SARS in children
Acute respiratory viral infections of ARVI in children occur in about 75% of all childhood diseases. Infections of the upper respiratory tract (acute respiratory infection (ARI), acute respiratory diseases (ARI), ARVI) - group acute infectious and inflammatory diseases of the upper respiratory tract of different localization, etiology and symptoms.
ARVI - the most common infection on the globe. It is impossible to take full account of the true morbidity. Almost every person several times (from 4-8 to 15 times or more) in the year transfers ARVI mainly in the form of light and subclinical forms. Especially often ARVI are observed in young children. Children of the first months of life are seldom ill, because they are in relative isolation and many of them retain passive immunity received from the mother transplacentally in the form of IgG for 6-10 months. However, children of the first months of life can also be sick with ARI, especially if they are in close contact with patients. The reasons for this may be unstrained transplacental immunity or its complete absence, prematurity, primary forms of immunodeficiency, etc.
Epidemiology of ARVI
According to statistics, a child can get sick from 1 to 8 times a year. This is due to the fact that the immunity produced in a child's body against a single virus is powerless before another infection. And the viruses that cause ARVI, hundreds. These are influenza viruses, parainfluenza, adenoviruses, enteroviruses and other microorganisms. And since parents often have to deal with ARVI, they should know as much as possible about this disease, about the mechanisms of its development and methods of combating viral infection in childhood.
The greatest incidence falls on children from 2 to 5 years of life, which is usually due to their visit to children's institutions, a significant increase in the number of contacts. A child who visits a kindergarten during the first year can get sick with ARI up to 10-15 times, in the second year 5-7 times, in subsequent years 3-5 times a year. The decrease in the incidence is due to the acquisition of specific immunity as a result of the acute respiratory viral infection.
Such a high incidence of SARS in childhood makes this problem one of the most urgent in pediatrics. Repeated diseases significantly affect the development of the child. They lead to a weakening of the body's defenses, contribute to the formation of chronic foci of infection, cause allergization, prevent preventive vaccinations, burden premorbid background and delay physical and psychomotor development children. In many cases, frequent ARVI are pathogenetically associated with asthmatic bronchitis, bronchial asthma, chronic pyelonephritis, polyarthritis, chronic diseases of the nasopharynx and many others diseases.
Causes of ARVI in children
Factors contributing to the emergence of SARS, pursue the child everywhere. To such reasons it is possible to carry:
- hypothermia, drafts, wet shoes;
- communication with other children, patients with ARI;
- a sharp change of weather, off-season (autumn-winter, winter-spring);
- lowering of the body's defenses;
- hypovitaminosis, anemia, weakened organism;
- reduced physical activity of the child, inactivity;
- improper hardening of the body.
All these factors are factors that weaken the body and contribute to the unhindered spread of the virus.
The causes of frequent ARVI in children - is the high sensitivity of the child's organism at any age, including the newborn baby. At the child frequent ORVI begin from the moment of receipt in a day nursery, a kindergarten or school. Diseases can be repeated by turns. This happens because the immune defense after a viral infection is produced from one type of virus. Penetration into the body of a new virus provokes a new disease, even if a short amount of time has passed after the previous one.
How long does it last for a child?
How long can a baby be infectious and how long does it last for a child?
As a rule, the more time passed from the moment of appearance of the first symptoms, the less likely that the child is infectious. That time interval when the diseased is capable to infect others, usually begins from occurrence of the first symptoms of disease or simultaneously with them. In some cases, the baby may still look "healthy but the disease process can already be started. It depends on many factors, including the resistance of children's immunity.
The initial moment of the incubation period (when the virus has already entered the children's body, but the disease has not yet manifested itself "in all its glory") is the moment of communication with an already infectious patient. Such a moment can be contact with a sick child in a kindergarten, or accidentally caught "sneeze" in a trolleybus. The final stage of the incubation period is completed with the appearance of the first signs of the disease (when complaints appear).
Laboratory tests can already indicate the presence of the virus in the body already during the incubation period.
The incubation period of ARVI in children can last from several hours to 2 weeks. This applies to pathogens such as rhinovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza, paracoloss, adenovirus, reovirus, as well as a respiratory syncytial virus.
The period during which the child is contagious can begin 1-2 days before the first signs of the disease appear.
How long does it last for a child? If counted from the moment of appearance of the first symptoms, the period of the disease can last up to 10 days (on average - a week). In this case, depending on the type of virus, the child can continue to be contagious for another 3 weeks after recovery (disappearance of symptoms).
Symptoms of ARVI in children
Whichever type of virus is caused by ARVI, with the classical form of the disease, there are some common symptoms:
- "General infectious" syndrome (the child is shivering, can disturb the pain in the muscles, in the head, there is weakness, the temperature rises, the submandibular lymph nodes increase);
- defeat of the respiratory system (nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat, cough dry or with sputum);
- damage to the mucous membranes (rubbing and redness in the eye area, lacrimation, conjunctivitis).
The first signs of acute respiratory viral infection in a child are often characterized by a sudden onset with a clearly marked "general infection" syndrome. With parainfluenza or adenovirus, the first signs are the defeat of the respiratory system (throat, nasopharynx), as well as the reddening and itching of the conjunctiva of the eye.
Of course, it would be easier for both parents and doctors if the ARVI period in children has always been classic. However, the children's organism is a very complex system, and its response to the penetration of a particular virus can not be predicted by one hundred percent. Each organism is individual, so the course of ARVI can be erased, asymptomatic, atypical or even extremely severe.
Since it is unlikely that the parents will be able to guess and predict the course of the disease, it is necessary to know about the conditions under which one will have to consult a doctor in the most urgent way.
Symptoms of acute respiratory viral infection in children requiring urgent medical attention:
- Temperature indicators have exceeded 38 ° C and little or no response to antipyretic drugs.
