The change in the content of substances involved in metabolism entails various pathological processes, so it is important to know the norms of cholesterol in the blood in adults and children. The table by age will help you better understand the indicators, timely adjust your diet, lifestyle, and take medication.
- general information
- Table of cholesterol in the blood of women and men by age
- What should be the level in children and pregnant women
- The value of the analysis results
- Methods for normalizing the level
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Cholesterol (cholesterol) - lipoprotein, the precursor of steroids. Almost 80% is synthesized in the liver. Often you can hear that this substance is harmful to the body - it provokes the development of diseases of the heart and blood vessels, leads to obesity. But it is not so. All the negative consequences arise when the body accumulates harmful cholesterol. Useful cholesterol ensures the normal functioning of many systems, organs. How much of this substance should be contained in the blood, depends on the age and sex of the person.
- maintains the optimal level of permeability of erythrocyte membranes, liver cells, brain;
- is necessary for the synthesis of sex and steroid hormones - any deviations from the norm may cause a malfunction in the reproductive system;
- improves the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins - A, D, E, K;
- participates in the production of bile;
- maintains the normal functioning of the nervous system.
All the cholesterol that is present in the human body is divided into good and bad. HDL is a high-density lipoprotein. They are necessary for the normal operation of internal organs and systems, have a beneficial effect on the condition of the walls of the vessels. LDL - low density lipoproteins. With their accumulation, atherosclerosis develops, cholelithiasis.
Important! Recent studies have shown that people with low levels of healthy cholesterol are more likely to experience depression, thoughts of suicide!
Table of cholesterol in the blood of women and men by age
To determine the level of cholesterol, you need to make a biochemical analysis - the blood is taken from the veins on an empty stomach. The form will show the indices of HDL, LDL, their total value, which allows you to assess the state of lipid metabolism.
Because of the hormonal characteristics of normal cholesterol in men and women are different. For men, the average total cholesterol is 3.5-6 mmol / L, triglycerides 0.5-2 mmol / L, in women 5.5 mmol / L and 1.5 mmol / L, respectively. The level of HDL and LDL is determined with the aid of a lipidogram - this is an expanded blood test for cholesterol.
Table of maximum permissible cholesterol values for men and women by age
|Age||Total cholesterol (mmol / l) w / m||HDL (mmol / l) w / m||LDL (mmol / l) w / m||Triglycerides
(mmol / l) m / f
|Up to 30 years||5,8/6||2,2/1,6||4,3/4,3||1,6/2,8|
|30-50 years old||6,6/6,8||2,5/2,1||4.8/5,3||1.7-2.4 / 3-3.7|
|After 60 years||7,7/7,7||2,5/1,9||5,8/4,9||2.4-2.7 / 2.9-3.7|
The norms of cholesterol depend on the laboratory in which the analysis was performed. Sometimes they may differ from the acceptable indicators in the medical literature. Doctors are guided by the range of reference values, which is necessarily indicated on the form of the result. In addition, there are concepts of "optimal" and "borderline high" (the maximum permissible) level of cholesterol. Both figures refer to the variant of the norm, but doctors recommend to strive for optimal indicators - in this case the risk of cardiovascular complications is lower.
Increasing cholesterol usually begins in men as early as 30 years. By the age of 55, atherosclerosis is diagnosed in every second member of the stronger sex - this is associated with harmful habits and an incorrect way of life. Women are more persistent in this matter: the indicators increase after 40 years or with the onset of menopause. In girls under the age of 30, cholesterol rises rarely. Even with the wrong lifestyle and nutrition, the blood vessels are reliably protected by sex hormones, metabolic processes occur quickly.
The level of cholesterol is affected by the blood glucose level, because carbohydrate and lipid metabolism are closely related. With excessive consumption of fast carbohydrates in the body begins to accumulate sugar, which entails the deposition of fat cells, deteriorates the elasticity of the walls of blood vessels, increases the content of harmful cholesterol.
