- What should be considered constipation?
- What are the signs of constipation in a child?
- Why does the little child have a problem?
- How to find out the reason?
- How to help your child?
- Advice on prevention
- Related videos
Attentive parents know that a small child does not cry for no reason. The baby's index of well-being is sleep and appetite, skin condition. Constipation in infants is a serious problem. The children's digestive tract only adapts to independent work. At any failures, the baby is disturbed by colic, the frequency of the stool is disturbed. Parents are provided with sleepless nights because of screaming.
It is very important for a child up to a year to receive breastfeeding. Bacterial flora of the intestine is ready to assimilate the composition of the mother's milk. How to help the baby and provide the necessary nutrition, we will discuss in detail.
What should be considered constipation?
For a baby, the norm can be a stool frequency 1-2 times a day, and 10 times. When replacing diapers, moms are advised to observe the appearance and consistency of the stool. The feces must be semi-liquid( mushy), yellow, not to have a sharp odor. The appearance of more dense feces indicates a tendency to constipation.
This can happen once when a diet is abused by a nursing mother, an insufficient drinking regime, an attempt to switch to dry mixes. Every mother is familiar with the list of forbidden foods when breastfeeding. Seeing the reaction of the child, tries to adjust their diet, restore regular bowel movement.
If the baby is on formula-fed formula, the feces are thick, the frequency of defecation is 1-2 times a day. The process of defecation should not cause difficulties. By one year the frequency becomes the same. For some weakened, premature babies, the stool remains more than once before 2-3 years. To understand whether the child is suffering from constipation or lack of defecation for him the norm, you need to pay attention to the symptoms and behavior of the baby.
What are the signs of constipation in a child?
Symptoms associated with obstructed bowel movements:
- delay in regular bowel movement per day or more;
- refusal of the next feeding;
- cry for no reason;
- poor sleep;
- profuse regurgitation;
- painful reaction to touching the abdomen;
- reinforced straining with red face and screaming;
- allocation of dense stool parts;
- inadequate bowel release is confirmed by the continued anxiety of the baby.
If the baby has such symptoms, it is necessary to show it to the pediatrician, the doctor should examine the baby and determine the possible causes of constipation.
Why does the young child have a problem?
To properly treat constipation, it is necessary to distinguish physiological causes related to nutrition from early intestinal pathology( possibly congenital anomalies).Therefore, parents should rely less on the advice of grandmothers, and call a doctor. The child needs urgent help, and parents in the recommendations how to get rid of constipation in the future. Let's analyze the most common reasons.
Among the causes of constipation in an infant should be allocated organic pathology. Usually, it is diagnosed in a maternity hospital in the first days of the baby's life when examined by a pediatric neonatologist. Congenital defects include:
- dolichosigma - enlarged sigmoid colon with a high likelihood of torsion and intestinal obstruction, the baby develops a rapid intoxication;
- Hirschsprung's disease - denervation of part of the intestine( absence of nerve endings in the walls).
As a result, the contents can not overcome mechanical obstacles, the intestine "refuses" to move the stool masses, overstretches
Anomalies are rather rare. In 2/3 cases, children under the age of one year are diagnosed. With sufficient compensation, the constipation of the newborn can not be noticed, then it becomes habitual and is revealed in 6-7 years and even in adulthood. Most often found in children with genetic diseases. For example, with Down's syndrome.
Such cases require urgent diagnosis and surgical treatment. Fight with pathology by other methods is impossible, and postponing surgical intervention will only lead to severe complications in the form of inflammation, obstruction and peritonitis.
Features of nourishing mother's nutrition
There are two points of view about the effect of mother's milk on constipation in a newborn. Some experts prove that substances harmful to the child can not penetrate into breast milk, as it is synthesized from lymph and blood. This means that the importance of the diet of the nursing mother in the occurrence of defecation in the child is exaggerated.
Others - insist on changing the composition of milk with a different diet of the mother. Therefore, in order to facilitate the work of the intestines to the baby, the mother must exclude from her diet products that delay intestinal peristalsis( fresh baked goods, rice porridge, fatty meat, bananas, whole milk, nuts, seeds, spicy cheese).