- The child is disturbed by consciousness, he is confused, indifferent, can faint.
- The child complains of a severe headache, as well as the inability to turn the neck or make an inclination anteriorly.
- On the skin appear vascular sprouts, rashes.
- There is pain in the chest, the child starts to choke, it is hard for him to breathe.
- There is a multicolored sputum (green, brown or pink).
- Appear edema on the body.
- Cramps appear.
Do not self-medicate, especially if it's about your child. Pay attention also to other organs and systems of the baby, so as not to miss the beginning inflammation.
Temperature in children with ARVI
Children are sensitive enough to an increase in body temperature: an excessively high temperature contributes to the occurrence of seizures in the child. Because of this, do not allow a temperature increase of more than 38-3 ° C.
The temperature should not be brought down to 38 ° C, as it is not necessary to interfere with the body to perform its work - to fight the penetration of the virus. This can provoke the appearance of complications. What you need to do:
- do not panic;
- monitor the state of the child - usually after 3-4 days the temperature should stabilize.
Prolonged ARI in a child with a non-decreasing temperature may indicate the attachment of a bacterial infection. It also happens that when the temperature after the virus infection dropped, the kid seemed to be on the mend, but after a few days he got worse again, and a fever appeared. In such a situation, do not hesitate to call a doctor.
In the classical course of acute respiratory viral infection, the temperature can not last more than 2-3 days, maximum - five days. During this time, the body must overcome the virus, having developed its own antibodies to it. It is important: do not specifically knock down the temperature to normal, you can only lower it, so that the body continues to fight with the infection.
Cough with ARVI in children
Cough for ARVI in children is a fairly common symptom. Usually it is present against a background of fever, a cold and other signs of the disease. With the onset of the disease, a dry cough (without sputum) is observed. Such a cough doctors call unproductive: it is hard to tolerate by the child, can disturb the calm of his sleep, negatively affect the appetite.
In the classical course of acute respiratory viral infection, after 3-4 days the cough passes into the productive stage - sputum appears. But it should be borne in mind that not all babies can cough it out. For this reason, the child needs help: regular chest massage, light gymnastics, and when a coughing fit the baby should be given a vertical position.
Typically, cough with viral infections lasts up to 15-20 days, but if it lasts more than three weeks, you can suspect a chronic cough. In such cases, it is necessary to have a competent consultation of a children's pulmonologist and an allergist, as well as the appointment of a complex therapy.
Vomiting in a child with ARVI
Vomiting in a child with ARVI can occur simultaneously with the appearance of high fever and cough. With difficulty, the departing sputum, dense and viscous, irritates the respiratory system and provokes a fits of painful coughing in the child. The gag reflex works as a result of the transition of the excitatory signal from the cough centers to the vomiting centers. In some cases, vomiting can occur due to the accumulation of a large number of mucous secretions in the nasopharyngeal cavity, but in this case, vomiting appears without coughing. Most often, vomiting on the background of a cough is not abundant, the child does not seem to be relieved.
It is important to distinguish when vomiting is associated with the simultaneous excitation of cough and vomiting reflex, and when vomiting can be a sign of poisoning or a disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it is necessary to show the child to the doctor, otherwise it can provoke the appearance of unwanted and sometimes severe complications.
Rashes in children with ARVI
If there was a rash in the ARVI in a child - this is a direct reason to call a doctor. It is possible to list several variants of the causes of the appearance of rashes during the illness:
- intolerance to any of the medications taken by the baby;
- an allergic reaction to food that parents usually give the sick child (raspberries, oranges, lemons, garlic, ginger, etc.);
- high temperature, which contributes to increased vascular permeability - in such cases, the rash resembles a different hemorrhage on the skin.
There are also more serious causes of the rash. For example, this is the joining of meningococcal infection: such a rash is usually accompanied by hyperthermia and vomiting. In any of the options, if a rash is found on the child's body, all measures should be taken to deliver the baby to the infectious department as soon as possible. You can simply call an "ambulance" and describe the symptoms of the disease. To delay in this case it is impossible.
The abdomen is sick at an ORVI at the child
Quite often, parents are faced with a situation when the abdomen is sick during ARVI in a child. The pains are most often coelike and localized in the zone of the projection of the large intestine. Doctors can explain this symptom by the combined reaction of the lymphatic system of the intestine and appendix. For the same reason, ARVI can be complicated by an attack of acute appendicitis. In this situation, the most competent act of parents can be a doctor's call to the house, and if the pain in the abdominal area increases, then it will be necessary to call for an emergency.
A large amount of acute respiratory viral infection, accompanied by abdominal pain, can also be accompanied by diarrhea. Diarrhea in ARVI in a child is caused by cramping spasms in the intestine - the reaction of the child's body to the disease. However, most often diarrhea and abdominal pain provoke drugs that the child is forced to take. For example, if a baby is prescribed antibiotics or antiviral drugs, then it can gradually lead to a violation intestinal microflora, or manifest as a reaction of the hypersensitivity of the digestive system to certain types medicines. In any case, a doctor's consultation is mandatory.
Conjunctivitis in children with ARVI
Unfortunately, conjunctivitis in ARVI in a child occurs in almost all cases of the disease, especially when attacking adenovirus infection. Signs of conjunctivitis become noticeable immediately. Initially, a viral infection that provoked ARVI affects one eye, but after one or two days another eye is affected. Both eyes of the child blush, itch, there is a feeling of "sand" in the eyes. The kid squints, rubs his eyelids, constantly cries. Eyes can be covered with crusts, and in the corners can collect light discharge.
Such conjunctivitis gradually passes and independently, as the child recovers from ARVI. However, to alleviate the condition of the baby and eliminate itching and discharge from the eyes faster can help special children's medicines - an antiviral ophthalmic ointment or drops that can be easily purchased in pharmacies.
