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When they say that they are worried about discomfort in the stomach, they often mean bloating, heaviness, a feeling of raspryaniya, nausea or heartburn. These symptoms can be combined, their intensity varies, but in any case they are so expressed that they make one think about the seriousness of the condition.
Unpleasant sensations in the stomach appear as a result of digestive disturbances, which is caused by deterioration of the depositing, motor, secretory, evacuation, excretory, suction, endocrine or protective functions.
secretion In the case of secretory dysfunction, a qualitative or quantitative change in gastric juice occurs, which is why its ability to digest food is impaired. If the amount of secreted gastric juice is different from normal, then they say hypoxecretion or hypersecretion.
These disorders are not always the consequence of a stomach disease, in some cases the cause is a worsening of the work of the nervous, urinary or endocrine system. Qualitative changes are manifested in the concentration of hydrochloric acid( probably a decrease, an increase and the absence of hydrochloric acid).
When hypersecretion, a lot of hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen are released, which leads to an increase in the digestive capacity of the juice. Pathology develops against the background of the use of certain medications( glucocorticoids, salicylates) and gastrointestinal pathologies( peptic ulcer, hypertrophic and erosive gastritis).
When hypersecretion, acid in the stomach is present even in the morning on an empty stomach, although normally only its traces should be found. There is a violation of pain in the upper abdomen, heartburn, acidic eructation, a feeling of pressure and bursting, vomiting, nausea, deterioration of the evacuation of chyme into the intestine( after eating, discomfort in the stomach lasts a long time).
With hypoxecretion, the production of gastric juice and pepsinogen is reduced or absent, so the food is digested slowly or not digested at all. Develop pathology in anorexia, chronic infectious-toxic processes, neoplasms in the stomach, atrophic gastritis, lack of vitamins( C, E, B), as well as electrolytes, water or high-grade proteins.
Clinically manifested hypoxecretion dyspeptic symptoms, decreased digestion rate and worsening gastric motility, increased fermentation and decay, dysbiosis, diarrhea.
Disturbance of motor function
In case of gastric motility disorder peristalsis and muscle tone of the organ changes, the evacuation of chyme changes, which is why heartburn, vomiting, eructation, pilorospasm occur. With hypertension, pain occurs in the epigastric region, the peristalsis of the stomach is increased, the organ content slowly moves to the small intestine, which leads to frequent eructations of sour and vomiting.
Hypotonus develops on the background of stress, infections, neuroses, hypoacid status or pain. It is manifested by the severity and sensation of bursting in the area of the xiphoid process, nausea, as rotting and fermentation in the stomach is intensified due to weak evacuation ability.
Hyperkinesis( excessive motor activity) among other things is provoked by a coarse, abundant, cellulose-rich and protein-rich food, alcohol. On the contrary, hypokinesis( insufficient motor activity) of the stomach occurs if a person for a long time eats a tender, poor fiber, vitamins and proteins, but rich in carbohydrates and fats food, and also if consumes a lot of water before and after eating.
Hypertonus and hyperkinesis of the stomach often causes pylorospasm, vomiting and nausea. Hypotonus of the esophageal sphincter leads to belching, if the activity of the stomach muscles is increased, then severe heartburn occurs.
Enzyme deficiency occurs because of limited secretion or inadequate activity of pancreatic enzymes, which leads to disruption in the cleavage and absorption of nutrients.
Pathology can be primary( the pancreas is affected because of which its exocrine function is violated) and secondary( the enzymes are synthesized but inactivated or not activated in the small intestine).The disease is manifested by increased gas production, anemia, steatorrhea, diarrhea, lack of vitamins, progressive weight loss.
Against the background of abnormal gastric motility, nausea, heartburn, vomiting, a feeling of overcrowding in the body of
. Because of the lack of lactase, lactase deficiency develops. When the disease is not split milk sugar( lactose), that is, milk and products from it are not digested. Lactose should be split in the small intestine and converted into glucose and galactose, which are able to enter the bloodstream.
With lactase deficiency, milk sugar can not be split, which means that it penetrates into the large intestine, where it begins to ferment, which causes an increase in acidity, excessive gas formation and the secretion of water. In addition to discomfort in the abdomen, after drinking milk, patients complain of diarrhea or constipation, flatulence, sleep disorder.
With the deficiency of the enzyme that breaks down the gluten, celiac disease develops, which is characterized by chronic inflammation of the small intestinal mucosa and impaired suction function. Gluten contains a substance that acts toxic on the intestinal mucosa and causes its atrophy. Celiac disease provokes the occurrence of diarrhea, steatorrhea, polyhypovitaminosis.
Discomfort in the area of the stomach appears after eating products containing gluten( wheat bread, barley, oatmeal, rye flour, pasta, semolina, beer, kvass, gluten traces are found in chocolate, ice cream, cocoa, instant coffee, sausages, sausages,canned food).
Enzyme deficiency can be diagnosed in childhood, and can also occur in an adult. For example, a decrease in the level of lactase begins with 3-5 years, so some people already in adulthood find that after eating milk, which they used to tolerate before, discomfort in the abdomen begins.