Important! In addition to the content of total cholesterol and its fractions, the ratio is bad and good cholesterol - the coefficient of atherogenicity! If this indicator is less than 3 units, the risk of developing vascular pathologies is minimal. Increase of SC up to 5 units is considered a clear sign of atherosclerosis, it is necessary to begin prevention of ischemia.
What should be the level in children and pregnant women
In pregnant women and children, the cholesterol values differ from the average adult values.
Cholesterol - the norm in the blood of children by year
|Age||Values (mol / l)|
|Up to 1 year||1.8-4.5|
|1-12 years old||3.1-5.2|
|12-17 years old||3.1-5.4|
When pregnancy against the background of hormonal and general changes in the body increases the amount of bad cholesterol, and the level of useful cholesterol is reduced. Main indicators: total cholesterol level - 3-13.6 mmol / l, CA - 0.4-2.4 units.
Important! The increase in the level of total cholesterol in the 2-3 trimester is 1.5-2 times normal, but with such values the woman should be constantly under the supervision of a doctor!
The value of the analysis results
If biochemistry has shown a deviation of the indicators from the norm, it can be caused by physiological and pathological reasons, therefore it is better to entrust the analysis to the doctor. An increase in the level of cholesterol is observed in pregnancy, obesity, against the abuse of fatty foods, sedentary lifestyle, with prolonged intake of hormonal oral contraceptives.
Cholesterol above the norm increases the risk of such diseases:
- ischemia, atherosclerosis;
- pathological processes in the liver, kidneys;
- pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer;
- disruption of the thyroid gland;
- alcohol addiction;
- pituitary disease.
Low cholesterol indicates long-term starvation, malfunctioning of the central nervous system, oncology, tuberculosis, anemia, folic acid deficiency, sepsis and other severe bacterial pathologies.
When deciphering the analysis, it is necessary to take into account some additional factors: in the cold season, the cholesterol values may increase by 3-4%. In women in the first half of the menstrual cycle, the deviation of the cholesterol level from the norm can reach 8-11%, which is not a pathology.
When the lipidogram changes, an additional examination will be required to establish the true cause of the disease.
Important! If a person is under 40 years on the edges of the cornea appears thin light gray bezel - this is a sign of a predisposition to elevated cholesterol!
Methods for normalizing the level
Sometimes it is enough to adjust the lifestyle, adhere to a diet, so that the cholesterol values come back to normal, but with a strong decrease or increase in values without medication treatment is indispensable.
How to normalize the level of good cholesterol - useful products:
- beef tongue and liver;
- egg yolks, quail eggs;
- fatty fish varieties, seafood;
- olive, linseed, corn oil;
- sesame seeds, raw pumpkin seeds;
- hard cheese with a low fat content;
- raw almond, walnuts;
- citrus fruits, bell peppers, berries;
- carrots are fresh or in the form of juice.
How to reduce harmful cholesterol? It is necessary to refrain from alcoholic beverages, smoking, completely eliminate from the diet fatty, smoked, salted and spicy dishes, muffins, pasta and bread products from white flour. Products can be consumed in a natural, boiled, baked, stewed and steam form. It is necessary to use more water - the daily volume should be at least 1.5 liters per day.
To ensure that cholesterol is always normal, you need to control weight, exercise regularly, spend more time outdoors. Men and women after 30 years of age need to check the cholesterol level annually, after 50 - at least 2 times a year, after 65 years - once a quarter.
How to reduce cholesterol with drugs? With diabetes, hypertension, problems with coronary vessels, it is not possible to normalize the indices only with the help of a diet. These patients are prescribed drugs from the group of statins - Lovastatin, Vitorin and others. These funds reduce the likelihood of developing a heart attack, stroke, and normalize blood pressure.
Important! Well strengthens and trains the walls of the vessels contrast shower! Take it every morning, gradually increasing the temperature difference.
The level of cholesterol is an important indicator of the state of the cardiovascular system and the whole organism as a whole. Monitor it in the blood should be all people over 30 years old. This can be done with the help of a biochemical blood test. Proper and balanced nutrition, the rejection of addictions, regular moderate exercise will help reduce the risk of atherosclerosis, heart attack, ischemia, stroke.