However, in some cases, conjunctivitis can be the result of an allergic reaction in the child. In this state, the baby not only has lachrymation and reddening of the eyes, but swollen lower eyelids. It is characteristic that allergies affect both eyes simultaneously. If this happens, urgent medical consultation is needed, identification and elimination of contact with a potential allergen, prescription of antihistamine eye drops and medications.
Features of ARVI in children
Children at different ages may respond differently to the appearance of signs of ARVI.
- SARS in an infant may manifest symptoms such as a child's anxiety, poor sleep, loss of appetite; frustration of defecation, excessive tearfulness and capriciousness. Such changes in the behavior of the infant should cause suspicion in the mother, since the baby can not explain his state of health with words.
- SARS in a month-old baby can flow with difficulty nasal breathing, as the baby can not breathe with his mouth. How to suspect that the child has a stuffy nose? The baby becomes restless when sucking, often refuses to eat and repels the breast or bottle. In such cases, it is necessary to clear the nasal passages.
- SARS in a 2-month-old baby can characteristically manifest as shortness of breath with a prolonged wheezing - this symptom is often called an asthmatic syndrome. At the same time, symptoms of intoxication are expressed: grayness or cyanosis of the skin, lethargy, apathy, fever.
- ARVI in a 3 month old child often occurs with a defeat of the respiratory system, which can be complicated by unskilled help with bronchitis or pneumonia. Therefore, it is very important to pay attention to the difficulty of swallowing and nasal breathing of the child, to regularly measure the temperature. Breastfeeding during this period is extremely undesirable, as the mother's milk in this case will be the best medicine for the baby.
- SARS in a 4 month old child is accompanied by a lesion of the mucous membrane of the nasopharynx and bronchi, which manifests itself as a runny nose and cough. You can see an increase in submandibular or parotid lymph nodes, spleen. Often develops conjunctivitis, keratoconjunctivitis, which is expressed in the redness of the eyes and continuous lachrymation.
- ARVI in children up to a year can be complicated by croup - a condition when the larynx becomes inflamed and swollen, namely, the zone that is directly under the vocal cords. This condition is explained by the fact that in small children this zone contains a large amount of loose fiber, which easily swells. At the same time, the guttural lumen is not large enough. Croup often develops at night, so parents should pay attention to suddenly beginning "barking" cough, heavy breathing, attacks of suffocation, anxiety, cyanosis of lips child. If such signs are observed, it is necessary to urgently call an ambulance.
- ORVI at the child 6 month - the period when the kid has already entered or introduces the prikorm. Often at a six-year-old age, a viral infection is accompanied, in addition to the defeat of the respiratory system, by the involvement of the digestive system in the process. This can manifest as signs of acute gastritis or enteritis: there are pains in the abdomen, upset of the stool.
- SARS in a child 1 year can be repeated from 1 to 8 times a year, depending on the immunity. Starting from this age, it is very important to start hardening procedures and strengthen the immune system of the baby so that his body can withstand numerous viruses and bacteria. It is especially important to protect the baby in the autumn-winter and winter-spring period.
- SARS in a child 2 years is more often accompanied by laryngitis (inflammation of the larynx), tracheitis (inflammation of the trachea - respiratory tube), or a combination of these diseases. Signs of such defeat - a hoarse voice, dry compulsive cough. Of course, a 2-year-old kid can not yet communicate his complaints coherently. Therefore, parents should closely monitor the condition of the child. If there is difficulty breathing, the intercostal spaces are blurred, the wings of the nose inflated, an "ambulance" should be urgently called.
- SARS in a child of 3 years usually begins in a rise in temperature towards evening. There is a pain in the head, the baby feels apathetic, tired, listless. Most often the disease appears in the season of epidemics, so the diagnosis is easy. The severity of the condition determines the child's well-being.
If you notice any uncharacteristic or suspicious symptoms in the child - be sure to call an "ambulance". Do not be afraid once again to disturb the doctor: the main thing is the health of your baby.
Repeated ARVI in a child
Repeated ARVI in a child is not uncommon, since children are usually very susceptible to a viral infection. Babies are prone to infection with the virus from the first weeks of life, but in the first three months they are not ill as often as in older age. The tendency to the disease is especially pronounced at the age of six months to 3 years, then the susceptibility decreases somewhat, although this may depend on the individual immunity of the organism.
Why there are repeated ARVI? The fact is that immunity has specificity in relation to certain types and even types of viral infection. Such immunity does not differ in resistance and duration. And in combination with a large number of varieties of the virus creates a large percentage of the probability of repeated diseases.
ARVI in a child can occur as a single case, or as a result of a mass epidemic, which often happens in a children's team. That is why the child's morbidity rises, as a rule, with the beginning of visiting a kindergarten or other pre-school or school institutions.
Where does it hurt?Chest pain
What's bothering you?Cough Shortness of breath
Complications of ARVI in children
According to statistics, at least 15% of all diseases of ARVI in childhood leave behind complications for other organs and systems of the body. For this reason, do not forget that in children, acute respiratory infections can occur with an elevated temperature of not more than five days. A longer rise in temperature above 38 ° C may indicate the occurrence of complications or the addition of another disease. Sometimes the temperature seems to go down, but after 1-3 days it rises again: there are symptoms of intoxication, such as tearfulness, pallor, lethargy, increased sweating. The child refuses to eat and drink, becomes indifferent to what is happening. What can be complications of ARVI in children?
- Cough after ARI in a child in some cases can mean the transition of the disease to bronchitis or even pneumonia - the viral infection progresses gradually down the respiratory tract. First, there may be a clinical picture of laryngitis (dry cough, hoarse voice), then tracheitis (painful cough, vocal functions are restored), and subsequently bronchitis. The main sign of bronchitis is cough. At first it is dry and coarse, phlegm gradually begins to form and cough. The difficulty of breathing is added, the temperature rises again, sweating, fatigue. If the child has frequent and heavy breathing (sometimes the baby seems to "grumble"), then bronchiolitis or pneumonia can be suspected. Consultation of a doctor is mandatory.