Some children are born with a congenital insufficiency of the enzyme lactase, which breaks down this substance in milk, they also have an allergic reaction to the protein of cow's milk. As a result of intolerance, a stool retention occurs.
Attentive mothers determine for themselves what product their child is reacting to
Lack of fluid
This reason occurs in cases of artificial feeding. A sufficient amount of water in the diet can dilute stool masses. Otherwise, they become thick, for the intestine, additional efforts are needed to promote the feces.
Constipation in infants occurs with the introduction of complementary foods. While the food is only supplied by breast milk, the child receives enough fluids. But solid food requires the addition and expansion of the drinking regime. More water is needed at elevated temperatures, on a hot day if the child sweats in warm clothes.
Early early introduction of complementary food
For each kid, the lure is introduced in due time. Parents should not seek to speed up the transfer to artificial feeding and the rejection of breast milk. At the age of three months, the child's gastrointestinal tract is still poorly adapted to mixtures, juices, "piureshkas."With artificial feeding of lure it is recommended to enter not earlier than 4 months, and when breastfeeding - in six months.
The digestive system of the child does not yet produce enough enzymes. To help the baby during the transition to artificial mixtures can be gradually replacing one of the breastfeeding, then more. It is not recommended to refuse breastfeeding in the period after the infectious disease, cold, severe reaction to teething.
The problem of constipation may indicate an incorrectly selected mixture, a sharp substitute, an inconsistency in age. Advertising does not always correspond to the real properties of artificial nutrition. It is necessary to consult an experienced specialist.
With timely introduction of complementary foods, it is necessary to provide for the presence of dietary fiber in the composition. They are provided with fruits and vegetables. They need to teach the child, he eats manna and rice porridge with a much greater desire. Adding plant fiber will require additional drinking. In the presence of a sufficient amount of water, the fibers swell and leave the intestine in a natural way.
Constipation in response to antibiotic treatment
Antibacterial drugs have a negative property to destroy useful intestinal bacteria. This process is especially rapid in children up to a year. Doctors prescribe antibiotics only when absolutely necessary by a short course. But there are serious diseases in which one should think about saving the life of a small patient.
Different tools are used, some are replaced by other more sensitive ones. Subsequent dysbacteriosis manifests itself as constipation, and diarrhea. Parents should not independently give any antibacterial drugs to the child.
Constipation with stress
Learning the world around, the kid meets with frightening phenomena. He experiences them in his own way. Going to a kindergarten, a new environment, punishment - these are stressful situations for the child. They can not be forgotten. The body is able to react with a delay in the stool, even when trying to get used to the pot.
Separation from the mother - the most severe stress
Also called "hungry."In connection with the undernourishment, there is not enough calf mass in the intestine. Perhaps a lack of breast milk is not immediately noticed. In asocial families, the situation is complicated by the lack of funds to purchase nutrient mixtures. The child suffers and cries from the colic in the stomach, the feeling of hunger. Poorly adds weight, does not develop by his age.
How to find out the reason?
Symptomatic measures that cause defecation, over time, are addictive and lose their properties. Therefore, one can not hope that the child will grow up and everything "by itself" will normalize. It is important that it is in the infant period that conditions are created for the pathology of adulthood. Therefore, with repeated problems with a delay in the stool, it is necessary to conduct a survey and find out the cause.
With ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, it is possible to detect congenital pathology. In an easy degree, it is treated conservatively. With pronounced changes, you should agree to an operation. Consultation of the neurologist helps to find out the reason for atony of the intestine. The children's gastroenterologist will monitor the baby's diet, ensure the detection of lactulose insufficiency and recommendations for nutrition.
How to help your child?
Before thinking about what to do and how to help the child, experts recommend observing the nature of the defecation. There are 2 options:
- atonic - the baby screams and stiffens, the initial portion of the feces comes out with difficulty and with pain, is a decorated feces as in adults, then liquid excrement is excreted;
- spastic - the feces come out "sheep" portions, tight, the stomach is swollen, defecation is painful.
