARVI.
- SARS in an infant may manifest symptoms such as a child's anxiety, poor sleep, loss of appetite; frustration of defecation, excessive tearfulness and capriciousness. Such changes in the behavior of the infant should cause suspicion in the mother, since the baby can not explain his state of health with words.
- SARS in a month-old baby can flow with difficulty nasal breathing, as the baby can not breathe with his mouth. How to suspect that the child has a stuffy nose? The baby becomes restless when sucking, often refuses to eat and repels the breast or bottle. In such cases, it is necessary to clear the nasal passages.
- SARS in a 2-month-old baby can characteristically manifest as shortness of breath with a prolonged wheezing - this symptom is often called an asthmatic syndrome. At the same time, symptoms of intoxication are expressed: grayness or cyanosis of the skin, lethargy, apathy, fever.
- ARVI in a 3 month old child often occurs with a defeat of the respiratory system, which can be complicated by unskilled help with bronchitis or pneumonia. Therefore, it is very important to pay attention to the difficulty of swallowing and nasal breathing of the child, to regularly measure the temperature. Breastfeeding during this period is extremely undesirable, as the mother's milk in this case will be the best medicine for the baby.
- SARS in a 4 month old child is accompanied by a lesion of the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx and bronchi, which manifests itself as a runny nose and cough. You can see an increase in submandibular or parotid lymph nodes, spleen. Often develops conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis, which is expressed in the redness of the eyes and continuous lachrymation.
- ARVI in children up to a year can be complicated by croup - a condition when the larynx becomes inflamed and swollen, namely, the zone that is directly under the vocal cords. This condition is explained by the fact that in small children this zone contains a large amount of loose fiber, which easily swells. At the same time, the guttural lumen is not large enough. Croup often develops at night, so parents should pay attention to the sudden onset "Barking" cough, heavy breathing, attacks of suffocation, anxiety, cyanosis of the lips in a child. If such signs are observed, it is necessary to urgently call an ambulance.
- ORVI at the child 6 month - the period when the kid has already entered or introduces the prikorm. Often at a six-year-old age, a viral infection is accompanied, in addition to the defeat of the respiratory system, by the involvement of the digestive system in the process. This can manifest as signs of acute gastritis or enteritis: there are pains in the abdomen, upset of the stool.
- SARS in a child 1 year can be repeated from 1 to 8 times a year, depending on the immunity. Starting from this age, it is very important to start hardening procedures and strengthen the immune system of the baby so that his body can withstand numerous viruses and bacteria. It is especially important to protect the baby in the autumn-winter and winter-spring period.
- SARS in a child 2 years is more often accompanied by laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx), tracheitis (inflammation of the trachea - respiratory tube), or a combination of these diseases. Signs of such defeat - a hoarse voice, dry compulsive cough. Of course, a 2-year-old kid can not yet communicate his complaints coherently. Therefore, parents should closely monitor the condition of the child. If there is difficulty breathing, the intercostal spaces are blurred, the wings of the nose inflated, an "ambulance" should be urgently called.
- SARS in a child of 3 years usually begins in a rise in temperature towards evening. There is a pain in the head, the baby feels apathetic, tired, listless. Most often the disease appears in the season of epidemics, so the diagnosis is easy. The severity of the condition determines the child's well-being.
If you notice any uncharacteristic or suspicious symptoms in the child - be sure to call an "ambulance". Do not be afraid once again to disturb the doctor: the main thing is the health of your baby.
Repeated ARVI in a child
Repeated ARVI in a child is not uncommon, since children are usually very susceptible to a viral infection. Babies are prone to infection with the virus from the first weeks of life, but in the first three months they are not ill as often as in older age. The tendency to the disease is especially pronounced at the age of six months to 3 years, then the susceptibility decreases somewhat, although this may depend on the individual immunity of the organism.
Why there are repeated ARVI? The fact is that immunity has specificity in relation to certain types and even types of viral infection. Such immunity does not differ in resistance and duration. And in combination with a large number of varieties of the virus creates a large percentage of the probability of repeated diseases.
ARVI in a child can occur as a single case, or as a result of a mass epidemic, which often happens in a children's team. That is why the child's morbidity rises, as a rule, with the beginning of visiting a kindergarten or other pre-school or school institutions.
