Furunculosis is a dermatological disease accompanied by the formation of abscesses on the skin.
The disease affects the deep layers of skin, and is caused, in the main, by staphylococcal infection. The fact that the focus of the pathological process is located quite deep, gives grounds to say that After the furunculosis transferred, spots may appear on the site of the localization of the pustular formations.
Furunculosis is capable of causing multiple skin inflammations. He is prone to frequent relapses, and can last for several years. The disease is not only unpleasant - it is very dangerous, so its causes, the main features of the manifestation and methods of treatment should be known to everyone.
Causes of development of furunculosis
The causative agent of furunculosis and the only reason for its development is the presence of strains of Staphylococcus aureus on human skin. In healthy people these microorganisms are also present, but they make up only a part of the conditionally pathogenic microflora. This means that under the influence of certain factors, staphylococci are able to move to a massive attack, causing the development of various diseases. One of these is furunculosis.
In order to give rise to the disease, it is necessary to create favorable conditions for staphylococcus aureus. Such often become mechanical damages of integuments: abrasions, scratches, cracks, cuts, etc. But it is impossible to exclude the influence of other factors contributing to the development of furunculosis:
- abrasions on the surface of the epidermis;
- chronic pathologies;
- neglect of hygiene rules;
- diabetes mellitus;
- strong intoxication of the body;
- deficiency of vitamins and minerals;
- use of certain groups of drugs.
The frequent causes of furunculosis development are severe stresses, psychoemotional disorders, weak immunity, unable to resist the attack of pathogens.
Stages of development and forms of manifestation
The development of furunculosis occurs in 3 stages:
- The first stage is characterized by the formation of an infiltrate. The skin around the focus of inflammation turns red, thickens and becomes swollen. When touched, her soreness is noted. The hair follicle is seen in the center of the neoplasm.
- 3-4 days after the formation of the infiltrate, the stage of necrosis begins. Around the hair begins to form a rod, inside which is pus and dead tissue. On the surface of the skin there is a round ulcer of white or yellowish color. Above it is a thin membrane, which is prone to spontaneous dissection. As a consequence, there is an expression of "chirya". At the same time, there is a decrease in pain and pressure in the part of the body affected by the furuncle. Gradually disappearing hyperemia, puffiness is significantly reduced. In this case, they speak of a "breakthrough of chirya".
- The phase of healing. At this stage, tissues are regenerated in the area of the damaged area of the body. If the boil was of impressive size, it is possible that after its opening, a person will have scars or scars.
On average, the disease passes through all 3 phases within 10 days.
More often furuncles can be located in the area:
- face (nose, cheeks, forehead, behind-the-ear zone);
- neck (back and sides);
- less often - the knees and legs.
The face is the most frequent location of ulcers. Fairly painful are furuncles, localized above the upper lip, in the region of the nose and auditory canal.
In the zone where the infection took place, there is a small abscess that surrounds the hair follicle. A few days later, the pathological process takes the entire follicle completely. The appearance is determined by the cone-shaped form of chirya, inside which is purulent contents. The neoplasm reaches 3-4 cm in diameter, but in the absence of treatment it can increase.
Around the abscess appears inflamed (swollen and hyperemic) area of the skin. When you touch it, there is a sensation of pain, the source of which, according to sensations, is inside the pustule capsule. Breakthrough furuncle occurs on the 7-10 day after its formation, accompanied by the outflow of pus and the exit of the rod. The skin on the damaged surface gradually cicatrizes.
If the boiling point of the furuncle is the face or neck, the above symptoms are associated with an increased body temperature and signs of intoxication of the body. There may be muscle pain and a feeling of chills. During a severe course of furunculosis, mimicry is broken, the patient suffers from severe headaches.
Furunculosis on face - photo
How the furunculosis on the face looks at the initial and late stages of development, you can see on the photos below:
Furunculosis is not particularly difficult to diagnose. To begin with, a careful history and visual examination of the skin areas affected by ulcers is carried out. Based on the findings, the doctor makes an initial conclusion about the nature of the disease.