- The rash in a child after ARVI can be a consequence of several reasons. For example, it can be the attachment of diseases such as rubella, measles, herpes (baby roseola), enterovirus infection, scarlet fever, etc. Or maybe an allergic reaction to drugs, for example, antibiotics. The exact cause of the rash should be determined by the doctor.
- Arthritis after SARS in children can appear after a long illness. Such arthritis is called "reactive". Symptoms of reactive arthritis may appear several days or even weeks after recovery. Usually there is pain in the joint (usually in the morning). It can be a hip joint, knee, ankle, etc. The child hardly gets out of bed, when walking limps, complains of severe pain. Diagnosis of the disease and begin treatment can child rheumatologist, based on the examination and the results of some tests.
Also complications of SARS can be sinusitis (inflammation in the paranasal sinuses) or otitis media. To suspect such diseases it is possible on a constant stuffiness of a nose against a background of a headache, or on shooting pain in an ear along with depression of hearing and feeling zalozhennosti.
Diagnosis of acute respiratory viral infections in children
The main task of the tests conducted for the diagnosis of acute respiratory viral infection in children is the determination of the type of pathogen. Depending on this, a further treatment regimen will be prescribed.
The most common tests for children with ARVI are a general blood test, a general urine test, and immunological tests to detect antibodies to a viral infection.
What indicators usually indicate ARVI?
General blood analysis:
- erythrocytes - the norm or increase due to a deficiency of fluid in the body;
- hematocrit - the norm or increase (with fever);
- leukocytes - the lower limit of normal or lower, indicating a viral etiology of the disease;
- the leukocyte formula is the prevalence of lymphocytes, a slight increase in monocytes;
- eosinophils - a decrease in the number or complete disappearance;
- neutrophils - decrease in quantity;
- ESR in children with acute respiratory viral infection is increased, but for viral infection this indicator is not specific.
General urine analysis:
- changes are not specific, sometimes - a small amount of protein in the urine, which passes after recovery;
- possible, but not at all necessary - a small microhematuria.
In rare cases, ketone bodies can be found in the blood or urine - acetone and acetoacetic acid - chemical complexes, which are formed in the liver when digested in the digestive tract food. Acetone in ARVI in children can appear in different concentrations, and since this substance is initially toxic, its presence in large quantities can cause symptoms of poisoning in the child (in particular, vomiting, as well as the smell of acetone from the mouth or from urinary excretions). Definition and treatment of acetone in blood or urine should be handled exclusively by a medical specialist.
Immunology is an analysis of immunoglobulins M (already released at the initial stages of the disease). This analysis is taken twice - with the first symptoms of acute respiratory viral infection and a week later. Such a study allows you to accurately identify the pathogen. Nevertheless, the immunological method is not always used, but only with a severe and protracted course of the disease.
What it is necessary to survey?Bronchi Trachea Larynx
How to inspect?X-ray of lungs Examination of respiratory (lung) organs Bronchoscopy
What tests are needed?Sputum examination
Who to contact?Infectionist Pediatrician
Treatment of ARVI in children
Children with a mild and moderate form of SARS can be treated at home. Hospitalized only in the following cases:
- with a severe form of the disease, or in the presence of complications (inflammation of the lungs, croup, etc.);
- at the age of a child under 1 year, or from 1 to 3 years;
- at unsatisfactory epidemiological and material conditions.
The standard of ARVI treatment in children provides, first of all, the removal of intoxication of the body. To do this, use a lot of warm drinking, complex multivitamins, and in more severe cases - in / in the introduction of glucose and blood substitutes. At high temperature, antipyretic drugs may be used in the form of tablets or rectal suppositories, and in severe cases, as intramuscular injections.
During the period of fever the child is shown bed rest. In the absence of complications, antibiotics and sulfonamide preparations are usually not used, but in In some cases, they are still prescribed to young children, since the recognition of a complication in an infant very difficult.
The protocol for the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections in children with complications includes the appointment of bronchodilators (for pneumonia or bronchitis). Antibiotics are used with caution, taking into account the allergic inclinations of the child. When stenosis of the larynx they use sedative drugs, antispasmodics, in severe cases, inject hydrocortisone.
Modern treatment of ARVI in children implies the appointment of drugs aimed at eliminating the main symptoms of the disease. What are these drugs:
- antitussives in the form of syrups, chewing or ordinary tablets;
- Warming creams or balms based on natural ingredients, which are rubbed into the skin of the chest;
- other warming procedures (mustard or compresses) according to indications;
- vitamin preparations to strengthen the immune forces.
More details about the drugs in ARVI, we'll talk below.
Drugs for the treatment of acute respiratory infections in children
All anti-virus products are divided into 4 categories:
- homeopathic antiviral agents;
- especially antiviral medications;
- interferons and interferon stimulants;
- means, stimulating immunity.
Let's consider separately all these categories.
- Homeopathy in ARVI in children. Most often, Viburkol suppositories, Ocilococcinum and Aflubin are prescribed from this category of medicines, EDAS-103 (903) or Gripp-Heel funds are slightly less common. Homeopathic specialists say that the listed homeopathic remedies stimulate the protective function and this is often true, although the pharmacodynamics of these drugs studied. As a rule, homeopathic remedies have an effect already at the first methods of the preparation.
- Specific antiviral agents. In pediatrics, antiviral drugs like Arbidol, Rimantadine, Ribavirin and Tamiflu are more often used (in some cases also Acyclovir, according to the indications). These drugs inhibit the entry of the virus into cellular structures, block the reproduction of the virus, but they have a different spectrum of activity and are not intended for all children's age groups.
