Thrombophlebitis is a serious disease that affects people of all social strata, of different age groups, men and women. The pathological disease is directly related to the inflammation of the walls of large veins and tissues near them and the further occurrence of a thrombus in this area. It is very important to recognize thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities in time - symptoms (photo) and treatment are well known to modern medicine.
- Circumstances influencing the formation of thrombi
- Types of thrombophlebitis of lower extremities
- Symptomatology of the disease
- Symptoms of external form of thrombophlebitis
- Signs of affection of deep vessels
- Diagnosis of the disease
- Consequences of thrombophlebitis
- Medication methods of treatment
- Operative solution of the problem
- Unconventional treatment of thrombophlebitis
- Bee Products
- Goose Fat
- Decoction of hops
- Horse Chestnut
- Preventive measures
- Nutritional regimen with leg thrombophlebitis
- A set of exercises recommended for thrombophlebitis
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Circumstances influencing the formation of thrombi
The causes of the occurrence of thrombi in the circulatory system can be divided into external circumstances and processes occurring within the human body.
External factors include:
- trauma of the vein and adjacent tissues;
- heavy physical labor, long standing in a standing position;
- excess weight;
- infectious diseases.
Internal processes that provoke thrombophlebitis:
- frequent pregnancies and taking hormonal medications;
- genetic predisposition;
- lack of vitamins and minerals;
- increased blood density and slow progression of the blood vessels.
In most cases, thrombophlebitis chooses for its localization the region of the thighs, ankles, or the gastrocnemius.
Types of thrombophlebitis of lower extremities
The disease takes different forms, has a different duration and character of the course.
With the course and severity of the disease, there are:
- Acute thrombophlebitis. The disease occurs suddenly and lasts about 30 days.
- Subacute. Symptoms bother the patient for up to 6 months.
- Chronic thrombophlebitis. Symptoms are manifested under the influence of external or internal factors.
- Migratory. With this form, the patient periodically exhibits signs of thrombophlebitis in different locations.
At the location of the vessels:
- external thrombophlebitis;
- deep vein thrombophlebitis.
Symptomatology of the disease
The symptomatology of this disease is very extensive, depending on which leg section is affected. There are symptoms of the external and deep veins of the lower extremities. Common signs of this disease when exacerbating are:
- the patient's temperature rises to 38 degrees, the general condition worsens;
- burning pain in the area of thrombus;
- change in the size of the lymph nodes.
Symptoms of external form of thrombophlebitis
Disease of superficial veins of the lower extremities most often arises as a consequence of varicose veins. This type is more common in the lower part of the thigh or on the lower leg.
Suspicion of the involvement of surface vessels should occur in the following cases:
- On the leg clearly visible contours of education in the form of a nodule or a chain of nodules. When the limb is transferred to the horizontal plane, the nodes do not disappear, which is the first sign of blood clots in the blood vessels.
- Edema and redness of the skin in the area of the affected vein. Painful palpation.
- When walking, there is discomfort.
If the lesion of closely related veins is not associated with varicose veins, but occurs against the background of infection, a number of other symptoms are added:
- pains spread throughout the vein;
- the contours of the entire vessel are clearly visible;
- mesh from the veins appear on the skin of the legs.
The disease lasts from 10 days to a month.
Signs of affection of deep vessels
With thrombophlebitis of vessels located in deep layers of muscle tissue, the patient can feel the following symptoms:
- sudden increase in body temperature to 40 degrees;
- very strong bursting pain in the affected limb, which becomes less intense when the leg is placed horizontally;
- swelling of the legs is noticeable even without palpation;
- the skin on the affected limb changes color and tone. As a rule, stretched skin gets unhealthy shine, the color varies from white to bluish;
- the diseased limb becomes colder than the healthy one.
The duration of the disease is from 10 days to several months.
