What antibiotics to take with influenza and ARVI: list of names
Antibiotics for flu and cold doctor will appoint immediately after the appearance of the first signs of angina or pneumonia. This is important both for adult patients and for children. Drugs from the group of macrolides or penicillins may be recommended.
When ARVI often develop pathological processes in the paranasal sinuses - sinusitis. This disease is a serious signal about the need for antibiotic therapy. When a yellow nose is troubled by yellow mucus discharge and pain syndrome near the bridge of the nose, consult an otolaryngologist and take an X-ray.
In some cases, antibiotic therapy may be necessary for prophylactic purposes, for example, after a surgical procedure. Usually, it is enough to drink a wide-spectrum drug for 5 days. Thus, doctors try to minimize the development of complications against a background of reduced immunity.
If it is a child, the treatment has its own nuances and antibiotics for ARVI are chosen differently. Dr. Yevgeny Komarovsky tells about this in more detail in his TV programs.
What antibiotics are needed?
Starting from the form of the disease, the general health of the patient, his age, and treatment will be selected. Penicillins are prescribed only to those patients who suffer from a tendency to allergic reactions. Angina is treated with the means:
With respiratory infections, the standard drugs are macrolides. Antibiotics for ARVI in adults with bronchitis: Macropen, Zetamax. Diseases of the ear, throat and nose will help cure funds Hemomycin, Sumamed, Azitrox.
When a patient observes resistance to penicillin drugs, he needs to take tablets from a number of fluoroquinolones. These are medications Norfloxacin, Levofloxacin.
Such funds are strictly forbidden to children. Their skeleton is not completely formed, and therefore the probability of unpredictable negative reactions of the body (in detail about antibiotics for patients of this age, says Dr. Komarovsky). In addition, fluoroquinolones are the drugs of the reserve group, which are necessary for the patient in adulthood. If you take them ahead of time, they will get used to them.
With influenza and viral infection, when there is a temperature, the doctor should choose a means that will competently combat the disease and at the same time not trigger the onset of adverse reactions.
The problem of the last time is that with each season the pathogens become more resistant to antibiotics.
How correctly to accept?
The use of antibiotics in ARVI is indicated only when it is impossible to recover without them. If the form of a cold is easy, it is enough to take antiviral drugs. Additional therapy is necessary if:
- A bacterial infection joined the signs of the disease;
- high total body temperature lasts more than 3 days;
- there was a purulent discharge;
- the general condition of the patient worsened.
When there are complications of flu or cold, the doctor must take an interest in the patient, what he took antibiotics in ARI. It should be noted that the same agent is not able to work with the same efficacy in the treatment of different patients.
To select the most suitable antibiotic, an antibacterial sowing is required. This will help to determine the degree of sensitivity of microorganisms to certain agents. However, there is not always time for such a laboratory test. Its duration is from 2 to 7 days. During this period, the patient's condition may significantly worsen.
If there are indications for taking an antibiotic, it should be drunk strictly according to the scheme suggested by the doctor. Even with a single pass of the medicine, the symptoms of the disease and high fever will manifest themselves with renewed vigor.
Between taking the medicine must pass a certain amount of time. If the doctor recommended taking the drug twice a day, the interval will be 12 hours.
Duration of treatment
Regardless of which group of antibiotics the drug belongs to, it should be taken at least 5 days. If already the next day after the start of therapy the patient will note an improvement in well-being is forbidden:
- discontinue treatment;
- reduce the dosage of tablets.
Otherwise, the treatment will not be of use, and if the funds of the same group are reappointed, its effectiveness will be in doubt.
There is a separate type of drugs with prolonged action. They are necessary in particularly difficult cases. The scheme of their admission is divided into stages. The patient should drink a pill 3 days, and then take a break for the same period. Take such antibacterial drugs should be in 3 calls.
ProbioticsEven the most expensive and effective antibiotic in ARVI kills not only pathogenic microorganisms, but also useful ones. This is especially dangerous for young patients, as confirmed by Dr. Komarovsky.
During treatment, the normal intestinal microflora is always disturbed. For this reason, in addition, you should take special drugs that can restore the body. Excellent proven themselves: Lineks, Bifiform, Gastrofarm, Narine. They are taken between the reception of antibiotics.
It is very useful during the treatment period to drink more sour-milk products and generally observe a special diet. It is necessary to include in me the maximum quantity of vegetables and fruits. Renounce acute and fatty.
If the disease lasts for a long time, the liver of a person begins to function poorly. Therefore, it is the light plant products that relieve the load from the organ. White wheat bread is a good substitute for black bread, and sweets and confectionery are dried fruits.
