The most common eye disease among the elderly is cataract. It requires urgent treatment, otherwise in the aftermath you can completely or partially lose sight.
The most effective method of cataract treatment is a surgical operation. About how to treat the cataracts of the eye, the types of surgical interventions, the rehabilitation period of rehabilitation, as well as much more we will talk about in this article.
- 1What it is
What it is
Cataract is a clouding of the lens of the eye.In the normal state, the lens is transparent and light rays freely penetrate the eye. If the lens changes, then cataracts develop. It can affect as a part of the lens, and affect all of it in its entirety.
Some people believe that cataract has the appearance of a film that grows and envelops the eye.This is absolutely wrong opinion. In fact, cataracts stimulate the development of degenerative changes in the lens itself.
Cataract can appear on one or at once on two eyes, but it can not pass from one eye to another. It should also be noted that cataracts do not develop because of excessive visual load.
One of the reasons for the development of this pathology of vision is the change in the biochemical composition of the lens. Such changes often arise because of the physiological aging of the body, which begins after forty years.
Cataracts can be congenital, so no one has a guarantee that cataracts can bypass.
In addition, the causes of cataract development include:
- Problems with metabolism;
- Disease of diabetes mellitus;
- Genetic predisposition to cataract;
- Lack of vitamins in the body;
- Irradiation with ultraviolet radiation, thermal radiation and so on;
- Poor ecology in the place of residence;
- Increased radiation background;
- Presence of other pathologies of vision (for example, glaucoma), trauma, burns.
The main symptoms of cataracts:
- Misty veil before the eyes;
- Vision worsens in the evening and at night;
- Before my eyes flashed various spots, stripes;
- The eyes become very sensitive to light;
- Reading and working with small items becomes difficult;
- Objects begin to double and distort;
- Color perception is violated;
With cataracts, a person often has to change glasses, because vision deteriorates fairly quickly.
Cataract, progressing, makes the pupil color milky-white, whereas in normal condition it should be black.The more cloudy the lens becomes, the stronger the vision falls.
For the diagnosis of cataracts, a number of special methods are used, since the standard does not provide an opportunity to examine the retina and vitreous.
Methods of cataract diagnosis:
- Standard ophthalmic methods;
- Vision (visual acuity check);
- Perimetry(the fields of vision are investigated);
- Tonometry (check of intraocular pressure);
- Biomicroscopy(the anterior segment of the eye is examined);
- Ophthalmoscopy (examination of the condition of the fundus);
- Study of entopic phenomena(studying the state of neuronal receptors);
- Refractometry (definition of the refraction of the eye);
- Ophthalmometry (the anterior curvature of the cornea is measured);
- Ultrasound examination to determine the anteroposterior axis of the eyeball;
- Electrophysiological methods;
- Endothelial biomicroscopy and so on.
In addition to these methods, the method of laboratory diagnostics is used.This includes a general blood test, urine, blood biochemistry, HIV testing, syphilis and hepatitis (B and C).X-rays of the thorax and paranasal sinuses can also be prescribed.
It may be necessary to get a conclusion from other doctors, for example, a dentist, an endocrinologist and so on.
This is necessary in order to determine the presence of contraindications in the event of an operation.
Cataract is treated only with the help of a surgical operation.No pills and drops do not fight this disease, they only slow down its progression.
Surgery can be performed at any stage of the cataract.
Before the operation you need to undergo a complete examination.An ophthalmologist should check the acuity and field of vision, the degree of opacity and maturity of cataracts.In addition, as it was said earlier, it will be necessary to donate blood and urine for analysis to determine the presence of inflammatory processes. If any inflammation is found, then it is necessary to postpone the operation for a while.
Treatment largely depends on the experience of the doctor. Therefore, going to the clinic, you need to study the recommendations of a specialist who will do the operation.
The operation to remove cataracts is not difficult for an experienced specialist.Hospitalization of the patient is not required. The operation is performed under local anesthesia and lasts from ten to fifteen minutes. After that the doctor watches the patient's condition for some time, which may return home the same day.
The most effective and popular surgical method of cataract removal is phacoemulsification.The essence of the operation is that a special ultrasonic device is inserted into the eye through a small incision.Under its influence, the lens becomes an emulsion and is removed. Through this same incision an artificial lens is inserted into the eye. Stitching is not required in this case.
After the operation, a rehabilitation period begins, which is aimed at restoring visual acuity and regenerating eye tissues. It lasts from one month or more.At this time, you need to drip into the eyes of special drops and follow the doctor's recommendations.It is worth remembering that drugs can be prescribed only by the attending physician.
During the rehabilitation period, there are some limitations:
- Do not overcool.
- For a while, it is better not to visit the sauna or sauna.
- Avoid slopes and lifting weights.
- It is necessary to protect eyes from exposure to radiation and mechanical damage.
- Watching TV and reading should be limited in time.
- You should give up smoking and alcohol.
Therefore, after the operation for some time, you will need to wear a bandage.
After surgery to remove the lens, complications can sometimes occur.The reasons for their appearance may be several:
- This is a failure to comply with the recommendations of an ophthalmologist.
- Complications can arise due to poor immunity or other characteristics of the body.
- Errors during the operation can also lead to serious problems.
If you disregard the advice of a specialist and violate the rehabilitation period, then it can threaten such complications as retinal detachment, hemorrhages, high intraocular pressure, displacement of the artificial lens, development of secondary cataracts and etc.
The main measure of prevention is an ophthalmologist visit at least once a year. This is especially important for those who spend a lot of time at the computer and experience eye strain.It repents both diabetics and people suffering from high blood pressure.
Physical exercises and walks contribute to reducing intraocular pressure, normalize the blood supply to the eyes and optic nerve.
Another method of prevention is rational nutrition.A nutritional deficiency can lead to the development of cachectic cataract. Therefore, in the daily diet should be as much as possible vegetables, fruits, seafood, cereals and cereals.It is necessary to abandon the excessively sweet foods that increase the level of sugar in the blood, for example, chocolate, sweet buns and so on.
When in the sun, you should wear sunglasses with special lenses.So you can protect the retina from the adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation.
Do not start inflammatory eye disease. It is he who can give impetus to the development of cataracts.
In addition to these basic prevention measures, there are secondary measures:
- Control of the consumed liquid.You should drink at least a liter of water a day. It is better to give up alcohol and coffee drinks.
- Comfortable clothes.It is unacceptable that the collar of clothing, ties tightened around the neck, thereby violating blood circulation.
- Compliance with the regime of work and leisure.Excessive psychological and physical exertion should be avoided.
- To give up smoking.This bad habit leads to a violation of blood circulation and provokes glaucoma attacks.
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Now you know how to cure cataracts, and how the rehabilitation period passes after treatment. The main thing to remember is that an experienced skilled person must perform the operation, which will not allow the development of complications. If you use contact optics, then do not forget for moisturizing drops for the eyes, they will protect your eyes from various kinds of diseases.
Also worth paying attention and charging for the eyes. It develops muscle memory and contributes to the long-term preservation of your vision.