Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a disease in which the blood supply of the heart is disturbed by narrowing, plugging or squeezing of the coronary arteries.
Most often, coronary arteries are clogged by atherosclerotic plaques. With aggravation of atherosclerosis, the lumen of the vessels narrows, the blood flow slows down, and the heart muscle does not receive sufficient nutrition.
In this case, the heart cells gradually die, which leads to myocardial infarction and sudden death of the patient.
- 3First and subsequent signs in the male
- 4Female symptomatology
- 5Manifestations in childhood
Among the common causes of coronary artery disease, doctors call chronic illnesses and an incorrect lifestyle. Herethe main factors leading to heart disease:
- malnutrition, contributing to increased cholesterol in the blood;
- insufficient motor activity;
- smoking, alcohol abuse;
- lack of potassium, magnesium, vitamins A, E, C;
- use of hormonal drugs;
- constant stress;
- chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis).
There are several types of ischemic heart disease:
- Sudden death from acute coronary insufficiency- cardiac arrest, which ends either with a successful resuscitation, or with the death of the patient.
- Angina pectoris- a variant of IHD, in which there are periodic attacks of pain after loading or at rest.
- Heart Attack- death of the site of the heart muscle due to prolonged "fasting". Classification of myocardial infarction you will find in a separate article.
- Postinfarction cardiosclerosis- proliferation of scar tissue, which gradually replace the tissues of the heart muscle.
- Arrhythmia- heterogeneity of heart rhythms (rapidity or slowing of the heartbeat, irregularity of the rhythm).
- Heart failure- the appearance of swelling and shortness of breath due to prolonged "starvation" of the heart muscle.
and men differ slightly.
First and subsequent signs in the male
In the male half of the population, the disease is much more common than in women. Exactlyin men, signs of cardiac ischemia are considered "classical":
- The feeling of discomfort that appears in the chest after physical work. This manifestation of IHD is characteristic of early stages of the disease.
- Stitching, baking or compressing pain that occurs in the chest, but gives in the jaw, neck, scapula or the left arm. It appears as after physical or psychological loads, and spontaneously (with temperature drops, sudden movements).
- Shortness of breath, which appears after heavy loads. If the disease progresses, dyspnea may occur even after walking or at rest.
- General weakness, fast fatigue, nausea, dizziness, fainting, increased cold sweating.
- At an arrhythmia there can be interruptions of heart rhythms: the heart that quickly beats, then slows down and freezes.
- When angina pectoris may occur, periodic attacks, the duration of which does not exceed several minutes. After stress or stress, the patient suddenly feels a shortage of air, baking pain, chest tightness.
- With myocardial infarction, pains occur suddenly, are manifested by short-term attacks. The intensity of pain with each attack increases and within an hour becomes unbearable.
In women, coronary heart disease rarely occurs, becausefemale sex hormones - estrogens - interfere with the development of atherosclerosis. But after menopause, the risk of developing this disease increases dramatically.
In general, the symptoms and signs of IHD in women are similar to the manifestations of the disease in men, but in addition to the classic in ischemic heart pain in the chest, theyoften experience other unpleasant symptoms: weakness, nausea, heartburn, dyspnea. The female variant of ischemic heart disease is often confused with diseases of the digestive system.
Women develop psychic manifestations: an unreasonable sense of anxiety, panic fear, accompanied by a lack of air. Apathetic condition may appear.
Manifestations in childhood
In childhood, ischemia of the heart almost does not manifest itself. Pain usually does not affect the chest area. However, parents shouldpay attention to the alarming symptoms:
- the child lags behind in development;
- poorly gaining weight;
- has a pale color of the skin;
- often more ARI;
- quickly tired;
- feels short of breath during exercise.
All this may be a sign of the onset of ischemic heart disease in children.A child must certainly be shown to a cardiologistand begin treatment.
At occurrence of the first signs the patient should address to the doctor-therapist, and then - to the cardiologist. To identify the disease, a doctorwill assign the following studies:
- ECG and echocardiography;
- a blood test for the content of cholesterol and lipoproteins;
- functional and pharmacological tests (studying the reaction of the heart to exercise and medication);
- computed tomography.
The last study is prescribed to exclude heart disease or vascular aneurysm.
Many patients do not react to constant pain and live with it. But in vain. Cells of the heart, constantly receiving less food, die that latercan provoke myocardial infarction and sudden death.
Proper treatment canappoint only a cardiologist. Usually, IHD treatment is performed in a comprehensive manner and includes the following activities:
- prevention of attacks with nitrates;
- blood thinning with antiaggregants or anticoagulants;
- prevention of atherosclerosis by statins and fibrates;
- resumption of oxygen delivery to the heart with beta-blockers, calcium antagonists, hyperbaric oxygenation procedures;
- increasing the level of magnesium and potassium.
This video-video tells more about the symptoms of ischemia, diagnosis and treatment of coronary heart disease:
IHD is a disease that can not be cured completely. Therefore, the patient will have to reconsider his way of life:give up nicotine and alcohol, switch to diet, enrich the diet with vitamins and minerals, reduce weight and avoid stress. All prescribed medications the patient will have to take for life. However, due to them, he will gain control over ischemic disease and will be able to lead a full life.
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