List of drugs for adults
With flu and a complicated cold, the doctor selects suitable antibiotics for the patient, which are divided into groups:
- cephalosporins. These are semi-synthetic antibacterial agents of a wide spectrum. There are several of their generations, but the most popular are Tseporin, Asperer, Cefalexin. They are prescribed for various problems of the respiratory system;
- fluoroquinolones. Antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action. Characterized by rapid absorption in soft tissues. The best are considered to be Moxifloxacin, Levofloxacin. They can not be used to treat pregnant women, nursing women, children, people with epilepsy. There are cases of serious allergies to the drugs of this group. The standard dosage is 500 mg three times a day;
- macrolides. They have a powerful bacteriological effect. Can be used to treat complications of acute respiratory viral infection (angina, bronchitis, pneumonia, otitis, purulent sinusitis), with influenza. This group includes Erythromycin, Azithromycin. The effect of treatment with macrolides is noticeable only after 2-3 days after the start of the course. The mentioned means are allowed for pregnant women and during lactation. The daily dose can not be more than 1.5 g (it is divided into 6 receptions);
- penicillins. Such antibiotics work well for staphylococci and streptococci. The most popular are Amoxicillin, Amoxiclav. The group is the least toxic. There is an opportunity to apply for the treatment of children. The temperature drops noticeably after a few days, the general course of therapy lasts no less than 5 days. In particularly difficult cases, penicillins require the use of 10 to 14 days.
Each of the considered means has its contra-indications. Do not arbitrarily change the dosage of antibiotics or stop treatment altogether.
Antibiotics for a child (Dr. Komarovsky)Many doctors and Eugene Komarovsky, emphasize that a normal viral infection does not require treatment with antibiotics! They are only needed when bacteria are attached to the flu.
Antibiotics, which kill bacteria well, will not affect viruses in any way. When a child is treated with such medications for viral diseases, Komarovsky insists, in addition to side effects, the patient will have a serious problem - resistance to antibiotics.
The list of drugs allowed for children is given below.
If a child aged 3 months has a fever, the doctor will appoint Augmentin. The preparation can be purchased in the form of a powder, and having topped the prescribed volume of boiled water at room temperature, it is converted into a suspension. There are no adverse reactions from the medication, but in very rare cases, an allergy in the form of skin rashes can develop.
When complications arise, antibiotics for ARVI are necessary, as Komarovsky says. Such diseases usually become: cystitis, sinusitis, otitis media, tonsillitis. The child is prescribed another medicine, his name is Zinatsef. The preparation is made in the form of a solution for injections. The dose is determined depending on the weight of the baby and his age.
Another good medicine for the flu is Sumamed Forte. The drug is characterized by a wide range of actions, helps to recover in a short time. Do not use the product for children if they are younger than the age of 6 months.
You can buy Sumamed Forte in powder, which is diluted with water. Drink a remedy once a day, you can say. that this is a specific prevention of influenza.
About what antibiotics are needed to treat ARVI in the video in this article.
Antibiotics and other drugs for influenza
Each of us at least once had a cold and was treated with folk remedies or independently chose antibiotics for the flu, that is, was engaged in self-medication. But do not practice this method: medicines should be prescribed by a physician to prevent complications. When and with what manifestations of the disease, and most importantly, how to properly drink antibiotics for influenza - these points should be considered in more detail.
As usual, the first signal of an infectious disease is an increase in temperature from 38 and above, plus a runny nose, reddening of the mucous throat. These symptoms can accompany other characteristic signs of the disease: reddening of the mucosa, headache, cough. Antibiotics against influenza can overcome the infection, but they are prescribed only by physicians, given their characteristics and the course of the disease. Do not self-medicate, thereby exposing your own health to danger.
Treatment of influenza with antibiotics
If the cold is caused by the action of the bacterium, then it is worthwhile to turn to antibiotics. The main thing with this variant of the development of the disease is to take into account the general condition of the patient and determine the very fact of the onset of the disease, and also to choose the most effective medication. This is due to the fact that the antibiotics themselves require a serious attitude. An incorrect appointment will only lead to the fact that the disease starts, causing harm to your body in parallel.But this is an erroneous approach, because during the treatment of influenza, colds and acute respiratory infections, most doctors prescribe antiviral medications. But if the patient's condition does not improve, when a bacterial infection is diagnosed, then it is wise to use a correctly selected antibiotic.
Treatment of catarrhal diseases with antibiotics should go through rationalization, and therefore the consultation of a doctor, taking into account the degree and severity of the course of the disease, is simply obligatory. It is he who prescribes that antibiotic, which will be the most effective and optimal. Catarrhal diseases are quite dangerous and insidious diseases that manifest themselves regardless of the age, weather and general health of the patient. It is ORL is one of the most common diseases on the planet and can last no longer than 6-7 days without manifestations of complications.