Diagnosis of the disease
If there are incomprehensible formations in the legs, it is necessary to contact the medical institution for clarification of the diagnosis and selection of appropriate treatment. In addition to visual examination, the doctor additionally appoints procedures and laboratory tests to determine the extent of the lesion and the location of the thrombus. Despite the large number of patients with thrombophlebitis, there is often a question which doctor treats this disease. Until recently this was the prerogative of surgeons, but now they are singling out narrow specialists - surgeons-phlebologists.
Methods of diagnosis:
- Laboratory blood test. Check the composition and speed of blood clotting.
- Ultrasound of the circulatory system. Doppler methods and duplex vascular scanning are used.
- Contrast X-ray studies, computed tomography.
- Thermography and radioisotope studies.
Attention!The disease manifests itself unexpectedly. Postponing treatment for later can lead to very serious consequences.
Consequences of thrombophlebitis
What is dangerous thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities? Symptoms of the disease, especially in severe form, require treatment. If you do not pay attention to this problem, there can be very unpleasant consequences:
- Closure of blood clots in the vessel can lead to disability or death of the patient;
- infection of the blood and the formation of non-healing ulcers on the skin;
- atrophy of muscle and bone tissue.
Medication methods of treatment
More than half of those with thrombophlebitis of the legs are successfully treated for this disease on an outpatient basis. Inpatient treatment is indicated for severe inflammation of veins and related tissues, and for diagnosing ascending thrombophlebitis spreading into the inguinal zone. The final variant of therapy should be appointed by the attending physician.
At the initial stage of the disease, an excellent result is treated at home and conservative therapy aimed at eliminating inflammation. At this stage, recommended massage, the use of special pulling linen, compression bandages.
Drug treatment for thrombophlebitis is prescribed by a doctor. The most commonly used tools are:
- Tablets for improving the patency of blood in the vessels-Trental. In addition, they interfere with the further formation of clots in the veins.
- Medicinal products aimed at stopping inflammation, reducing swelling and intensity of pain - Diclofenac, Ketoprofen.
- When diagnosing acute thrombophlebitis, appoint a medicine with heparin, Troxevasin or Vishnevsky ointment. Efficiently relieve the condition of the patient compresses from these funds.
In neglected cases, when sepsis begins in the internal veins, trophic ulcers appear on the skin, antibiotics are prescribed. In the treatment of such patients, penicillin-based drugs, Augmentin, and tetracycline are used. In this form, thrombophlebitis is often accompanied by a corpuscle of the internal veins and external skin and the patient is prescribed intramuscular injections or droppers with antimicrobials.
Attention!All medicines and recommendations are prescribed by a doctor. Do not use the advice of friends, the medicine that helped them may be ineffective or dangerous to you.
Operative solution of the problem
The operation can be assigned in the following cases:
- ascending thrombophlebitis, which is fraught with a clot break in the area of the inguinal vein and can lead to death;
- a threat of pulmonary embolism;
- increased suppuration of blood vessels;
- in the case of an open thrombus, an emergency operation is prescribed.
Operative intervention is performed under local anesthesia, tissue is excised minimally. The main types of operations with thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities:
- Inside the vein, special filters are installed that do not allow blood clots to move further;
- dissection of the thrombus inside the vessel by means of a catheter, which is inserted through a small incision;
- reduction of the lumen of the vein by the method of insertion or a special clip.
The operation is contraindicated in pregnancy, heart disease and severe form of varicose veins.
Unconventional treatment of thrombophlebitis
In addition to the medical and surgical way to get rid of this disease, folk methods of treating thrombophlebitis do not lose their popularity. Used in this case, vegetable raw materials and products of animal origin do not affect the human body as much as synthetic preparations.
A very good result for the relief of the symptoms of the manifestation of thrombophlebitis is shown by the products of beekeeping:
- On a clean cloth or bandage put a few spoons of honey and apply to the harassing leg site. Instead of tissue, you can use a leaf of cabbage;
- 10 grams of crushed propolis is mixed with 35 grams of butter, heated for a quarter of an hour. The obtained substance lubricates the affected area when painful sensations occur;
- A handful of dead and dried bees are poured into 500 ml of vodka or medical alcohol. The vessel with the bees should be left in a dark place for 10 days, filtered and applied as a lotion;
- to ease the painful syndrome of living bees put to the leg and wait until they sting.