- Interferon drugs and their stimulants are probably the most popular group of antiviral drugs. For example, Viferon in ARVI in children suppresses the development of the virus and destroys it in 1-3 days. Interferons are able to rid the body of a viral infection, both during the incubation period, and from any period of the disease. In addition to injection of interferons, the most interesting are suppositories of Viferon, suppositories of Kipferon and nasal droplets of Grippferon. Perhaps the only contraindication to the use of these agents may be an allergic tendency organism of the baby to the ingredients of medicines, especially to the components of candles - cocoa butter or confectionery fat. By the way, medications that activate the production of interferons (Amiksin, Neovir, Cycloferon) It is recommended to use only for prophylaxis, but not for ARVI treatment, because of the slow action of such preparations.
- Immunostimulating drugs - Isoprenosin, Riboxin, Immunal, Imudon, Metuluracil, Bronchomunal, IRS-19, Ribomunil and others. One of the most popular listed medications, isoprinosine in ARVI in children is used more as a prophylaxis, however, like other immunostimulants. The reason is that the effectiveness of the action of immunostimulants is observed only after 14-20 days from the beginning of immunostimulating treatment. Also, these drugs can be used to restore the body after recovery.
As you know, antibiotics for ARVI in children with a classical course of the disease are not prescribed, since they have nothing to do with a viral infection. Antibiotic therapy is used only in case of complications, or if they are suspected: most often prescribe drugs-derivatives of ampicillin.
Nutrition for children with ARVI
Nutrition for ARVI in children is about the same as with a common cold. The main condition - the baby should be offered food only if there is an appetite. Do not feed the child by force.
You can not also give your child harmful products: chips, soda. It shows an abundant warm drink and easily digestible food, rich in vitamins, for example, vegetables, fruits, berry purees and jellies.
Young children are advised to offer apple compote without sugar, decoctions of dried fruits. In the absence of allergies to berries, you can prepare morsels or berry jelly, or simply give warm mineral water without gas.
As a drink for children from 3-4 years to make compotes, you can use apricots, cherry plum, pears (if there is no allergy). You can offer a weak green tea - it contains antioxidants, which help remove toxins from the body.
It is desirable to avoid broths and infusions from strawberries, currants - such berries are more allergens. Replace them with bananas, grapes or kiwi.
Diet for ARVI in children should contain easily digestible and healthy food:
- products for cooking dishes should preferably be mashed and mashed, the food should be light and soft;
- in the period of illness, try to avoid buying baby food, it is better to cook yourself from fresh porridge products, puree, mashed soups;
- at the stage of recovery it is important to enrich the diet with proteins, so use white meat, minced meat or boiled egg white as food additives;
- children from 3-4 years can be offered lean fish, such as pike perch, cod, etc .;
- do not forget about sour-milk products - they will support the balance of microflora in the intestines. Suitable fresh yogurt, natural yogurt, low-fat cottage cheese, acidophilic mixture. To such products, you can add a spoonful of honey (in the absence of allergies);
- As the child recovers, return to normal nutrition, but do it gradually so as not to burden the body.
Be reasonable in choosing food for your child in ARVI: food should be nutritious, vitaminized, varied, but you should not overeat and use harmful foods.
In addition to treatmentAntibiotics for ARVI Than to treat? Ibunorm baby Pakseladin
Prevention of ARVI in children
Prevention of acute respiratory infections in children is mainly aimed at increasing the resistance and strengthening the immunity of the child's body. What measures have a preventive focus:
- tempering (outdoor games, reception of air baths, cool showers, walking on grass without shoes, night rest in a cool room, swimming in pools and open water);
- stabilization of digestive processes (consumption of vegetables and fruits, adherence to diet and drinking, support of intestinal microflora);
- regulation of stool, normalization of nutrition;
- ensuring a full sleep (rest not on a filled stomach, ventilated air in the room, enough sleep).
Preventive measures should be carried out systematically, without forcing the child, and explaining to him the need for a procedure for maintaining health.
If necessary and a poor state of immunity, you sometimes have to resort to the use of drugs that stimulate immune defense.
Preparations for the prevention of acute respiratory infections in children
Immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory and adaptogenic ability has a special multivitamin complex Vetoron. It is prescribed internally from the age of 5 to 3-4 drops, and from 7 years - 5-7 drops per day, or in capsules from 6 years of age from 5 to 80 mg once a day.
It is recommended to take ascorbic acid, retinol and B vitamins in a dose according to age. The best proportion of the abovementioned vitamins is presented in the preparations "Undevit "Complevit "Hexavit". Dragee take from 2 to 3 times a day for a month. In the autumn-winter period it is useful to give the baby a rose hip syrup in an amount of 1 h. l. per day.
Recently, drugs-adaptogenes, which stimulate the body to resist infection, are very popular. We bring to your attention the schemes of taking the most popular drugs of this category:
- Immunal - intake inside 1 to 3 years - 5-10 cap., From 7 years - 10-15 cap. three times a day;
- Drops of Dr. Tays - inside with a one-year age of 10-20 cap. three times a day;
- Drops Hexal - inside by 6 drops from 12 years of age twice a day;
- Tincture of aralia - from 1 to 2 cap. / Year of life, once a day for half an hour before meals, for 14-20 days.
As emergency preventive measures, it is possible to take medicines based on medicinal plants (color chamomile, sage, calendula, colanchoe, garlic or onion), or local immunocorrective agents (Immu- don, IRS-19).
ARVI in children are prone to relapse, so you need to find your prescription for prevention, which will allow you to forget about the disease for many years.
For how many days are they given a hospital for ARVI and ARI: a sick list
As you know, such a disease, as ARVI, can be caught at any time, regardless of where the person is and what his age is.
Quite often, the disease, despite the fever, is carried on the legs because the patient has too much work, and he takes responsibility for the performance of his duties.
In this case, all kinds of folk remedies and self-selected medications are used.