Treatment of influenza with antibiotics in both adults and children should be done only when the body itself does not cope with the infection. Many patients at the first signs of a cold and fever ask themselves which antibiotic medicine to take, perceiving it as a panacea for many diseases and infections.
As statistics show, people suffer from colds 2-3 times a year, and at the moment virologists count about 200 kinds of viruses that provoke ARD. Suffice it to say that the common cold is a very contagious infection, transmitted by airborne droplets, while fighting the trachea and lungs, and therefore medication is mandatory.
Symptomatic of coldsIf we talk about the treatment of colds and acute respiratory infections, then before taking an antibiotic, it is necessary to determine the specific signs that characterize them. In particular, among these are the following:
- increase due to the inflammatory process of the lymph nodes, which manifest themselves in the form of compaction in the neck and occiput, behind the ear and under the jaw and when pressed cause pain;
- discharge from the nose and its obstruction plus excessive dryness of the nasal mucosa;
- pain and sore throat, cough;
- increase in body temperature from 37 degrees and above, plus nausea and vomiting.
To properly treat the flu, at the very beginning it is necessary to diagnose the disease correctly and proceed from this to choose an effective drug.
To use antibiotics for inflammation of the respiratory tract, it is worth choosing those drugs that can overcome the bacteria that cause the disease. Such honey. drugs can be antibiotics related to the penicillin group: "Amoxiclav," "Amoxicillin," or "Augmentin."
When developing ARI, in particular pneumonia, it is worth considering that it is provoked by bacteria that are quite immune to penicillin. Therefore, the best option in this case are such honey. drugs like "Levofloxacin" or "Avelox."To overcome the flu, it is also necessary to use antibiotics classified as a group of cephalosporins ("Supraks", "Zinnat" or "Zinatsef"), which effectively treat bronchi and pleurisy, pneumonia. It is also worth noting that honey. drugs classified as macrolides are prescribed for complications after the flu and for the successful treatment of atypical pneumonia, triggered by the action of chlamydia or mycoplasma.
Effective treatment of colds with antibiotics is directly defined and the category of the disease itself. So, in ARVI it is worth using antiviral honey. drugs, because they have a direct effect on the immune system, helping it to strengthen and overcome the disease. The use of antibiotics in this respect is simply useless and even contraindicated by the doctors themselves; the sooner you start treatment with antiviral honey. drugs, the higher the chance to overcome the cold more quickly, without allowing negative consequences in the form of complications.
What antibiotics should I take with the flu?
The antibiotic itself for colds should be prescribed only by a doctor, and only if the general condition of the patient indicates the existing complications: angina, purulent sinusitis and so on. But at the very beginning it is worth taking the means tested by time and practice from the people's arsenal and antiviral honey. a drug aimed at combating the virus itself and the infection caused by it. If the cause of the disease is not established, it is not recommended to take a specific antibiotic, even if you previously used it effectively to fight a cold. To successfully cure a cold, it is worth knowing all the properties of honey. drug, take into account its side effect and possible complications.
By prescribing a certain drug, the doctor takes into account the degree and severity of the course of the disease, the complications caused by by the same, and by virtue of these indicators, antibiotics can be prescribed to them, assigned to the following groups:
- Penicillins, in particular "Augmentin" or "Ampicillin", which are characterized by pronounced bactericidal properties and are sufficiently effective in diseases caused by the action of bacteria, and in severe forms of the course of ENT diseases. These drugs in their action destroy the walls of pathogenic bacteria, leading to their death. Still it is necessary to allocate such positive property, as a low level of toxic influence on an organism, as a result of it they are widely applied in children's pediatrics.
- Cephalosporins, which are characterized by the fact that in the fight against bacteria destroy the membrane of disease cells and so destroy them. This group of honey. drugs is practiced in the fight against diseases such as pleurisy, bronchitis and pneumonia. They are injected with a prick and orally. The presented group of honey. drugs is different in that it causes less allergy in comparison with similar drugs from the penicillin group, but it can negatively affect the functioning of the liver and kidneys.
- Macrolides, which are characterized by bacteriostatic properties and are used in the treatment of edematous pneumonia.
- Fluoroquinolones, which are useful for combating the action of gram-negative bacteria. Getting inside the structure of the cell, hit the micro, located in it. At the moment it is the most non-toxic group of antibiotics, it does not cause allergies and is quite harmless in the process of use.
An effective antibiotic used for colds is considered to be honey. a drug that was prescribed, given the type of infection and the course of the illness itself. Thus treatment by antibiotics should be conducted cautiously, having taken into account consultation and the recommendation of the doctor. It is he who will choose the optimal honey. a preparation from 4 main groups of antibiotics.