Often the cause of discomfort in the stomach in the absence of a schedule for eating, overeating and eating harmful products. If you eat food for a long time or even periodically, and then eat enough, if you prefer fatty, fried, spicy dishes, if you combine incompatible products, then the stomach is difficult to digest food because it is impossible to synthesize the right amount of gastric juice and enzymes.
If gas formation in the stomach is increased, air causes the walls of the organ to expand, and this causes discomfort
. When compiling the menu, it is necessary to take into account the compatibility of products, because different products require different enzymes and a different amount of gastric juice. Nutritionists distinguish six groups of substances( proteins, fats, carbohydrates, acids, sugars, starches), which behave differently during digestion.
For example, the digestion of proteins requires an acidic medium, and for carbohydrates, an alkaline solution is needed, and if they simultaneously enter the stomach, the digestion of food slows down and there is discomfort in the abdomen. Negatively affect digestion and prolonged compliance with diets that limit the intake of protein, fat or carbohydrates.
For normal operation of the whole body all these substances are required in a certain ratio. If you consume a lot of protein foods, then in the stomach and intestines the decay processes begin actively, the putrefactive bacteria multiply, which are the cause of dysbiosis. When eating predominantly carbohydrate food in the intestine begins fermentation. Fatty food contributes to obesity.
How to eliminate the discomfort of
Knowing what exactly causes discomfort in the stomach after eating, you can avoid an unpleasant condition. In some cases it will be necessary to adhere to dietary nutrition and develop a few habits that improve digestion, in others not to do without drug therapy or surgery.
If there is discomfort, then it is necessary to pay attention after what kind of food there are unpleasant sensations in the stomach and to reconsider your diet. It is necessary to limit the use of smoked products, muffins, fatty, sharp and fried foods, as they are heavily digested. The stomach is easier to "work" with boiled, baked or steamed food.
If gravity and bursting occur after certain products( acidic, single color, with the content of certain substances), then they must be completely excluded from the diet. For example, with celiac disease, the intestinal mucosa is restored in 3-6 months after the elimination of gluten from the diet.
Overeating and skipping meals are harmful to health, so it is recommended to eat small meals, but up to 6 times a day( including snacks).It is important not to be distracted while eating, as a person chews food badly and does not notice how much he eats.
If the cause of discomfort in the stomach in the wrong diet, then when the diet is maintained, digestion recovers within a few days.
If the stomach is constantly after eating a heaviness and swelling and does not help the diet, then you need to see a doctor to find out why the symptoms occur. At complaints on discomfort in a stomach the doctor appoints research of a blood and a feces, US of organs of an abdominal cavity, fibrogastroscopy.
If these tests are not useful, a more detailed examination may be required. After carrying out laboratory and hardware studies, the gastroenterologist will diagnose and prescribe the necessary therapy, which can include a diet, taking medications, and surgical intervention.
Medication may include the following medications:
- prokinetics( Raglan, Motilac, Motilium, Mosid).Means improve the motor activity of the stomach and intestines, normalize the gallbladder, stimulate bile secretion. After taking the medication, heartburn, eructation, nausea, reflux, constipation occurs;
- antacids( Fosfalugel, Almagel, Maalox).They are prescribed to reduce the acidity of gastric juice with hyperacid gastritis, stomach ulcer, GERD and other acid-related pathologies. The drug is taken 1,5-2 hours after a meal and its effect is noticeable after just a couple of minutes: pains are gone, spasm is removed, excessive pressure in the stomach is lowered, the passage of gastric contents accelerates, heartburn is passed;
- proton pump inhibitors( Omez, Panzol, Barol, Nexium).They block the secretion of hydrochloric acid, inhibit the production of pepsinogen and the growth of Helicobacteria, enhance the action of macrolides. Symptoms of the disease( heartburn, discomfort) go through 3-5 days of therapy with the drug. The tablet should be taken once a day for half an hour before breakfast;
- enzyme preparations( Mezim, Pancreatin, Creon, Festal, Somilase).The composition of the drug includes the enzymes of the pancreas, and can also contain hemicellulose( helps in the cleavage of plant polysaccharides) or bile components( increase secretion of the pancreas and bile, stimulate the motility of the gallbladder and intestines);
- gastroprotective agents( Venter, De-nol).Preparations contain substances that protect the mucosa from the aggressive effects of gastric juice( sucralfate, colloidal bismuth) or components that stimulate the protective function of the mucosa( prostaglandins, carbenoxolone);
- carminative( Espumizan, Simikol, Carmolis).These drugs contribute to the removal of gases from the stomach and intestines, due to which bloating is carried out, weight and discomfort go away;
- antispasmodics( No-sppa, Drotaverin, Kratagus).The medicine removes the spasm of smooth muscles and eliminates the pain in the stomach.
To restore the functioning of the stomach, you must constantly adhere to the prescribed therapeutic diet
What you need to do if there is a strong discomfort in the stomach, tells the gastroenterologist after studying the clinic and the results of laboratory research. If discomforts occur often, then self-medication is not worth it, because constantly overcoming mild symptoms you can not notice the progression of the pathology.
If a fever in the abdomen is accompanied by a fever, nausea, vomiting, weakness and tension of the muscles of the press, you should urgently seek medical help.