If there are doubts about the correctness of the diagnosis, the patient may be assigned an additional procedure - a bacterial culture to determine the causative agent of pathology. During the procedure, a small amount of pustules is collected for further laboratory testing.
A blood test is mandatory, and immunological tests are done. If these measures do not give a complete picture of the disease, an extensive instrumental examination of the patient is carried out. But doctors rarely resort to such methods of diagnosis.
The main complication of furunculosis is the appearance of cosmetic defects caused by scarring. The formation of ulcers is especially dangerous in people with a general exhaustion of the body. In such patients, the disease is often complicated by the formation of abscess (abscess) or phlegmon (purulent melting) of the skin and subcutaneous tissue.
The greatest danger is the formation of furuncles in the region of the upper lip. From here, the infection can spread to the brain with lymph and venous blood. This can also lead to the development of sepsis.
Infection of the veins causes thrombophlebitis. From the blood vessels, staphylococcus enters the sinuses of the dura mater, leading to a severe disease - basal meningitis. It is characterized by the formation of edema on the face. With palpation, the veins become denser, the patient can complain of their soreness.
The patient can raise the temperature to 40 ° C and above, there is rigidity of the muscles. The patient complains of headaches and visual impairment, he may have confusion.
If the abscesses formed on the neck or shoulder, lymphadenitis may develop - a purulent inflammation of the cervical lymph nodes. With the penetration of Staphylococcus aureus into the blood, abscesses can appear on internal organs - liver, kidneys, etc.
Complications of furunculosis may occur in the background:
- attempts to squeeze out or puncture the boil;
- injury from shaving;
- incorrect treatment using only local drugs (ointments, gels, compresses).
Various complications of furunculosis are caused by abscesses localized on the nose or in the region of the nasolabial triangle.
Than to treat a furunculosis?
For the passage of the examination with further development of the scheme of therapy, it is necessary to consult a dermatologist. If the abscess should be opened, the patient is given a referral to the surgeon.
At the time of treatment, it is necessary to limit hygienic procedures and manipulations that can damage the membrane of the unripe abscess. You can take warm baths (but not hot, as they can speed up the pathological process), or else, carry out light wiping of the affected skin with antibacterial agents. At the same time, it is necessary to carefully treat the epidermis around the abscess to prevent the spread of infection.
- extrusion of abscess;
- application of moist warming compresses and lotions;
- massaging the skin in the area of purulent lesion.
Such measures will lead to aggravation of the situation and the destruction of other tissues.
With furunculosis, nutrition enriched with proteins, including animal origin, is necessary. Of great importance is and vegetable fiber. From the menu it is better to exclude sweets and fats.
For depleted patients another menu is developed, which necessarily include:
- porridge with the addition of butter;
- chicken broth;
- steam fish cutlets;
- baked fruits and vegetables, meat;
- fermented milk products.
You need to eat as many berries, vegetables and fruits. In this case, you should reduce the number of allergenic products, salt and spices used.
If the boil is only one, then without the risk of recurrence, it can be treated only by local drugs. There is a therapy in the home with a few simple rules.
- Cut the hair around the boil, trying not to hurt it, but in any case do not shave the abscess!
- Surface of the neoplasm is treated with potassium permanganate, then with ichthyol. The latter is used as a compress, which is wrapped on top with a bandage or gauze. Ichthyol is used morning and evening. Before reapplying the ointment, the remnants of the previous remedy must be removed with a cotton swab dipped in warm water. After this, the infiltrate is treated with an alcohol solution of salicylic or boric acid.
- If the abscess only began to form, then to prevent its further development, iodine or a solution of the brilliant green can be used.
- To prevent further formation of a purulent stem, it is possible to treat the boil with salicylic acid.
- After opening the abscess, the place of its location should be treated with a hypertonic solution of furacilin. Useful and washing the cavity of the wound formed with an antiseptic drug Chlorhexidine. Manipulation is carried out 2 times a day.
- After a complete purification of the ulcer from pus use of applications or bandages with ointment Vishnevsky, Levomekolem, liniment Synthomycin, Erythromycin, etc. Bandaging should be done every 2 days, with circular dressings not recommended. The edges of the medicated napkins are gently attached to the healthy skin with the help of adhesive plaster.