Before starting treatment and taking a certain antibiotic, it is worth resorting to folk recipes for treating colds. For example, make inhalation and breathe over vapors with essential oils, soak your feet, make a compress or put mustard plasters. It is worth taking into account the amount of liquid consumed, enrich your menu with vitamins in the form of fresh vegetables and fruits or a complex of vitamins in tablets.
If this does not help and there is a deterioration in health, then it is worth immediately contacting a doctor to avoid complications. There will have to "put into battle" antibiotic, because it is about the health and saving the life of the patient.
A small conclusion
It is necessary to understand that it is the doctor who prescribes the antibiotic for colds, it is important to strictly follow his instructions regarding the dosage and the regimen of the medication.
But self-medication can eventually lead to health problems, when the patient himself puts himself in danger. Be healthy!
Whether to drink antibiotics at cold at children or adults?
Everyone who received a diploma from any medical institute is firmly aware and remember that antibiotics for colds, ARVI and flu do not help. This is remembered by doctors in polyclinics, practicing doctors in hospitals. However, antibiotics are prescribed and not infrequently simply prophylactically. Because when you go to a doctor at the hospital, the patient needs treatment.
And in cases with a cold, acute respiratory viral infection, in addition to all the known rules - abundant drinking, bed rest, vitaminized, limited (diet) food, medicamentous means and folk methods for rinsing the throat, washing the nose, inhaling, rubbing with warming ointments - nothing else is needed, this all treatment of the common cold is limited. But no, a person expects medicines from the doctor, often just begging for an antibiotic.
Worse, the patient can independently start taking any antibiotic according to his experience or someone's advice. Appealing to a doctor today takes a long time, and medicines are very easy to acquire. No civilized country has such open access to medicines, as in Russia. Fortunately, today most antibiotics dispense prescription antibiotics, but there is always a chance to get a drug without a prescription (having mercilessly dispensed a pharmacist or choosing a pharmacy that values its turnover most of all).
As for the treatment of a cold in a child, the situation is often overshadowed by the fact that the pediatrician is simply reinsured, appoints an effective, good, "child" antibiotic for colds for prevention, in order to avoid possible complications. If the child begins to drink abundantly, moisturize, ventilate the room, give fever at a high temperature for children, apply all known means for colds and folk methods - the body must cope with the majority of respiratory viral infections.
And why, then, did the pediatrician prescribe antibiotics?Because complications are possible. Yes, the risk of complications in preschool children is very high. Today, not every mother can boast of strong immunity and the general good health of her child. And the doctor in this case is guilty, did not notice, did not check, did not appoint. Fear of accusations of incompetence, inattention, danger of prosecution pushes pediatricians to prescribe an antibiotic for children with colds as prevention.
It should be remembered that a cold in 90% of cases is of viral origin, and viruses do not cure antibiotics.
Only in cases when the body did not cope with the virus and there were complications, a bacterial infection joined, localized in the oral cavity, nose, bronchi or lungs - only in this case antibiotics are indicated.
Can I understand by analysis that antibiotics are needed?
Laboratory tests that confirm the bacterial nature of the infection are not always performed:
- Since sputum cultures, urine for today is quite expensive for polyclinics and they are trying to save on them.
- Exceptions are swabs from the pharynx and nose with angina to the stick of Lefler (causative agent of diphtheria) and selective sowing of detachable tonsils with chronic tonsillitis or urine in pathologies of the urinary tract.
- More chances to get bacteriological confirmation of microbial infection in hospital patients.
- Indirect signs of bacterial inflammation will be changes in the clinical blood test. Here the physician can orient on the rise of ESR, the increase in the number of leukocytes and the shift of the leukocyte formula to the left (increase of stab and segmented leukocytes).
How to understand by feeling that there were complications?
By eye, the attachment of bacteria can be determined by:
- Changing the color of the separated nose, pharynx, ear, eyes, bronchi - from transparent it becomes cloudy, yellow or green.
- Against the background of bacterial infection, as a rule, there is a repeated rise in temperature (for example, with pneumonia, which complicated ARVI).
- With bacterial inflammation in the urinary system, urine will most likely become turbid and a visible sediment will appear in it.
- When lesions of the intestinal microbes in the feces appear mucus, pus or blood.
Understand that there are complications of acute respiratory viral infection is possible on the following grounds:
- If after the onset of an acute respiratory infection or a cold, after the improvement on day 5-6, the temperature rises again to 38-39C, feeling, cough worse, there is shortness of breath or pain in the chest with breathing and coughing - the risk of pneumonia is high.
- Increases in sore throat at high temperature or there are raids on tonsils, cervical lymph nodes increase - it is necessary to exclude angina or diphtheria.
- There is pain in the ear, which increases with pressure on the tragus, or from the ear flowed - the average otitis is likely.
- Against the backdrop of a cold there was a pronounced nasal voice, headaches in the forehead or face that intensified when leaning forward or lying down, the sense of smell completely disappeared - there are signs of inflammation of the paranasal sinuses.