Where does it hurt?Chest pain
What's bothering you?Cough Shortness of breath
Complications of ARVI in children
According to statistics, at least 15% of all diseases of ARVI in childhood leave behind complications for other organs and systems of the body. For this reason, do not forget that in children, acute respiratory infections can occur with an elevated temperature of not more than five days. A longer rise in temperature above 38 ° C may indicate the occurrence of complications or the addition of another disease. Sometimes the temperature seems to go down, but after 1-3 days it rises again: there are symptoms of intoxication, such as tearfulness, pallor, lethargy, increased sweating. The child refuses to eat and drink, becomes indifferent to what is happening. What can be complications of ARVI in children?
- Cough after ARI in a child in some cases can mean the transition of the disease to bronchitis or even pneumonia - the viral infection progresses gradually down the respiratory tract. First, there may be a clinical picture of laryngitis (dry cough, hoarse voice), then tracheitis (painful cough, vocal functions are restored), and subsequently bronchitis. The main sign of bronchitis is cough. At first it is dry and coarse, phlegm gradually begins to form and cough. The difficulty of breathing is added, the temperature rises again, sweating, fatigue. If the child has frequent and heavy breathing (sometimes the baby seems to "grumble"), then bronchiolitis or pneumonia can be suspected. Consultation of a doctor is mandatory.
- The rash in a child after ARVI can be a consequence of several reasons. For example, it can be the attachment of diseases such as rubella, measles, herpes (baby roseola), enterovirus infection, scarlet fever, etc. Or maybe an allergic reaction to drugs, for example, antibiotics. The exact cause of the rash should be determined by the doctor.
- Arthritis after SARS in children can appear after a long illness. Such arthritis is called "reactive". Symptoms of reactive arthritis may appear several days or even weeks after recovery. Usually there is pain in the joint (usually in the morning). It can be a hip joint, knee, ankle, etc. The child hardly gets out of bed, when walking limps, complains of severe pain. Diagnosis of the disease and begin treatment can child rheumatologist, based on the examination and the results of some tests.
Also complications of SARS can be sinusitis (inflammation in the paranasal sinuses) or otitis media. To suspect such diseases it is possible on a constant stuffiness of a nose against a background of a headache, or on shooting pain in an ear along with depression of hearing and feeling zalozhennosti.
Diagnosis of acute respiratory viral infections in children
The main task of the tests conducted for the diagnosis of acute respiratory viral infection in children is the determination of the type of pathogen. Depending on this, a further treatment regimen will be prescribed.
The most common tests for children with ARVI are a general blood test, a general urine test, and immunological tests to detect antibodies to a viral infection.
What indicators usually indicate ARVI?
General blood analysis:
- erythrocytes - the norm or increase due to a deficiency of fluid in the body;
- hematocrit - the norm or increase (with fever);
- leukocytes - the lower limit of normal or lower, indicating a viral etiology of the disease;
- the leukocyte formula is the prevalence of lymphocytes, a slight increase in monocytes;
- eosinophils - a decrease in the number or complete disappearance;
- neutrophils - decrease in quantity;
- ESR in children with acute respiratory viral infection is increased, but for viral infection this indicator is not specific.
General urine analysis:
- changes are not specific, sometimes - a small amount of protein in the urine, which passes after recovery;
- possible, but not at all necessary - a small microhematuria.
In rare cases, ketone bodies can be found in the blood or urine - acetone and acetoacetic acid - chemical complexes, which are formed in the liver when digesting food that has entered the digestive tract. Acetone in ARVI in children may appear in different concentrations, and since this substance is initially toxic, its presence in large amounts can cause symptoms of poisoning in the child (in particular, vomiting, as well as the odor of acetone from the mouth or from urinary secretions). Definition and treatment of acetone in blood or urine should be handled exclusively by a medical specialist.
Immunology is an analysis of immunoglobulins M (already released at the initial stages of the disease). This analysis is taken twice - with the first symptoms of acute respiratory viral infection and a week later. Such a study allows you to accurately identify the pathogen. Nevertheless, the immunological method is not always used, but only with a severe and protracted course of the disease.
What it is necessary to survey?Bronchi Trachea Larynx
How to inspect?X-ray of lungs Examination of respiratory (lung) organs Bronchoscopy
What tests are needed?Sputum examination
Who to contact?Infectionist Pediatrician
Treatment of ARVI in children
Children with a mild and moderate form of SARS can be treated at home. Hospitalized only in the following cases:
- with a severe form of the disease, or in the presence of complications (inflammation of the lungs, croup, etc.);
- at the age of a child under 1 year, or from 1 to 3 years;
- at unsatisfactory epidemiological and material conditions.