However, this is not the best way out of this situation. In this regard, you need to know how to proceed properly, in order to retain the workplace and start a full-fledged treatment by calling a doctor.
What is a sick leave?If a person falls ill with ARVI and he has a fever, the only correct way out is to not to infect others, completely cure and keep the workplace, is to formalize the official hospital sheet.
The sick leave is a special document, which at the official level confirms inability of the patient for a certain period to engage in work activities due to poor state of health.
If such a document is presented to the employer, he does not have the right to force a person to work on the specified days and take another employee to the place of the sick person. Such protection at the official level is provided by the approved legislation of the country.
Where is the sick list given?
The hospital checklist for ARVI and in case of fever is given in the clinic at the place of residence or any other medical institution where the patient is under observation. Therefore, in order to get the necessary document, you need to come to an appointment with your doctor if the treatment is performed on an outpatient basis.
If for any reason the patient is kept in a hospital, the sick leave sheet is given after the discharge from the hospital. There are no other ways to get this confirming document.
In the case when the patient turns to a private doctor or to a private clinic to confirm the presence of high temperature and arrange a sick leave list, it is necessary to check all documents, the availability of a license, as well as to get acquainted with all the reviews of people who have been treated here or observation.
If it turns out that the fraudster wrote the sick leave, the document is likely to be declared invalid. And because of this, the patient can lose not only hospital benefits, but also lose work.
Some believe that practicing physicians do not give a sick leave if they are in a patient's home, but this is not the case. Russian legislation allows you to make out a sheet of temporary incapacity for work at home.
In this case, if during a visit to the state polyclinic, the patient presents only a passport, as a certificate person, and medical card, then when you visit a doctor at home, the patient provides a medical insurance.
For how many days is the sick leave issued
Many patients are interested in how many days a patient may be sick for ARVI and the availability high temperature, what is the minimum and maximum period of validity of the temporary sheet incapacity for work.
- Usually in medical practice there is a so-called averaged option, when for any disease the sick leave is valid for at least three days. This time is necessary for that. To the patient had time to pass all the necessary tests, bypass the necessary doctors and stand all the long lines.
- Anyone who wants to issue a sick leave sheet faces this situation. The minimum period for a hospital in ARVI in the presence of high temperature is given so that the patient can stay at home for a while, observe peace and carry out treatment, which was prescribed by the doctor.
- On average, the sick leave is given for a period of five days, and then extended to ten calendar days. In this case, the doctor is guided by the documents approved by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, in all conditions for the provision of a disability sheet are indicated in the presence of additional diseases.
- To cure ARVI and get rid of fever, a sick leave sheet is usually issued for a period of 7-11 days. If the patient has not recovered completely during this time and he still has symptoms of the disease, the document validity period can be increased to 30 days. Prolonging is made only after the patient undergoes an additional examination with a doctor.
Also, a sick leave sheet can be issued only for a certain day, when a doctor's visit is required for routine checkup, analysis or research.
If the patient is kept in a hospital for any reason, the sick leave sheet is issued upon discharge from the hospital and issued together with the other supporting documents. The document takes into account how many days are spent in the hospital and what period is required for the patient to get home.
If the hospital is taken with the illness of the child, there are other legislative standards in force here.
If adults are usually given no more than 10 days for recovery in ARVI, then for children the maximum period of treatment at home can be 14 calendar days.
If after 30 days the patient did not recover
Sometimes it happens that the acute respiratory viral infection passes into severe form and because of complications the disease lasts for a month or more. In this case, you need to contact the head physician of the clinic, where observation and treatment is carried out. The Chief Physician in turn convenes the commission, a special examination is carried out on the fact of the patient's condition and documented disability.
The patient at the same time must additionally pass all the general tests, undergo instrumental studies to find out the exact cause of the duration of the disease.
According to the Russian legislation, the maximum period for which the sick leave is given is 12 months. At the same time, the commission must confirm the fact of incapacity for work every 30 days. As for ARVI, usually with such a diagnosis in the absence of complications, the length of the hospital does not exceed one month.
From what day are the sick leave sheets drawn upUsually in the hospital sheet the date of the beginning of the hospital is indicated on the day when the patient asked the doctor for confirmation of incapacity for work. But it is important to take into account that today's date in the document is indicated only if a person came to the reception in the morning or afternoon.
When a patient seeks medical help in the evening, the list of incapacity for work begins its official action only the next day.
Also it is worth remembering that any patient has the right to wind up a sick leave, even if he is on legal leave. If there is a supporting document, the employer will extend the number of legal days off.
Payment of the sick-list is based on the work experience.
- When you are in one workplace for more than eight years, a full payment of wages occurs.
- With a seniority of five to eight years, 80 percent of the monthly wage is paid.
- If the work experience is less than five years, 60 percent of the monthly salary will be paid.
Why patients do not take a sick leave
Many people, despite the poor state of health, go to work, but do not care that in this way they can harm their health and the health of others. A sociological team conducted a study, the results of which showed that most Russians tolerate ARVI on their feet. The reason for this are three main factors.
- The first reason is related to a decrease in income. Because of the payment restrictions due to the sick-list worker, he eventually receives a lower amount than he would have received while officially at work. In addition, many private organizations save on the payment of sick leave, and some even try to circumvent the law by refusing the allowance.
- The second reason is the fear that during the absence of the patient the workplace will be occupied someone else or for this period to accumulate an unbearable amount of work, which after it will be difficult razgresti.
- The third reason is the fear of spoiling the established relations with the leaders. As you know, often ill workers do not bring benefits to any organization. Employers not only have to pay hospital benefits, but also hire someone else to replace and pay his wages.
Be sure to review the video in this article, which will answer many legal questions about the hospital.
Mums, ORVI at the child how much lasts on your experience? I already cared for snot from my daughter ((A week already, how much can you? ((
Here we also suffered for a long time, usually two weeks. Recently, thanks to a doctor, unfortunately, not from an ordinary hospital, it became easier.