With boils on the face, the patient needs to keep bed rest and try to talk as little as possible so as not to strain the muscles. Sometimes it may be necessary to hospitalize a patient in a hospital.
Antibiotics for furunculosis
Treatment of multiple boils is performed using antibiotics. Drugs are selected by the doctor individually for each patient, taking into account the antibiotic-related data on the sensitivity of staphylococcus to specific pharmaceutical agents. Often resorted to the use of systemic (tableted) drugs, less often - injections (intramuscular or intravenous).
In general, preparations of a wide spectrum of action are used:
- Flemoxin or Amoxiclav, belonging to the penicillin series.
- Cephalexin or Ceftriaxone - from cephalosporins.
- Sumamed or Clarithromycin - from the group of macrolides.
- Lincomycin - from lincosamides, etc.
The course of therapy lasts, as a rule, 10 days, but can be reduced or prolonged (rarely) exclusively by the attending physician.
Immunotherapy and the use of vitamins
The maximum effect of antibiotic therapy can be achieved only if parallel immunotherapy and the use of vitamins. To stimulate the immune system, it is advisable to use:
- multivitamin complexes containing mineral substances (zinc, selenium);
- preparations based on vitamins C and A;
- vitamin complexes based on B group vitamins (especially when the body is depleted and persistent physical or emotional overstrain);
- autohemotherapy (blood transfusion);
- staphylococcal vaccine.
To improve the functioning of the immune system, it is important to properly organize the diet, give the body a valuable rest and avoid pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. If necessary, a doctor can be prescribed drugs that normalize and maintain the intestinal microflora. This is especially important when taking antibiotics.
With a single boil, treatment can be carried out with the help of folk remedies. Many of them can be used in parallel with medications prescribed by a doctor. Below are the most effective recipes of alternative medicine for fighting with furunculosis.
- Beeswax in a proportion of 100 g mixed with spruce gray, lower parts of onions and vegetable oil. The last ingredient must first be boiled, and only then add the wax and sulfur. After half an hour, dip the onion into the boiling mass, after which it is boiled for an hour, regularly removing the foam from the spoon, formed on the surface of the mixture. Cold medication is poured over cans, and when it thickens, they are smeared with affected areas of the skin several times a day.
- Cut the leaf of aloe and apply the flesh to the boils. You can use mush prepared from this plant.
- Wipe off laundry soap and mix with a little water. Wet the sterile gauze or bandage in a mixture, and apply to the sore spots. You need to change the application 4 times a day.
- Mix the egg yolk with 15 ml of honey and a small amount of flour. Add a little water and make a cake, which you then need to apply to boils.
- Lubricate the affected area with decoctions of horsetail or oak bark.
With the increase of the boil and the defeat of healthy tissue, it is surgically opened. The operation is performed under local anesthesia. During the manipulation, the abscess is opened, its contents are removed together with the stem and the hair follicle.
After the procedure, a sterile bandage is applied to the treated area. To change it it is necessary daily, lubricating a site of the skin which has undergone to intervention, antiseptic solutions or ointments.
The wound healing period lasts from 1 to 4 weeks. It all depends on the size of the abscess.
Sometimes, when the abscess is opened, a drainage tube is required, with which pus will be removed. This procedure helps prevent re-suppuration.
Recently, treatment of furunculosis is carried out with a laser. Such therapy is painless and highly effective, in addition, after it there is almost no scars left at the treatment site.
To prevent the development of furunculosis can be through the implementation of such simple rules:
- Keep an eye on the cleanliness of the body, and use only individual towels and hygiene products;
- treat damaged skin with antiseptic agents;
- Avoid squeezing acne and other formations on the skin;
- carefully monitor the diet, at minimum use flour, sweet, fried;
- provide a full physical load to stimulate the body's defenses.
Strong immunity is able to cope with infectious processes, and prevent their progression. But if furuncles, nevertheless, have appeared, it is necessary immediately to address to the doctor for passage of diagnostics.
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