Detachment of the retina: symptoms, signs, treatment

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According to statistics, about six percent of the world's population have retinal ruptures. However, in many cases gaps do not lead to the development of various pathologies and detachment. It should be remembered that retinal detachment is a very serious problem, as it leads to poor eyesight and even blindness. Let's understand that this is a retinal detachment of the eye, how to recognize it, and how to treat properly so that there are no complications.


  • 1What it is
  • 2Causes
  • 3Symptoms
  • 4Diagnostics
  • 5Treatment
    • 5.1Complications
    • 5.2Prevention
  • 6Video
  • 7conclusions

What it is

Detachment of the retina is a process that consists in separating the retina from the vascular membrane.Normally, these two shells are closely adjacent to each other. And with various pathologies, for example, with myopia, tumors, injuries, and so on, detachment occurs.The appearance of ruptures of the retina leads to disruption of the normal operation of photosensitive cells of the eye - rods and cones.They cease to receive enough nutrients from the blood vessels.

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A large area of ​​detachment leads to the fact that still active areas can not fully convert light into impulses. As a result, fluid accumulates, which further worsens visual acuity.

Types of retinal detachment, depending on the mechanism of origin:

  1. Regmatogenic exfoliation.This kind is the most common. Regmatogenous detachment arises because the retina is thinned and torn, and through the gaps under the retina gets the fluid from the vitreous. According to statistics, this detachment is most common in men between the ages of forty and seventy. Risk factors:
    • Hereditary diseases;
    • Inflammation and infectious diseases of the posterior segment of the eye;
    • Premature liquefaction of the vitreous humor;
    • Retinal dystrophy;
    • Afakiya (absence of the lens) and artifact (artificial lens).
  2. Traction detachment.It develops due to the fact that on one side of the vitreous body, retinal tension occurs due to newly formed vessels or fibrinous strands.
  3. Secondary exfoliation.It is also called exudative or serous. Secondary exfoliation is caused by fluid that enters the retina due to high blood pressure, central retinal vein thrombosis and so on. It is associated with various eye diseases, infections, tumors.
  4. Traumatic exfoliation.In this case, the cause of detachment of the retina is trauma. This detachment can occur both at the time of injury and many years after it.

The likelihood that retinal detachment may occur is increased in the presence of myopia, retinal dystrophy, trauma and eye operations. In addition, the risk group includes people with diabetes or having problems with blood vessels.


The main cause of retinal detachment is the pathological deformation of the vitreous, which leads to the appearance of ruptures.

Anatomical structure of the eye

Through ruptures, the fluid in the vitreous humor enters the retina and separates it from the vascular membrane.

The rupture in most cases is formed due to the tension of the vitreous. Normally, it is clear and jelly-like, but with pathology it becomes cloudy with strands associated with the retina. These strands pull the retina while moving eyes, which can lead to rupture.

The retina can tear, because it is thinned.The cause of secondary detachment are tumors and other neoplasms. Other groups of causes of retinal detachment:

  • Problems with circulatory disorders;
  • Viral infections;
  • Stress;
  • Excessive physical activity;
  • Injuries of the eyes.


Knowing the symptoms of retinal detachment, you can easily recognize it.The main thing in this case is a timely call to the doctor. This will help to keep your eyesight.

This is how a person sees when a retina detaches

The main symptoms of detachment:

  1. In some area of ​​the field of vision, a shadow (veil) appears, which can be displaced when the head moves.
  2. Appear black dots, which signal the ingress of blood from the damaged vessels into the vitreous.
  3. Suddenly appearing "flashes" and "sparks" near the temporal region.
  4. Distortion of text, objects. Their individual parts may disappear from the field of vision, which may indicate a detachment in the center of the retina.
  5. Impairment of vision quality.

If the detachment is at an early stage, then in the morning the person sees well, and therefore he can delay the visit to the doctor. But in fact, it is not necessary to tighten, as vision is improved only because the liquid partially dissolves overnight.


To diagnose detachment of the retina, a very thorough examination is necessary.There are the following methods of diagnosing this pathology:

  • Standard methods.This includes: perimetry, tonometry, vidiometry, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy and the study of entopic phenomena.
  • Special methods.These include conducting ultrasound in B-mode and electrophysiological methods.
  • Methods of laboratory diagnostics.They include the surrender of urine, blood for HIV, hepatitis and syphilis, as well as the conclusion of all doctors.

The most important methods for diagnosing detachment are ophthalmoscopy (examination of the fundus). It is she who allows you to quickly find the problem.

The sooner a detached retina is diagnosed, the sooner it will be possible to begin treatment.

Pyremetric data on the results of examination of the retina look like this. Black spots are the result of detachment.


Currently, retinal detachment is treated only through surgical intervention.Before the operation, you need to pass urine and blood to tests, make an ECG and chest X-ray, visit a dentist, therapist and an otolaryngologist.

Sealing of the eye to eliminate the air sac

On the day of the operation, eye drops are inserted, which dilate the pupil.

The purpose of surgical intervention is to detect and close the retinal rupture. To do this, around the rupture, inflammation is artificially caused by inflammation with the help of cold or laser exposure, which cicatrizes in the rupture area. This procedure allows you to make the retina whole.

Methods of surgical intervention:

  1. Local sealing.It is carried out only if detachment has occurred recently. The operation is done on the surface of the retina.
  2. Vitrectomy.It involves the removal of the vitreous, which is replaced by saline, liquid silicone or perfluorocarbon compound. Then, by means of laser coagulation, the area of ​​rupture and thin areas is limited.

The method is scaled depending on how much time has passed since the detachment, what is its size, how many gaps and where. Even if the detachment occurred a year ago, but the eye sees light, there is a chance to restore vision.



In the postoperative period, the following complications may occur:

Ptosis of the upper eyelid
  1. Infection of the wound without proper anti-inflammatory and antibacterial therapy.
  2. Exfoliation of the choroid.
  3. Increased intraocular pressure.
  4. Imbalance of the eye muscles.
  5. Ptosis of the upper eyelid.
  6. Strabismus.

Later (after weeks or months), complications such as:

  1. Exposure of the implant.
  2. Changes in the macular area.
  3. Deterioration of vision.
  4. Cataract.


Prevent detachment of the retina can.If a person has myopia or dystrophy of the retina, then he needs to regularly undergo ophthalmic examinations and conduct preventive therapy.

Often, to prevent retinal detachment, laser coagulation is used to prevent the risk of rupture.

To prevent detachment from injuries, you need to take precautions and safety techniques, both at work and at home.


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Detachment of the retina threatens complete blindness if you do not notice symptoms in time.It often occurs with injuries, eye diseases, tumors, diabetes and so on. The cause of the appearance of detachment is the retinal rupture of the eye. Preventive measures will prevent the occurrence of detachment of the retina. If you are a member of the risk group, then you should not risk your eye health, as often as possible visit an ophthalmologist.

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