When the temperature goes away, we do this: for the night we warm the legs, wear pantyhose or socks (so that the feet are warm), I clean the nose with a flagellum, soaked in salt water and dripping "Nazivin if the nose is laid, if not laid, and just snot, then just washed and do not drip, warm milk and sleep.
From a cough: a collection for inhalations No.2 "Eucar" and a nebulizer, depending on the cough 2 or 3 times a day, most recently at least 2 hours before bedtime. And all together somewhere about 5 days.
We began to do so, as she told us, and the situation was noticeably eased: snot after 2... 3 days pass, cough a little more
And so. I noticed that what is written out by our pediatrician does not help at all. It seems to me that this is not a doctor, even a fool, but in a drugstore can be pushed or the manufacturer of shit started to release, but even take paracetamol before and now - the difference is huge! In principle, what I wrote you, combined with the fact that the doctor prescribes
My son had a month and a half... cough, snot and temperature 3, - 3,... And I took antibiotics... so this, apparently the virus is.
The infection is so hard now. Both adults and children are ill for a long time and with complications. My neighbor works in the kindergarten, she says that her parents carry 2-3 certificates. A child was discharged, and a few days later a relapse. Our, too, had recovered, 2 weeks had passed and again the temperature, a runny nose and a sore throat.
Snot - this is another infection) increase immunity) Try to drink a drop of Imunal. We after taking this drug went 2 weeks without a snot, compared with the usual frequency of the common cold (2 days without a cold in a month). We go to the kindergarten, so with the runny nose always! Get well)))
Runny nose usually lasts 2 weeks. Descend or go to LORu, he to you will appoint or nominate drops and fizioprotsedury (for example a quartz in a mouth and a nose or something another). At me the senior in February a bronchitis has had been ill, and now again was ill. the doctor says ARVI, half the class sick. It's a pity, there are 4 days left before the holidays begin.
My now also a record for the runny nose arranged. More than a week before did not go (usually 2-3 days and hello), but now more than 10 days was. Tomorrow 2 weeks evenly - go to write off. we did not have a cough, only the throat was red. After a week of stubborn rhinitis (Derinath did not help), the doctor prescribed an antiviral (tablets) - ergoferon. Like it helped.
on the teeth of a snot of days 7 poured.
On ORZ - also a week somewhere, but a cough for 2 weeks kept.
That's the 2nd time ORL got sick. Today the third day is ill, the temperature is gone, the snot less became a little, the first 2 days before the navel flowed. I think for 7 days will pass.
From 3 to 10 days. Differently.
I wonder how you are treated? Viral can not be treated anything.. The son is now sick. We walk for hours and drink plenty of water.. Why antibiotics? Why to special treatment?
I have a daughter every 2 weeks 1 week sick.
and for a month it happened. 2 weeks minimum.
How much does the temperature last for ARVI?
ARVI is a viral disease that is characterized by a runny nose, a cough, a red throat and a fever. The temperature in ARVI is a kind of immune defense of the body against attacking viruses. When the temperature rises, leukocytes become active and they begin to fight against the enemies - viruses that have entered the body.
Many people are interested in how much the temperature keeps in the acute respiratory infections, because too long a presence of heat can be indicative of more serious diseases. But on the other hand, by knocking down the temperature and not giving the body the opportunity to fight the infection, we ourselves sometimes become the culprits of the complications that have joined.
If you know how much the temperature keeps in the ARVI, then you will not be in vain to worry and drink unnecessary medications. Normally, the temperature in ARVI lasts no more than 2-3 days, the maximum allowed is 5. This time is enough for the body to develop its own antibodies and defeat the virus. But with bacteria it's not that simple. If you have caught bacterial bronchitis or pneumonia, then the temperature can stay much longer and be high enough. Here it is necessary to seem to the doctor. Bacterial infections are treated with antibiotics, since the body is not able to completely defeat these microorganisms.
How many days the temperature in ARVI can not get off medications? Everything depends on the patient's well-being. An important condition: you do not need to bring down the temperature to the normal level, you just need to lower it.
If the temperature rises above the 39 degree mark, then it must be lowered. It is proved that the temperature above the 40 degree mark causes damage to the central nervous system due to the breakdown of proteins, so it is not worth it to suffer too high a temperature.
Many mothers are worried about the question: "How much temperature does ARVI have in children, and when should it be knocked down?" Antibodies to viral infections in children are developed in the same way as in adults, so the allowable limit is 5 days. Children are more sensitive to temperature, too high can provoke the development of febrile seizures. Therefore, if the baby has a temperature above 38 or 3, degrees, it is necessary to take measures to reduce it.
Many any fever is taken as a serious bacterial disease. Often they prescribe antibiotics or other strong medicines themselves, preventing the body from performing its function - to fight the virus. This leads to the development of complications. Therefore, if the temperature rises, do not panic. Observe the symptoms. If a cold is observed against the background of a fever, a redness in the throat and a cough, most likely, this is a simple SARS. In viral diseases, the temperature on the 3-4th day has a tendency to decrease, which can also be a signal to the fact that the body copes with the disease.
How much does the temperature of ARVI stay if a bacterial infection has joined? Here, too, you can understand everything by the symptoms. If the temperature rises after SARS and the state of health worsens, then it can be assumed that a bacterial disease has arisen. Happens, the temperature after ARVI has decreased, and there has come improvement, but in couple of days again it became worse, and the fever has begun. In this case, the doctor's consultation is mandatory.
Lowering the temperature at home will help bed rest, moist and cool air, abundant warm drink. Of the medicines, the most safe and permitted for both adults and children are antipyretic drugs based on paracetamol. These can be tablets, candles or syrup. It is important not to exceed the dose and time between doses of the medicine. If all of the above methods do not help, and the temperature is kept high, you need to call a doctor.