The standard of ARVI treatment in children provides, first of all, the removal of intoxication of the body. To do this, use a lot of warm drinking, complex multivitamins, and in more severe cases - in / in the introduction of glucose and blood substitutes. At high temperature, antipyretic drugs may be used in the form of tablets or rectal suppositories, and in severe cases, as intramuscular injections.
During the period of fever the child is shown bed rest. In the absence of complications, antibiotics and sulfonamide preparations are usually not used, but in some cases to small children they are still prescribed, since it is very difficult to recognize a complication in an infant.
The protocol for the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections in children with complications includes the appointment of bronchodilators (for pneumonia or bronchitis). Antibiotics are used with caution, taking into account the allergic inclinations of the child. When stenosis of the larynx they use sedative drugs, antispasmodics, in severe cases, inject hydrocortisone.
Modern treatment of ARVI in children implies the appointment of drugs aimed at eliminating the main symptoms of the disease. What are these drugs:
- antitussives in the form of syrups, chewing or ordinary tablets;
- Warming creams or balms based on natural ingredients, which are rubbed into the skin of the chest;
- other warming procedures (mustard or compresses) according to indications;
- vitamin preparations to strengthen the immune forces.
More details about the drugs in ARVI, we'll talk below.
Drugs for the treatment of acute respiratory infections in children
All anti-virus products are divided into 4 categories:
- homeopathic antiviral agents;
- especially antiviral medications;
- interferons and interferon stimulants;
- means, stimulating immunity.
Let's consider separately all these categories.
- Homeopathy in ARVI in children. Most often, Viburkol suppositories, Ocilococcinum and Aflubin are prescribed from this category of medicines, EDAS-103 (903) or Gripp-Heel funds are slightly less common. Homeopathic specialists say that these homeopathic remedies stimulate the protective function of the child organism, and this is often true, although the pharmacodynamics of these drugs has not been studied. As a rule, homeopathic remedies have an effect already at the first methods of the preparation.
- Specific antiviral agents. In pediatrics, antiviral drugs like Arbidol, Rimantadine, Ribavirin and Tamiflu are more often used (in some cases also Acyclovir, according to the indications). These drugs inhibit the entry of the virus into cellular structures, block the reproduction of the virus, but they have a different spectrum of activity and are not intended for all children's age groups.
- Interferon drugs and their stimulants are probably the most popular group of antiviral agents. For example, Viferon in ARVI in children suppresses the development of the virus and destroys it in 1-3 days. Interferons are able to rid the body of a viral infection, both during the incubation period, and from any period of the disease. In addition to injection of interferons, the most interesting are suppositories of Viferon, suppositories of Kipferon and nasal droplets of Grippferon. Perhaps, the only contraindication to the use of these remedies can be the allergic inclination of the body to the ingredients of medicines, in particular to the components of candles - cocoa butter or confectionery fat. By the way, medications that activate interferon production (Amiksin, Neovir, Cycloferon) are recommended use only for prevention, but not for the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections, because of the slow action of such drugs.
- Immunostimulating drugs - Isoprenosin, Riboxin, Immunal, Imudon, Metuluracil, Bronchomunal, IRS-19, Ribomunil and others. One of the most popular listed medications, isoprinosine in ARVI in children is used more as a prophylaxis, however, like other immunostimulants. The reason is that the effectiveness of the action of immunostimulants is observed only after 14-20 days from the beginning of immunostimulating treatment. Also, these drugs can be used to restore the body after recovery.
As you know, antibiotics for ARVI in children with a classical course of the disease are not prescribed, since they have nothing to do with a viral infection. Antibiotic therapy is used only in case of complications, or if they are suspected: most often prescribe drugs-derivatives of ampicillin.
Nutrition for children with ARVI
Nutrition for ARVI in children is about the same as with a common cold. The main condition - the baby should be offered food only if there is an appetite. Do not feed the child by force.
You can not also give your child harmful products: chips, soda. It shows an abundant warm drink and easily digestible food, rich in vitamins, for example, vegetables, fruits, berry purees and jellies.
Young children are advised to offer apple compote without sugar, decoctions of dried fruits. In the absence of allergies to berries, you can prepare morsels or berry jelly, or simply give warm mineral water without gas.
As a drink for children from 3-4 years to make compotes, you can use apricots, cherry plum, pears (if there is no allergy). You can offer a weak green tea - it contains antioxidants, which help remove toxins from the body.