Perfect for fighting goose fat vessels diseases. It can be used in pure form or in combination with medicinal plants. For example, 2 tablespoons of grinded comfrey leaves are mixed with 100 grams of fresh overblended goose fat and heated on low heat for 10-15 minutes. The resulting mass is stored in the refrigerator and applied to the skin as needed.
With exacerbation of thrombophlebitis, hirudotherapy is very effective. It is prescribed to people who do not tolerate medications that reduce the density of blood. How to treat thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities in this way?
In the role of a doctor under hirudotherapy, leeches appear. Before the procedure, the skin of the feet is cleaned without detergents, greased with a sweet solution and put the leeches in staggered order. Leeches give off a special enzyme in the blood, which makes the blood liquid and prevents the formation of blood clots. The procedure is almost painless, although not very aesthetic.
Important!In nontraditional medicine, in addition to local effects on the vessels, the internal effect on the body is also used. For this tea and infusions are irreplaceable.
Decoction of hops
30 grams of hop cones are crushed in a mortar, pour a glass of burning water, bring to a boil and stand on low heat for 20-25 minutes. After that, wrap and leave for an hour. A strained broth is taken in a 20-day course of 100 ml twice a day.
Tinctures are prepared from all parts of the plant.
- For this, 50 grams of crushed raw material is poured with 0.5 liters of alcohol.
- Close the vessel and put it in the darkened place for 2 weeks.
- Twice a day, the tank is shaking well.
- Within a month, take 30 drops of tincture before eating.
Freshly squeezed juice of horse chestnut flowers take thrice 20 drops a day.
Attention!All means of alternative medicine can provoke an allergic reaction. Be sure to consult a doctor.
Prevention is necessary to prevent the formation of blood clots in the system of vessels of the lower extremities. To do this, try to observe the following recommendations:
- food should be organized on the basis of doctor's recommendations;
- refusal from bad habits, alcohol and tobacco;
- contrasting daily water procedures of the lower limbs;
- moderate physical activity and everyday exercise;
- Wearing compression underwear or elastic bandages.
Nutritional regimen with leg thrombophlebitis
A special diet prescribed for vascular foot diseases is needed to strengthen the venous walls and prevent blood clots. It is not recommended to eat meat products, preserves and marinades, salted and smoked foods, caffeinated drinks.
Products whose consumption prevents vascular diseases:
- products rich in iodine - sea kaputa, fish;
- fresh yoghurt, kefir, cottage cheese;
- seasonal fruits, berries and vegetables;
- cereal cereals and dried fruits.
Also for the dilution of blood it is very useful to drink 2000 ml of liquid every day. Preference should be given to purified water without gas.
A set of exercises recommended for thrombophlebitis
Patients suffering from vascular diseases of the lower extremities should lead a moderately active lifestyle. It so happened that many have sedentary work, the way home goes in personal or public transport. To prevent stagnation of blood in the vessels, it is recommended to perform at least a few exercises daily. We give the most affordable.
- Lay down on a rug or blanket on the floor, relax your hands near the torso. Alternately, try to reach the face with your knees.
- In the same position, lift your straightened legs. The exercise can be performed with two legs or one at a time.
- Running and jumping on the ground, all the familiar bike is also very effective.
The list of exercises that can be performed to disperse blood is very large. Choose those that will not cause difficulties in performance.
Attention!If there is a threat of a blood clot, any physical exertion, even minor ones, is contraindicated.
Thrombophlebitis is very common among all segments of the population. Very often, this disease affects the vessels of the legs. The disease occurs in different forms, with the running version may have a lethal outcome. Timely treatment in the hospital, adherence to the doctor's recommendations and a healthy lifestyle can not only stop the process, but also prevent the formation of new foci.