Cough with ARVI
Dry cough with ARVIIn ARVI, dry cough is manifested in the first days of illness. After two days have passed, and the person is already beginning to recover, a dry cough is passed into the wet one. It is a wet cough that helps to get rid of the respiratory system from the effects of mucus and irritants, which clog the bronchi. In turn, dry cough irritates the trachea and throat, contributing to the emergence of worsening reflexes.
It is possible to accelerate the transition from dry cough to wet. To do this, it is necessary to give the patient a warm, as close to hot, milk, adding to it half a teaspoon of soda or honey. Very effective steam inhalation, conducted with the use of infusions of chamomile, lemon balm and mint.
If there is a dry cough with ARVI, it can be easily cured in the first days of the disease. At its core, dry cough is a reflex act, which is accompanied by a sharp contraction of the respiratory muscles, in resulting in the release of a significant amount of air from their lungs, phlegm. Observe a dry cough with ARVI can be in people of all age groups. It is carried out as a reaction to the ingestion of phlegm and mucus, as well as foreign objects in the respiratory tract.
In the event that in ARVI, a dry cough does not pass within a few days, provided that there is proper proper treatment, you should consult a doctor to clarify the situation.
Barking cough with ARVI
Barking cough is a kind of dry cough that resembles a dog bark. Cough of this kind is accompanied by hoarseness of voice and is very painful.
Barking cough with ARVI is accompanied by inflammation of the larynx (laryngitis) or simultaneous inflammation of the larynx and trachea (laryngotracheitis).
The states of this genus can be triggered by general hypothermia or by the use of cold food, liquid, overstrain of the vocal cords during crying and intense voice loading. The impact of certain occupational hazards, such as gases and vapors, may also be affected. In this case, the activation of own pathogenic microorganisms takes place, for which the larynx is the habitat, which causes inflammation of this organ.
Barking cough with ARVI indicates infection in the body and is accompanied by a number of symptoms of an infectious diseases such as body weakness, fever, loss of appetite, lethargy, sore throat and runny nose.
Barking cough can cause serious complications. This is due to the fact that the laryngeal clearance in an adult is greater than that of a child, and in that If an inflammatory process develops, an additional narrowing occurs as a result of swelling of the soft tissues. There is a so-called croup syndrome, manifested in the violation of the breathing process through the narrowed vocal chink.
How long does cough last for ARVI?
If you look at the issue from the point of view of the development of the clinical picture of the disease, there is an acute, prolonged and chronic cough.
Acute cough is typical for ARVI (influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus infection), as well as acute bronchitis, pharyngitis and pneumonia. His character is exceptionally protective and contributes to the cleansing of the body from sputum and pathogens. As a rule, such cough lasts up to three weeks.
Prolonged cough can last from three weeks to three months, representing a further form of development of acute cough. He, unlike the acute one, is less constant and can have a wavy development, that is, appear and disappear after a few days. It usually appears as a result of the defeat of the respiratory tract, but it indicates a slow course of the disease and the possibility of its transition into a chronic form.
Chronic cough lasts longer than three months. Often, it is a sign of quite dangerous diseases, such as bronchial asthma, bronchitis, which has taken a chronic form, cardiovascular insufficiency, tuberculosis. Persons suffering from chronic cough need the most serious examination and treatment. Sometimes there is a chronic cough in people with mental disorders, as well as being prone to negative environmental effects.
Cough with ARVI in children
Special epidemiological studies indicate that each child carries within a year from three to five ARI. The most common incidence of them is observed in preschool children and younger schoolchildren. Relapses of acute respiratory viral infections cause disturbances in the functioning of the body, cause a disruption in the period of adaptation, and contribute to the development of chronic pathology.
In ARVI, a child may have a sharp and very loud cough, quickly changing from dry to wet. Cough is the most common symptom of this kind of diseases in children. SARS can be caused by freezing or sweating the baby's legs and coughing will indicate its onset. In winter it is not difficult to avoid colds in a child, for this it should only be warmer to wear. This should be done according to the weather, not particularly diligent at the same time, since the disease can lead to overheating. In the event that the disease could not be avoided and the cough that appears is a testimony, it must be borne in mind that each disease is distinguished by its specific cough. This means that the child should be listened to, trying to pinpoint exactly what illness he has. This will make it possible to effectively treat a child's cough as part of a recovery from an established disease.
Treatment of cough in ARVI
The most common cough in ARVI requires close attention, as it can be a sign of a more serious and dangerous disease, such as bronchitis and pneumonia.
In order to treat cough in ARVI should expectorating and antitussive drugs, however, in no case antibiotics. Unfortunately, by the way the cough is intense, it is impossible to determine the seriousness of the illness immediately and to correctly diagnose it. Sometimes a strong cough that scares all households and neighbors outside the wall is just a reaction of the body to the parainfluenza virus in the most common ARVI.
After setting the correct diagnosis for the treatment of acute respiratory viral infection, you can use folk remedies taken in consultation with your doctor. It is necessary to consult with it, since at least these methods are based on the use of natural preparations, but it is necessary to prevent the occurrence of certain problems, for example, allergies.
For the treatment of dry cough in ARVI, well-known folk remedies, such as herbs: mother-and-stepmother, licorice root, oregano, sage, herb of thermopsis, chamomile, are well suited.
In the event that there is a wet cough, it should be borne in mind that compared to dry cough, it is more optimistic, because in In this case, the body is able to independently resist the disease, which does not mean, however, that the disease does not follows. However, if it is a question of treating a wet cough in a child, it is necessary to carry it under the supervision of a pediatrician, in order to avoid all sorts of problems.
Most often for the treatment of wet cough in ARVI, it is recommended to use infusions based on plantain and cabbage, as well as compresses made from cabbage with honey, cottage cheese and onions.