It is desirable to avoid broths and infusions from strawberries, currants - such berries are more allergens. Replace them with bananas, grapes or kiwi.
Diet for ARVI in children should contain easily digestible and healthy food:
- products for cooking dishes should preferably be mashed and mashed, the food should be light and soft;
- in the period of illness, try to avoid buying baby food, it is better to cook yourself from fresh porridge products, puree, mashed soups;
- at the stage of recovery it is important to enrich the diet with proteins, so use white meat, minced meat or boiled egg white as food additives;
- children from 3-4 years can be offered lean fish, such as pike perch, cod, etc .;
- do not forget about sour-milk products - they will support the balance of microflora in the intestines. Suitable fresh yogurt, natural yogurt, low-fat cottage cheese, acidophilic mixture. To such products, you can add a spoonful of honey (in the absence of allergies);
- As the child recovers, return to normal nutrition, but do it gradually so as not to burden the body.
Be reasonable in choosing food for your child in ARVI: food should be nutritious, vitaminized, varied, but you should not overeat and use harmful foods.
In addition to treatmentAntibiotics for ARVI Than to treat? Ibunorm baby Pakseladin
Prevention of ARVI in children
Prevention of acute respiratory infections in children is mainly aimed at increasing the resistance and strengthening the immunity of the child's body. What measures have a preventive focus:
- tempering (outdoor games, reception of air baths, cool showers, walking on grass without shoes, night rest in a cool room, swimming in pools and open water);
- stabilization of digestive processes (consumption of vegetables and fruits, adherence to diet and drinking, support of intestinal microflora);
- regulation of stool, normalization of nutrition;
- ensuring a full sleep (rest not on a filled stomach, ventilated air in the room, enough sleep).
Preventive measures should be carried out systematically, without forcing the child, and explaining to him the need for a procedure for maintaining health.
If necessary and a poor state of immunity, you sometimes have to resort to the use of drugs that stimulate immune defense.
Preparations for the prevention of acute respiratory infections in children
Immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory and adaptogenic ability has a special multivitamin complex Vetoron. It is prescribed internally from the age of 5 to 3-4 drops, and from 7 years - 5-7 drops per day, or in capsules from 6 years of age from 5 to 80 mg once a day.
It is recommended to take ascorbic acid, retinol and B vitamins in a dose according to age. The best proportion of the abovementioned vitamins is presented in the preparations "Undevit", "Complevit", "Hexavit". Dragee take from 2 to 3 times a day for a month. In the autumn-winter period it is useful to give the baby a rose hip syrup in an amount of 1 h. l. per day.
Recently, drugs-adaptogenes, which stimulate the body to resist infection, are very popular. We bring to your attention the schemes of taking the most popular drugs of this category:
- Immunal - intake inside 1 to 3 years - 5-10 cap., From 7 years - 10-15 cap. three times a day;
- Drops of Dr. Tays - inside with a one-year age of 10-20 cap. three times a day;
- Drops Hexal - inside by 6 drops from 12 years of age twice a day;
- Tincture of aralia - from 1 to 2 cap. / Year of life, once a day for half an hour before meals, for 14-20 days.
As an emergency preventive measures, it is possible to take medicines based on medicinal plants (camomile, sage, calendula, colanchoe, garlic or onion), or local immunocorrective agents (Immudone, IRS-19).
ARVI in children are prone to relapse, so you need to find your prescription for prevention, which will allow you to forget about the disease for many years.
Treatment of ARVI in a childEach parent, at least once in his life, experienced symptoms of ARVI in a child, most often the children of the first 3 years of life are ill and children 7-10 years old.
ARVI in children are acute respiratory viral infections that unite a large group of viral infectious diseases caused by DNA - and RNA - containing viruses. Unlike influenza, these microorganisms do not have such high contagiousness, do not cause epidemics and are more easily tolerated by patients.
Causes and pathogenesis of the disease
ARVI in children is caused by viruses of influenza A, B and C, parainfluenza, adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, reoviruses and other microorganisms. The source of infection becomes a sick person or bacterium carrier, when talking, coughing, sneezing viruses fall on the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract of a healthy person and are introduced into it.
The further development of the disease, how hard it will go on and how many days will last, depends on the state of immunity infected, the general resistance of the body and on how much infectious agents enter the body.
Viruses quite easily and quickly die in the external environment,so the infection occurs when you are in close contact with the virus carrier or when using common household items(dishes, towels, personal hygiene items).