Many ask the question what antibiotics to drink with a cold, what antibiotic is better for a cold? If complications arise, the choice of antibiotic depends on:
- localization of complications
- age of the child or adult
- anamnesis of the patient
- drug tolerance
- and of course, resistance to antibiotics in the country where the disease occurred.
The appointment should be made only by the attending physician.
When antibiotics are not indicated for colds or uncomplicated ARVI
- Muco-purulent rhinitis (rhinitis), lasting less than 10-14 days
- Viral conjunctivitis
- Viral tonsillitis
- Tracheitis, bronchitis (in some cases at high temperature and acute bronchitis antibacterial drugs are necessary)
- Attachment of herpetic infection (herpes on the lips)
- Laryngitis in children (treatment)
When it is possible to use antibiotics for uncomplicated cases
- At the expressed signs of the lowered immunity - constant subfebrile temperature, more than 5 r / year catarrhal and virus diseases, chronic fungal and inflammatory diseases, HIV, any cancer or congenital immunity disorders
- In a child under 6 months of age - rickets in infants (symptoms, treatment), various malformations, with a lack of weight
- Against the background of some blood diseases (agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia).
Indications for prescribing antibiotics are
- Bacterial angina (with simultaneous exclusion of diphtheria by taking swabs from the throat and nose) requires treatment with penicillins or macrolides.
- Purulent lymphadenitis requires broad-spectrum antibiotics, consultation of a surgeon, sometimes a hematologist.
- Laryngotracheitis or acute bronchitis or exacerbation of chronic bronchitis or bronchoectatic disease will require macrolides (Macropen), in a number of cases, a chest X-ray to exclude pneumonia.
- Acute otitis media - the choice between macrolides and cephalosporins is performed by an ENT doctor after otoscopy.
- Pneumonia (see p. the first signs of pneumonia, treatment of pneumonia in a child) - treatment with semisynthetic penicillins after radiologic confirmation of the diagnosis with mandatory control of the effectiveness of the drug and X-ray control.
- Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis, sinusitis, etmoiditis) - the diagnosis is established by X-ray and characteristic clinical signs. Treatment is conducted by an otolaryngologist (see p. signs of sinusitis in adults).
Here is an example of a study conducted on the basis of data from a single pediatric clinic, when analyzing medical history data and outpatient cards 420 children 1-3 years old. In 89% of cases, children were registered with ORVI and ARI, 16% with acute bronchitis, 3% with otitis and only 1% with pneumonia and other infections.
And in80% of casesOnly with inflammation of the upper respiratory tract with acute respiratory illness and Orvi antibiotics were prescribed, with pneumonia and bronchitis in 100% of cases. Most doctors theoretically know about the inadmissibility of using antibacterial drugs for a cold or a viral infection, but for a number of reasons:
- administrative settings
- early age of children
- preventive measures to reduce complications
- reluctance to go for assets
they are still prescribed, sometimes in short 5-day courses and with a decrease in dose, which is highly undesirable. Also, the spectrum of pathogens in children was not considered. In 85-90% of cases it is viruses, and among bacterial agents it is 40% pneumococcus, in 15% hemophilic rod, 10% fungi and staphylococcus, less often atypical pathogens - chlamydia and mycoplasma.
With the development of complications against the background of the virus, only according to the doctor's prescription, according to the severity of the disease, the age, the patient's anamnesis, such antibiotics are prescribed:
- Penicillin series - in the absence of allergic reactions to penicillins, semi-synthetic penicillins can be used (Flemoxin solutab, Amoxicillin). In severe resistant infections among penicillin preparations, doctors prefer "protected penicillins »(amoxicillin + clavulanic acid), Amoxiclav, Ecoclave, Augmentin, Flemoclav Solutab. This is the first-line drugs in angina.
- Cephalosporin series - Cefixim (Suprax, Pansef, Iksim Lupine), Cefuroxime aksetil (Zinacef, Supero, Aksetin, Zinnat), etc.
- Macrolides - are usually prescribed for chlamydial, mycoplasmal pneumonia or infections of the ENT organs - Azithromycin (Sumamed, Zetamaks, Zitrolid, Hemomycin, Z-factor, Azitrox), Macropen - a drug of choice in bronchitis.
- Fluoroquinolones - are prescribed in cases of intolerance to other antibiotics, as well as the resistance of bacteria to penicillin preparations of the series - Levofloxacin (Tavanic, Floracid, Hailefleks, Glevo, Flexi), Moxifloxacin (Avelox, Plevilox, Mossimac). The fluoroquinolones are completely banned for use in children, since the skeleton is not yet formed, and also because they are drugs "reserve", which can be useful to a person when he grows up, in the treatment of infections with drug resistance.