In the first case, it is necessary to stimulate bowel contractility, in the second - to remove spasm. A newborn with constipation helps massage the abdomen. Atony it is necessary to increase muscle tone. To do this, the baby is engaged in charging: in the position on the back, the legs are bent at the knees and lead to the chest, then straighten. Exercises are repeated several times a day when changing a diaper.
The development of abdominal muscles is facilitated by laying on the stomach for 10 minutes before each feeding. Get rid of spasms will help stroking massage movements by hand on the stomach in a clockwise direction. In this case, you can do light pressure. Apply laying on the belly of a warm diaper, bathing in the bath, pressing and warming the tummy of the baby to the body of a mom or dad.
For stimulation of the chair, the following measures are recommended:
- massage with two fingers of the invertebral zone from the waist to the sacrum;
- introduction is shallow in the anal passage of the cotton swab, lubricated with baby cream and scrolling movements inside;
- is sometimes assisted by a gas pipe, first comes out a gas plug, then a feces;
- grandmothers effectively used chopped soap sticks, you can not use "Economic" because of the presence of alkalis, it is better to take "Children's";
- is more convenient to purchase rectal suppositories with glycerine in the drugstore, for the baby it is enough for 1/3 of the part, it easily enters the anus, then it is necessary to connect and hold the buttocks, usually the stool appears after 10-15 minutes.
How to put an enema?
For babies, a rubber pear with a capacity of 30 ml is suitable. Water should be at room temperature( warm absorbed and does not go out).You can use a decoction of chamomile. The tip is washed with soap. Then grease with petroleum jelly or baby cream. The depth of introduction into the rectum should not exceed 1 cm. Water is injected gradually.
Modern version - Microlax, ready microclyster with glycerin and water-salt solution, the result appears after 5-10 minutes
Recommendations on nutrition
Keeping a diet with a nursing mother is one of the main approaches to treating constipation in infants. It is recommended to eat vegetables, fruits, a few berries of dried apricots, figs, prunes. From bakery products rye bread with bran is preferred. You should drink at least 2.5 liters of liquid. The baby should be injected with mashed potatoes from apples, pumpkins, peaches, apricots. To restore the balance of the intestinal flora, it is recommended to drink milk drinks with bifidobacteria or probiotics.
Treatment with laxatives
Medications in the treatment of constipation in children are used in extreme cases, if it is not possible to get the result from a massage, a mother's diet and a baby's nutrition correction. From laxative products for babies are used drugs based on lactulose. Other means are banned for one year.
Dufalac is the most convenient drug in syrup. Breasts are given 5 ml once a day in the morning, children up to 6 years of age, the dosage is increased to 10-15 ml. Sometimes, and this dose occurs diarrhea, bloating. It can be taken by a nursing mother with a delay in the stool. At 6 months, pediatricians allow another drug - Forlax, it is given to the child daily for three months. Used in the initial therapy of organic constipation, when preparing for surgery.
Advice on the prevention of
Parents of a young child need to be aware of the measures that prevent constipation. These include:
- preservation of breastfeeding, at least up to six months;
- careful selection of the mixture if breastfeeding is not possible;
- the first lure to enter not earlier than 5 months;
- the volume of the mixture and the feeding regimen should be strictly observed for the child's age;
- additionally give to drink boiled water, a decoction of raisins, dried fruits;
- , when there is a tendency to delay the stool, do not feed the baby with manna and rice porridge, inject puree from prunes;
- engage with the baby charging, mobile games;
- before feeding, do not forget to hold the baby in position on the abdomen;
- in hot weather, let's drink more, do not overheat because of too warm clothes;
- if you need antibiotics, ask the doctor for probiotics;
- nursing mothers need to monitor the intake of medications that affect the tone of the intestine, constipation can lead to vitamins with iron, soothing agents, antispasmodics.
The problem of constipation in children is better prevented than treated. Parents need attention and understanding of the condition of the baby. Breastfeeding mother is the main protection of the child, therefore it needs to be guarded, to create conditions for prolongation of lactation.