For SARS and influenza, the seasonality of the disease is typical - most cases of illness in children and adults are noted in the spring - Autumn period and in the cold season, when the human body is weakened and can not fight infections.
In children, viral infections occur almost at any age, but up to 6 months in infants, temporary immunity from the mother remains, and therefore children of this age rarely have ARI. The cause of acute respiratory viral infections and influenza in children up to a year are mostly older children and adults, who "bring" viruses and infect infants.
The peak incidence of various colds falls on the age of 3-4 years, when most babies begin to visit various children's institutions. Boredom, the lack of children's concepts of basic hygiene (sneezing with an open mouth, the use of someone else's dishes and personal hygiene items, not the ability to thoroughly wash their hands before eating, after walking and visiting the toilet), not fully formed immunity of the child, all this causes a large number of diseases in preschool children.
Symptoms of viral infections in childrenARVI in children begins with an increase in body temperature, general malaise, decreased appetite, then there are other signs viral infection: nasal congestion and abundant mucous discharge, pain and sore throat, coughing, rapid breathing. Depending on the type of pathogen, the symptoms of the disease may vary slightly.
1. Influenza - high body temperature - up to 39-40 degrees, muscle pain, weakness, headache, nasal congestion and sore throat are all symptoms of flu and parainfluenza. The disease can last from 4 to 5 to 10-14 days and how long the acute period of the disease will be depends largely on how quickly and timely the treatment is started. The body temperature during the flu lasts for several days, reaches high figures and can cause frustration, delirium and cramps, especially in young children.
Unlike other SARS, influenza and parainfluenza can lead to serious complications from internal organs, so the child must be under the supervision of a doctor and receive appropriate treatment. Parainfluenza causes severe swelling of the mucous membrane of the larynx and nasal passages, which can provoke the development of a false croup (asthma attacks) in a child of the first years of life.
2. Reo - and rhinovirus infections occur with a slight increase in body temperature, coughing and nasal congestion, the main symptoms of infection are a profuse serous detached from the nose, the patient can not breathe normally, it "flows" from the nose, reddened mucous membranes of the eyes, can also hurt the throat and torment cough. Usually the general condition of the child does not suffer too much and the symptoms of the disease quickly pass.
4. Adenoviral infection - here to all the above listed symptoms of ARVI, conjunctivitis and elevated body temperature, which lasts long enough on subfebrile digits, join. Adenoviruses have tropism to the lymphatic tissue and often cause an increase in the lymph nodes, spleen or lymphadenitis in children. The state of the lymphatic system will determine how long the disease will last and whether it will cause complications.
5. RS - infection - respiratory syncytial virus affects the bronchial mucosa and provokes the development of bronchitis, pneumonia and bronchial asthma in children. The main symptoms of this infection are a dry, painful cough that appears immediately after infection and is rapidly developing, as well as other signs - shortness of breath, quickening of breathing, fever and sore throat.
Principles of ARVI treatmentTreatment of acute respiratory viral infections in children is usually performed at home, it is necessary to treat a child in a hospital with complications, severe form of the disease, children with concomitant diseases or infants up to 1 year old with moderate and severe form.
Even if the child has many times had similar signs of infection, it is necessary to call a doctor and conduct treatment under his supervision, as only an experienced specialist will be able to accurately assess the patient's condition and in time to see the risk of developing various complications.
Calling up SARS in children can have about 200 different viruses, and many of them mutate yearly, so specific treatments, as well as disease prevention, have not yet been developed. To treat a child with ARVI is offered by symptomatic means and antiviral drugs. The most reliable way to avoid frequent ARVI in childhood and quickly recover from any infection is prevention viral infections: hardening, vitamin therapy, outdoor exercise and exercise.
To quickly cure a child, you must follow the following rules:
1. Observe the bed rest until the body temperature drops to normal, and then, for several more days, protect the child from any load, so as not to provoke the development of complications, since the patient's body is greatly weakened.
2. The diet of a sick child should be light and nutritious - more vegetables, fruits, dairy products. Be sure to follow the drinking regimen - a day the child should drink at least 1.5 - 3 liters of fluid, depending on the age. If the baby is on breastfeeding, it is necessary to monitor its condition - dry lips, hot dry skin, rapid breathing - these are all signs dehydration, when they appear, you need to start dopayivat the child with warm boiled water at a rate of approximately 10 ml per kg of body weight, every 2-3 hours. Children older than a year can be offered juices, compotes, fruit drinks, tea with honey and raspberries or mineral alkaline water without gas.