In general, the problem of choosing an antibiotic for today is a task for the doctor, which he must decide in such a way as to maximally help the patient in the present and not harm in the future. The problem is complicated by the fact that in the pursuit of today's profits, the pharmacampany absolutely does not take into account the seriousness of the increasing resistance of pathogens diseases to antibiotics and throw out in a wide network those antibacterial novelties that could be for the time being in reserve.
If your doctor has prescribed an antibacterial drug, you should read 11 rules. How to drink antibiotics correctly.
- Antibiotics are indicated for bacterial infections, and the common cold in 80-90% has a viral origin, therefore their reception is not only senseless, but also harmful.
- Antibiotics have serious side effects, such as inhibition of liver and kidney function, allergic reactions, they reduce immunity, cause imbalance of intestinal microflora and mucous membranes in the body.
- The use of antibiotics as a prophylaxis for complications of viral-bacterial infections is unacceptable. The task of the child's parents in time to consult a doctor, and the therapist or pediatrician in time to detect a possible deterioration state of health of the child or adult and only in this case to take "heavy artillery" in the form of antibiotics.
- The main criterion for the effectiveness of antibiotic therapy is a decrease in body temperature to 37-38 ° C, relief of the general condition, in the absence of this antibiotic should be replaced by another. The effectiveness of the antibiotic is estimated within 72 hours and only after this the preparation changes.
- Frequent and uncontrolled use of antibiotics leads to the development of resistance of microorganisms, and each time a person will more aggressive drugs are required, often simultaneous use of 2 or more antibacterial agents.
What are the antibiotics for adults and children?
Any adult knows that a banal cold is not an excuse to immediately start taking antibiotics. Such drugs, of course, have an excellent impact on pathogens, and it becomes easier for a person already the next day, but they can do a lot of harm. If the disease is at an early stage, it can easily be overcome with abundant drinking, antiviral drugs and bed rest. But in some cases, antibiotics can not be avoided.
Analyzes will help to make the correct diagnosis
Before the doctor prescribes antibiotic therapy for ARVI treatment, a number of tests will be performed. This is the only way to make sure that complications have not joined the common cold. If a cough is present, sputum culture will be performed. In addition, general blood and urine tests will be administered. To determine whether antibiotics are needed for ARVI, a smear from the nose and throat will help. If there is a purulent infection, it can be recognized immediately. A serious reason for the appointment of antibiotic therapy is the identification of a stick of Lefler (causative agent of diphtheria).To more accurately make a diagnosis, a doctor can offer a patient to undergo a test in a hospital. Here you can conduct all the necessary laboratory tests and observe the patient's condition. A clinical blood test will be performed several times. The doctor should pay attention to whether the ESR increases, whether the total number of leukocytes increases.
Pay attention to health
The attachment of a bacterial infection can be determined by the general state of the body. As a rule, the body temperature rises sharply. If the cold is complicated by pneumonia, the patient will have shortness of breath and suffer severe coughing attacks. In this case, ARVI is treated with antibiotics without fail.
It is worth paying attention to the color of discharge from the nose and throat. If the mucus acquires a dark or green hue, it is more likely that complications have occurred. With a bacterial infection of the urogenital system, the urine acquires a brown color, a sediment appears in it, which can easily be seen with the naked eye. In the feces you can see blood or pus.It often happens that after the onset of acute respiratory infections passes several days already, and treatment with antiviral drugs does not yield any results. In addition, additional unpleasant symptoms may appear, such as headaches, nausea, sleep disturbances. This may indicate the development of the inflammatory process in the lungs and bronchi. Additionally, tonsils can appear purulent on the tonsils, pain in the throat increases.
In case of complications, the doctor should decide which antibiotic to take in ARVI. The patient's age, history, susceptibility to allergic reactions, localization of complications, etc. are taken into account. Take antibacterial drugs without agreement with the therapist is not recommended.
When is it possible to do without antibiotics?
Even if the laboratory analysis showed the presence of a bacterial infection, antibiotics for ARVI are not always accepted. Do not prescribe medicines for mucopurulent rhinitis, which lasts less than two weeks. Antibiotic therapy begins only when antiviral treatment does not give a positive result. In addition, antibiotics are not prescribed for tracheitis, viral tonsillitis, nasopharyngitis, laryngitis. Antibacterial agents are also not suitable for the treatment of herpesvirus infection, which can occur during the period of acute respiratory viral infection.There are also cases where the use of antibiotics is necessary for the first symptoms of a cold. When expressed signs of reduced immunity drugs are used simply for prevention. This is due to the fact that a weakened organism with a high likelihood of joining a bacterial infection. Antibiotics for ARVI for children are prescribed in case of a large lack of weight or in the presence of any physical abnormalities.
Indications for prescribing antibiotics
Antibiotics for ARVI in adults and children are prescribed primarily when the first symptoms of angina or pneumonia appear. A doctor can be prescribed drugs from a group of penicillins or macrolides. With purulent lymphadenitis, antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action are prescribed. If such complications occur, there is a need for additional consultation of the hematologist and surgeon.With ARVI, inflammation of the paranasal sinuses can develop. Sinusitis is a serious cause for concern. If a mild discharge of yellow color and pain in the region of the nose appear in the common cold, it makes sense to consult LOR. An accurate diagnosis will help to place an X-ray study. Antibiotics for ARVI for children and adults in the case of sinusitis develops an otolaryngologist.
In some cases, antibiotic therapy is prescribed for prophylactic purposes. Patients who have recently undergone surgical intervention perform ARVI treatment with antibiotics. In this case, a broad-spectrum drug can be prescribed. Apply it will have at least five days. Thus, the doctor tries to protect the patient from the development of any complications against the background of a decrease in immunity.
What antibiotics can be prescribed?
Depending on the form of complications, the general condition of the patient and his age, the doctor selects an antibacterial drug. Antibiotics of the penicillin series can be prescribed only to those patients who do not have a tendency to allergic reactions. With angina, such medications as "Ecoclave", "Amoxiclav", "Augmentin" can be prescribed. These are medicines that are commonly called "protected penicillins." They have a milder effect on the human body.When infections of the respiratory system most often appointed macrolides. "Macropen", "Zetamaks" - antibiotics for adults with ARVI, if bronchitis begins. With diseases of the ENT organs, drugs "Sumamed", "Chemomycin", "Azitrox" can be prescribed.
If there is resistance to penicillin group drugs, antibiotics from a number of fluoroquinolones are prescribed. This is "Levofloxacin" or "Moxifloxacin". Fluoroquinolones are prohibited antibiotics for ARVI for children. The skeleton in children is not yet sufficiently formed, so unpredictable side reactions may occur. In addition, fluoroquinolones are referred to reserve drugs that may be needed in an adult. The sooner they start taking, the sooner the addiction will develop.
The doctor must choose the best antibiotic for ARVI, based on the characteristics of the patient's body and the form of complications. The specialist should do everything to help the patient to overcome the disease to the maximum, avoiding any side reactions. The problem is complicated by the fact that every year the pathogens become more resistant to antibacterial drugs of a wide spectrum of action.
How correctly to take antibiotics?
Use antibiotics for ARVI is necessary only when it is impossible to do without them. Coryza and cough in mild form is perfectly treated with antiviral drugs. Additional therapy is performed when complications begin, and a bacterial infection joins the symptoms of a cold. If the heat lasts more than three days, there are purulent discharge, the general condition of the patient worsens, and antibiotics are prescribed.All information on the intake of antibiotics should preferably be recorded in a special notebook. At pathogenic microorganisms immunity to antibacterial preparations can be developed. Therefore, treatment can not start with potent drugs. In case of complications, the doctor will definitely ask what antibiotics were taken earlier in ARVI. The same drug can not give an equally good result in the treatment of different patients.
To select suitable antibiotics for ARVI, it is worthwhile to conduct bacterial culture. Thus it will be possible to determine the sensitivity of microorganisms to a certain group of antibacterial drugs. The problem can be only that the laboratory analysis can last from two to seven days. During this time, the patient's condition may worsen.
Antibiotics for influenza and ARVI should be taken strictly according to the scheme. It is only one day to forget about the medicine, and again unpleasant symptoms of the disease will appear. Between the reception of tablets must pass a certain period of time. If the drug is taken twice a day, then it must be done strictly after 12 hours.
How many days are antibiotics used?
Regardless of what antibiotic in the ARVI will appoint a doctor, take them for at least five days. The very next day after the beginning of antibacterial therapy the patient will feel a significant relief of his condition. But the interruption of treatment is by no means impossible. The duration of taking antibacterial drugs is determined by the therapist.There are antibiotics of prolonged action, which are prescribed in especially severe cases. The scheme of their reception is divided into several stages. The patient will have to drink pills for three days, then take a break for the same period of time. Reception of antibacterial drugs occurs in three sets.
Reception of probiotics
Any antibiotic works not only on pathogenic microorganisms, but also on those that benefit. During the treatment, the natural microflora of the intestine is disturbed. Therefore, in addition, it is worth taking medications that can restore the normal state of the body. Good drugs have such drugs as Bifiform, Lineks, Narine, Gastrofarm. It should not only take probiotics, but also consume more sour-milk products. Preparations are taken during a break between taking antibiotics.