3. If the body temperature exceeded 38.5 g, the child is given antipyretic - Panadol, children's paracetamol, ibuprofen and other similar preparations, children up to one year can put a rectal candle with febrifuge.
4. With pain in the throat, one should immediately start rinsing with antiseptic solutions. The more gargle of the patient is rinsed, the more effectively microorganisms and the products of their vital activity are washed out of the oropharynx. Optimum gargle every 2-4 hours with soda-salt solutions, chamomile, sage broth, ready-made pharmacy solutions or solutions of furacilin, iodine, hydrogen peroxide.
5. If the cough persists for several days, it is advisable to start taking expectorant and thinning medications - bromhexine, licorice root syrup, Muciltin, amber, and others.
6. From the first days of the disease, a viral infection should begin taking antiviral drugs - interferon, anaferon, viferon. Children up to a year, these drugs are prescribed in the form of candles.
7. If the symptoms do not go away in a few days and the body temperature keeps on high figures - this may indicate about joining bacterial infection and about the need to start antibiotic treatment, which can only be prescribed by a doctor.
Prevention of ARVI
Specific prophylaxis of acute respiratory viral infections in children is still not developed and, in order to avoid infection and quickly get rid of the clinical manifestations infection, it is necessary to observe the rules of personal hygiene, to avoid accumulation of people, hypothermia and to increase the body's defenses. The best prevention of any infections in children is good immunity, and for this it is necessary to carry out the tempering of the child, to monitor his health and proper nutrition.
Symptoms of ARVI in children
If once doctors from all over the world come together to an international consultation to determine the list of the most common diseases, this list will most likely be headed by a "banal ARVI". But is it as banal as it often seems to us?
When a child falls ill with ARVI for real, the prevalence of this disease for some reason does not greatly console the home. Consider the main signs of ARVI in children.What is ARVI?
ARVI - acute respiratory viral infection - a disease of the upper respiratory tract, which is transmitted by airborne droplets. That is, when kissing, when using shared dishes, in closed, not enough ventilated rooms. Both the flu and rhinovirus infections, infections accompanied by catarrhal symptoms (reddening of the throat, runny nose, cough) are referred to SARS.
Symptoms of ARVI in children
Usually acute respiratory disease begins with "harmless sneezes". As a result of getting the infection on the nasal mucosa, the baby's body seeks to eliminate the enemy. Further this process is strengthened and a sniff is added to sneezing. Along with mucus, an unwanted virus must leave the body. (Therefore, it is so important to replenish the supplies of fluid in the body in time, without it the child can not cope and the virus can become the master of the situation.)
In addition, children with ARVI can complain that they have a headache, handles, legs, back, and begin to rub their eyes. As in adults, ARVI disease in children is accompanied by a headache, an aching joint, pain in the eyeballs. The onset of acute respiratory viral infection in many children is accompanied by vomiting and loose stools. The fact that your child is vomiting whenever he falls ill, and the neighbor is not, does not say that your disease is special. The virus can be the same. Just by virtue of its constitution, your child's body cope with the onset of the disease, "throwing off ballast." (However, it is possible that the fat cheesecakes are to blame for everything, with which you tried to feed the baby? - Such food for a sick kid will not make recovery easier, it should be left for later.)
The temperature in ARVI in children may not rise too high (and hold at around 37 ° C), but can reach 39.5 ° C. In the second case it is obvious that the organism perceived the attacking virus as threatening. It is with the help of heat that he tries to destroy the enemy.
ESR, a blood indicator that determines the inflammatory processes in the body, in ARI in children does not increase too high. The situation is different with this indicator, if a bacterial infection joins a viral disease.
Complications of ARVI in children
While the "simple ORVI" does not cause a large damage to the body, and 5-7 days after the onset of the disease with the correctcare of the child is restored, the attachment of the bacterial component can cause serious complications.
How to determine the onset of a bacterial disease? If on the third day of the virus the child became better, but after a few more days the condition worsened, the temperature began to rise (and become even higher than in the first days of the disease) - this indicates the attachment of a bacterial infection. It is in this case (and only in this case) that antibiotics should be used to treat ARVI.
It should also be said that an acute respiratory viral infection in an infant may occur in a more acute form than in older children, but it is for them that a rise in temperature is undesirable and dangerous. Therefore, in ARVI in children under one year should not engage in self-medication.