During the treatment period, a special diet should be observed. It is worth eating more vegetables and fruits, giving up fatty and spicy food. Any antibiotic in ARVI in adults and children depress the liver. It is necessary to eat light foods that will not stress the organ. White bread is desirable to replace with black, and dried fruits will be an excellent alternative to sweets.
Antibacterials for adults
Cephalosporins are semisynthetic antibacterials of a wide spectrum of action. There are several generations of these funds. The most popular are the drugs "Asperer", "Tseporin", "Cephalexin". They can be prescribed for various diseases of the respiratory system. "Aspetil" is also suitable for children's use, provided that the patient has a weight over 25 kg.
Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum drugs that are rapidly absorbed into soft tissues. The most popular are "Levofloxacin" and "Moxifloxacin". These antibacterial drugs are contraindicated in children, women during pregnancy and lactation, as well as people suffering from epilepsy. There are also cases of serious allergic reactions to fluoroquinolones. The drugs are applied twice a day for 500 mg.
Macrolides are drugs that have a bacteriological effect. They can be prescribed for such complications of acute respiratory infections as bronchitis, tonsillitis, otitis, sinusitis, pneumonia. Macrolides include "Azithromycin" and "Erythromycin". It is difficult to answer the question, with ARVI, what is the best antibiotic. After all, the effect of taking macrolides can be seen only after 2-3 days. These drugs are allowed to be taken during pregnancy and lactation. The daily dosage of the drug can not exceed 1.5 g (divided into 5-6 receptions).
Penicillins are antibiotics that affect streptococci and staphylococci. The most common are such drugs as "Amoxiclav", "Amoxicillin". This group of antibacterial drugs is considered the least toxic. Possible use in children's therapy. The effectiveness of the reception can be seen in a few days. The general course of treatment should last no less than five days. In the most difficult cases, penicillins take 10-14 days.
What antibiotics are most often prescribed for children in ARVI?
With diseases of the upper respiratory tract, babies older than three months are often prescribed "Augmentin". This drug is offered in pharmacies in the form of a powder. It is turned into a suspension and given to the children 3 times a day. In rare cases, there may be an allergic reaction in the form of a rash. A positive result of the treatment can be seen already the day after the start of antibiotic therapy.
With such complications of acute respiratory infections, like otitis media, tonsillitis, cystitis, sinusitis, children can be assigned "Zinatsef". The drug is presented as a solution for injection. The dosage is determined by the age and weight of the child. The drug is diluted with water.
"Sumamed Forte" is another popular drug in pediatric therapy. The antibacterial agent has a wide spectrum of action and allows to overcome the disease in the shortest possible time. The drug Sumamed is contraindicated in children under 6 months of age. The preparation is presented in the form of a powder, which is diluted into a suspension. Dosage is calculated based on the weight of the child (10 mg per 1 kg of body weight). The drug is taken once a day.
List of antibiotics
Antibiotics are substances that inhibit the growth of living cells or lead to their death. They may have a natural or semi-synthetic origin. They are used to treat infectious diseases caused by the growth of bacteria and harmful microorganisms.Universal
Antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action - the list:
- Levomycetin (chloramphenicol).
These drugs are used in cases where it is impossible to accurately identify the causative agent of infection. Their advantage is in a large list of microorganisms sensitive to the active substance. But there is also a disadvantage: in addition to pathogenic bacteria, broad-spectrum antibiotics contribute to the suppression of immunity and the disruption of normal intestinal microflora.List of strong antibiotics of a new generation with a wide spectrum of action:
- Yunidox Solutab.
Antibiotics of the new generation are notable for a deeper degree of purification of the active substance. Due to this, drugs have much lower toxicity compared to earlier analogues and cause less harm to the body as a whole.Narrowed Bronchitis
The list of antibiotics for cough and bronchitis usually does not differ from the list of preparations of a wide spectrum of action. This is due to the fact that the analysis of sputum is about seven days, and until it is accurately identified the causative agent of an infection, a remedy with the maximum number of bacteria sensitive to it is necessary.
In addition, recent studies show that in many cases, the use of antibiotics in the treatment of bronchitis is unreasonable. The fact that the appointment of such drugs is effective, if the nature of the disease - bacterial. In the case where the virus became the cause of bronchitis, antibiotics will not have any positive effect.
Frequently used antibiotic drugs for inflammatory processes in the bronchi:
List of antibiotics for angina:
These antibiotics are effective against angina, caused by bacteria, most often - beta-hemolytic streptococci. As for the disease, the causative agents of which are fungal microorganisms, the list is as follows:
Antibiotics for common colds are not included in the list of essential medicines, given the rather high toxicity of antibiotic agents and possible side effects. Recommended treatment of antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as fortifying agents. In any case, you need to get a consultation with the therapist.Sinusitis
List of antibiotics for sinusitis - in tablets and for injections:
- Flemoxin solute.